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Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
Adjuntas is a small mountainside municipality in Puerto Rico located central midwest of the island on the Cordillera Central, north of Yauco, Guayanilla and Peñuelas; southeast of Utuado; east of Lares and Yauco; and west of Ponce.
Advice and consent is an English phrase frequently used in enacting formulae of bills and in other legal or constitutional contexts.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
The history of Puerto Ricans of African descent begins with free African men, known as libertos, who accompanied the Spanish Conquistadors in the invasion of the island.
Agüeybaná (died 1510) was one of the two principal and most powerful caciques (chiefs) of the Taíno people in "Borikén" (Puerto Rico) when the Spanish first arrived on the island on November 19, 1493.
Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.
Aguada (Watered) is a municipality of Puerto Rico (U.S.), located in the western coastal valley region bordering the Atlantic Ocean, east of Rincón, west of Aguadilla and Moca; and north of Anasco and Mayaguez.
Aguadilla (Watered Smalls), founded in 1775 by Luis de Córdova, is a city and municipality located in the northwestern tip of Puerto Rico, bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, north of Aguada, and Moca and west of Isabela.
Aguinaldo is a folk genre of Christmas music in several Latin American countries, based on Spanish Christmas carols or villancicos which is traditionally sung on Christmas itself or during the holiday season.
The AIBA World Boxing Championships and the AIBA Women's World Boxing Championships are biennial amateur boxing competitions organised by the International Boxing Association (AIBA), which is the sport governing body.
Aibonito is a small mountain municipality in Puerto Rico (U.S.) located in the Mountain range of Cayey, north of Salinas; south of Barranquitas and Comerio; east of Coamo; and west of Cidra, and Cayey.
The Air National Guard (ANG), also known as the Air Guard, is a federal military reserve force as well as the militia air force of each U.S. state, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the territories of Guam and the U.S. Virgin Islands.
The Ají caballero (or "gentleman pepper") is a scarce hot chili pepper used as the basis of most Puerto Rican condiments, such as the Pique sauce.
Alan W. Heston (born 1934 in Portland, Oregon) is an American economist best known for his collaborative work with fellow economist Robert Summers and the development of the Penn World Table (PWT).
Alcapurria is a fritter dish from Puerto Rico.
Alejandro Tapia y Rivera (November 12, 1826 – July 19, 1882) was a Puerto Rican poet, playwright, essayist and writer.
Alfred Thayer Mahan (September 27, 1840 – December 1, 1914) was a United States naval officer and historian, whom John Keegan called "the most important American strategist of the nineteenth century." His book The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660–1783 (1890) won immediate recognition, especially in Europe, and with its successor, The Influence of Sea Power Upon the French Revolution and Empire, 1793–1812 (1892), made him world-famous and perhaps the most influential American author of the nineteenth century.
Alonso Manso (1460 – September 27, 1539) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as the first Bishop of Puerto Rico (1511-1539) (in Latin) and as the eighth governor of Puerto Rico.
An altar is any structure upon which offerings such as sacrifices are made for religious purposes, and by extension the 'Holy table' of post-reformation Anglican churches.
The diplomats serving as ambassadors of the United States of America to individual nations of the world, to international organizations, and ambassadors-at-large change regularly for various reasons, such as reassignment or retirement.
The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is a nonprofit organization whose stated mission is "to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person in this country by the Constitution and laws of the United States." Officially nonpartisan, the organization has been supported and criticized by liberal and conservative organizations alike.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
The American entry into World War I came in April 1917, after more than two and a half years of efforts by President Woodrow Wilson to keep the United States out of the war.
The American Forces Network (AFN) is the broadcast service operated by the United States Armed Forces' American Forces Radio and Television Service (AFRTS, commonly pronounced "A-farts") for its entertainment and command internal information networks worldwide.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
American Sign Language (ASL) is a natural language that serves as the predominant sign language of Deaf communities in the United States and most of Anglophone Canada.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
An amicus curiae (literally, "friend of the court"; plural, amici curiae) is someone who is not a party to a case and may or may not have been solicited by a party, who assists a court by offering information, expertise, or insight that has a bearing on the issues in the case, and is typically presented in the form of a brief.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
The Ana G. Méndez University System —or Sistema Universitario Ana G. Méndez (SUAGM) in Spanish— is a private institution of higher education in Puerto Rico.
Aníbal Salvador Acevedo Vilá (born 13 February 1962) is an American politician and lawyer.
AND1 is an American footwear and clothing company specializing in basketball shoes, clothing and sporting goods.
The AND1 Live Tour, formerly known as the AND1 Mixtape Tour, is a traveling basketball competition and exhibition presented by B-Ball and Company and the basketball apparel manufacturer AND1.
Andalusia (Andalucía) is an autonomous community in southern Spain.
The Andalusians (andaluces) are a Spanish ethnic group that live in the southern region in Spain approximated by what is now called Andalusia.
Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 July 31, 1875) was the 17th President of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
Anglicisation (or anglicization, see English spelling differences), occasionally anglification, anglifying, englishing, refers to modifications made to foreign words, names and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English.
Annatto is an orange-red condiment and food coloring derived from the seeds of the achiote tree (Bixa orellana).
Antonio Mattei Lluberas (September 7, 1857 – January 15, 1908), was a businessman and politician who in 1897 planned and led the second and last major uprising against Spanish colonial rule in Puerto Rico, known as the Intentona de Yauco.
Antonio Paoli (14 April 1871 – 24 August 1946) was a Puerto Rican tenor.
Antonio Valero de Bernabé Pacheco (October 26, 1790 – June 7, 1863), a.k.a. The Liberator from Puerto Rico, was a Puerto Rican military leader.
In the classification of the archaeological cultures of North America, the Archaic period or "Meso-Indian period" in North America, accepted to be from around 8000 to 1000 BC in the sequence of North American pre-Columbian cultural stages, is a period defined by the archaic stage of cultural development.
An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.
An architectural style is characterized by the features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable.
Arecibo is a municipality on the northern coast of Puerto Rico (U.S.), on the shores of the Atlantic Ocean, located north of Utuado and Ciales; east of Hatillo; and west of Barceloneta and Florida.
The Army National Guard (ARNG), in conjunction with the Air National Guard, is a militia force and a federal military reserve force of the United States.
Arroz con gandules is a combination of rice, pigeon peas and pork, cooked in the same pot with Puerto Rican-style sofrito.
Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, trains, ocean liners, and everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners.
Arthur Garfield Hays (December 12, 1881 – December 14, 1954) was an American lawyer and champion of civil liberties issues, best known as a co-founder and general counsel of the American Civil Liberties Union and for participating in notable cases including the Sacco and Vanzetti trial.
Article Four of the United States Constitution outlines the relationship between each state and the others, and the several States and the federal government.
Asian Americans are Americans of Asian descent.
Asian people or Asiatic peopleUnited States National Library of Medicine.
Associate Justice or Associate Judge is the title for a member of a judicial panel who is not the Chief Justice in some jurisdictions.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
An associated state is the minor partner in a formal, free relationship between a political territory with a degree of statehood and a (usually larger) nation, for which no other specific term, such as protectorate, is adopted.
Asturias (Asturies; Asturias), officially the Principality of Asturias (Principado de Asturias; Principáu d'Asturies), is an autonomous community in north-west Spain.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
Atlanta is the capital city and most populous municipality of the state of Georgia in the United States.
The Atlantic hurricane season is the period in a year when hurricanes usually form in the Atlantic Ocean.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The Atlantic Revolutions were a revolutionary wave in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
The Atlantic Time Zone is a geographical region that keeps standard time—called Atlantic Standard Time (AST)—by subtracting four hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), resulting in UTC-4; during part of the year some parts of it observe daylight saving time by instead subtracting only three hours (UTC-3).
The second of two assassination attempts on U.S. President Harry S. Truman occurred on November 1, 1950.
The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
The Balearic Islands (Illes Balears,; Islas Baleares) are an archipelago of Spain in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Baloncesto Superior Nacional is the first tier level professional men's basketball league in Puerto Rico.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
Barrio is a Spanish word meaning neighborhood.
Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting and fielding.
The Baseball World Cup was an international tournament in which national baseball teams from around the world competed.
Basil (Ocimum basilicum), also called great basil or Saint-Joseph's-wort, is a culinary herb of the family Lamiaceae (mints).
Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
The Battle of San Juan (1595) was a Spanish victory during the Anglo–Spanish War.
The Battle of San Juan was fought on 29 September 1625, and was an engagement of the Eighty Years' War.
Bayamón is a municipality of Puerto Rico located on the northern coastal valley, north of Aguas Buenas and Comerío; south of Toa Baja and Cataño; west of Guaynabo; and east of Toa Alta and Naranjito. Bayamón is spread over 11 wards and Bayamón Pueblo (the downtown area and the administrative center of the city). It is part of the San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo Metropolitan Statistical Area.
A bean is a seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal food.
Bernardo Vicente de Gálvez y Madrid, 1st Viscount of Galveston, 1st Count of Gálvez, OCIII (Macharaviaya, Málaga, Spain 25 July 1746 – 30 November 1786) was a Spanish military leader and colonial administrator who served as colonial governor of Spanish Louisiana and Cuba, and later as Viceroy of New Spain.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
A bill of rights, sometimes called a declaration of rights or a charter of rights, is a list of the most important rights to the citizens of a country.
Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning, known as a peppercorn.
Félix Manuel Rodríguez Capó (January 1, 1922 – December 18, 1989), better known as Bobby Capó, was an internationally known American singer and songwriter from Puerto Rico.
The body politic is a medieval metaphor that likens a nation to a corporation which had serious historical repercussions throughout recent history and therefore giving the Crown: "As a legal entity today the Crown as executive is regarded as a corporation sole or aggregate", a corporate entity.
Bomba is one of the traditional musical styles of Puerto Rico.
Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
Boudewijn Hendricksz (or Hendrikszoon; sometimes known as Bowdoin Henrick to the English, or Balduino Enrico to the Spanish) was a Dutch corsair and later Admiral.
Boumediene v. Bush,, was a writ of habeas corpus submission made in a civilian court of the United States on behalf of Lakhdar Boumediene, a naturalized citizen of Bosnia and Herzegovina, held in military detention by the United States at the Guantanamo Bay detention camps in Cuba.
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.
In shipping, break bulk cargo or general cargo are goods that must be loaded individually, and not in intermodal containers nor in bulk as with oil or grain.
Brigadier general (Brig. Gen.) is a senior rank in the armed forces.
Cabotage is the transport of goods or passengers between two places in the same country by a transport operator from another country.
A cacique (feminine form: cacica) is a leader of an indigenous group, derived from the Taíno word kasikɛ for the pre-Columbian tribal chiefs in the Bahamas, the Greater Antilles, and the northern Lesser Antilles.
Caguas, founded in 1775, is a city and municipality of Puerto Rico (U.S.) located in the Central Mountain Range of Puerto Rico, south of San Juan and Trujillo Alto, west of Gurabo and San Lorenzo, east of Aguas Buenas, Cidra, and Cayey.
Caja de Muertos (English: Coffin Island or Dead Man's Chest) is an uninhabited island off the southern coast of Puerto Rico, in the municipality of Ponce.
Calabaza, also called West Indian pumpkin, is a winter squash typically grown in the West Indies and tropical America.
Calathea allouia, known as lerén or lairén in Spanish, and also known in English as Guinea arrowroot, and sweet corn root, is a plant in the arrowroot family, native to northern South America and the Caribbean, The name "allouia" is derived from the Carib name for the plant Leren is a minor food crop in the American tropics, but was one of the earliest plants domesticated by pre-historic Indians in South America.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
The Penal Code of California forms the basis for the application of criminal law in the American state of California.
Campamento Santiago (English: Camp Santiago) is a military training installation controlled by the Puerto Rico National Guard on 12,789 acres of land located in Salinas, Puerto Rico.
Canary Islanders, or Canarians (canarios), are an ethnic group living in the archipelago of the Canary Islands (an autonomous community of Spain), near the coast of Western Africa.
The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.
Caparra is an archaeological site in the municipality of Guaynabo, Puerto Rico.
Capparis spinosa, the caper bush, also called Flinders rose, is a perennial plant that bears rounded, fleshy leaves and large white to pinkish-white flowers.
The Capitanes de Arecibo are a Puerto Rican professional basketball team based in Arecibo, that competes in the Baloncesto Superior Nacional (BSN) league.
Capsicum (also known as peppers) is a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family Solanaceae.
In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of.
The Caribbean Sea (Mar Caribe; Mer des Caraïbes; Caraïbische Zee) is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere.
The Caribbean Series (Spanish: Serie del Caribe), also called Caribbean World Series, is the highest tournament for professional baseball teams in Latin America, featuring the champions of Cuba, Dominican Republic, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela.
Carlos J. "Johnny" Méndez Núñez is a politician from Fajardo, Puerto Rico.
Carnival (see other spellings and names) is a Western Christian and Greek Orthodox festive season that occurs before the liturgical season of Lent.
Carolina is a municipality located on the northeast coast of Puerto Rico (U.S.). It lies immediately east of the capital San Juan and Trujillo Alto; north of Gurabo and Juncos; and west of Canóvanas and Loíza.
The city of Cartagena, known in the colonial era as Cartagena de Indias (Cartagena de Indias), is a major port founded in 1533, located on the northern coast of Colombia in the Caribbean Coast Region.
The Casals Festival is a classical music event celebrated every year in San Juan, Puerto Rico, in honor of classical musician Pablo Casals.
Casiano Communications Inc. (CCI) was founded in 1973, by Manuel A. Casiano, who died on May 19, 2017 at the age of 86.
Manihot esculenta, commonly called cassava, manioc, yuca, mandioca and Brazilian arrowroot, is a woody shrub native to South America of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.
Castillo San Felipe del Morro also known as Fuerte San Felipe del Morro or Castillo del Morro, is a 16th-century citadel located in San Juan, Puerto Rico.
The Castle of San Cristóbal (Castillo San Cristóbal), National Park Service - San Juan National Historic Site - The Gibraltar of the Caribbean - Consulted el 2014-11-29 also known as Fort San Cristóbal, is a fort in San Juan, Puerto Rico.
Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.
The Catedral Metropolitana Basílica de San Juan Bautista, or in English, Metropolitan Cathedral Basilica of Saint John the Baptist, is the Roman Catholic cathedral of the Archdiocese of San Juan de Puerto Rico.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Church in Puerto Rico is part of the worldwide Catholic Church in communion with the Pope in Rome.
A cave is a hollow place in the ground, specifically a natural space large enough for a human to enter.
Cayey is a mountain municipality in central Puerto Rico (U.S.) located on the Central Mountain range, north of Salinas and Guayama; south of Cidra and Caguas; east of Aibonito and Salinas; and west of San Lorenzo.
Cádiz (see other pronunciations below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain.
Ceiba pentandra is a tropical tree of the order Malvales and the family Malvaceae (previously separated in the family Bombacaceae), native to Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, northern South America, and (as the variety C. pentandra var. guineensis) to tropical west Africa.
Ceiba (Kapok) is a small municipality in northeast Puerto Rico (U.S.). It is named after the famous Ceiba tree.
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
The Central American and Caribbean Games (CAC or CACGs) are a multi-sport regional championship event, held quadrennial (once every four years), typically in the middle (even) year between Summer Olympics.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Cerro de Punta or just Cerro Punta is the highest peak in Puerto Rico, rising to above sea level.
Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
Elmer Figueroa Arce (born June 28, 1968), better known under the stage name Chayanne, is a Puerto Rican Latin pop singer, actor and composer.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
Chicken is the most common type of poultry in the world.
The chickpea or chick pea (Cicer arietinum) is a legume of the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae.
The Chief Justice is the presiding member of a supreme court in any of many countries with a justice system based on English common law, such as the Supreme Court of Bangladesh, the Supreme Court of Canada, the Supreme Court of Singapore, the Court of Final Appeal of Hong Kong, the Supreme Court of Japan, the Supreme Court of India, the Supreme Court of Pakistan, the Supreme Court of Nigeria, the Supreme Court of Nepal, the Constitutional Court of South Africa, the Supreme Court of Ireland, the Supreme Court of New Zealand, the High Court of Australia, the Supreme Court of the United States, and provincial or state supreme courts.
The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico (Jefe del Tribunal Supremo de Puerto Rico) is the presiding officer of the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Large-scale Chinese immigration to Puerto Rico and the Caribbean began during the 19th century.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
Chrysobalanus icaco, the cocoplum, paradise plum, abajeru or icaco, is found near sea beaches and inland throughout tropical Africa, tropical Americas and the Caribbean, and in southern Florida and the Bahamas.
Circular migration or repeat migration is the temporary and usually repetitive movement of a migrant worker between home and host areas, typically for the purpose of employment.
Citizenship of the United States is a status that entails specific rights, duties and benefits.
Citrus is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae.
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
Claridad ("Clarity") is a Spanish-language weekly newspaper based in San Juan, Puerto Rico.
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.
The Clean Water Act (CWA) is the primary federal law in the United States governing water pollution.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
Coamo is a municipality founded 1579 in the south-central region of Puerto Rico (U.S.), located north of Santa Isabel; south of Orocovis and Barranquitas; east of Villalba and Juana Díaz; and west of Aibonito and Salinas.
The coat of arms of Puerto Rico was first granted by the Spanish Crown in 1511, making it the oldest heraldic achievement still currently in use in the Americas.
Colocasia esculenta is a tropical plant grown primarily for its edible corms, the root vegetables most commonly known as taro.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
Colored is an ethnic descriptor historically used in the United States (predominantly during the Jim Crow era) and the United Kingdom.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
The Commerce Clause describes an enumerated power listed in the United States Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 3).
In the United States House of Representatives, a Committee of the Whole House is a congressional committee that includes all members of the House.
The common coquí or coquí (Eleutherodactylus coqui) is a frog endemic to Puerto Rico belonging to the family Eleutherodactylidae.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
In the terminology of the United States insular areas, a Commonwealth is a type of organized but unincorporated dependent territory.
The Compact of Free Association (COFA) is an international agreement establishing and governing the relationships of free association between the United States and the three Pacific Island nations of the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands, and Palau.
Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a business and investing specific term for the geometric progression ratio that provides a constant rate of return over the time period.
The Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean Association Football (CONCACAF,; typeset for branding purposes since 2018 as Concacaf) is the continental governing body for association football (soccer) in North America, which includes Central America and the Caribbean region.
A concurrent resolution is a resolution (a legislative measure) adopted by both houses of a bicameral legislature that lacks the force of law (is non-binding) and does not require the approval of the chief executive (president).
A Congressional Gold Medal is an award bestowed by the United States Congress; the Congressional Gold Medal and the Presidential Medal of Freedom are the highest civilian awards in the United States.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
Conservative Judaism (known as Masorti Judaism outside North America) is a major Jewish denomination, which views Jewish Law, or Halakha, as both binding and subject to historical development.
The Constitution of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Constitución del Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico) is the controlling government document of Puerto Rico.
A constitutional convention is a gathering for the purpose of writing a new constitution or revising an existing constitution.
A Constitutional republic is a republic that operates under a system of separation of powers, where both the chief executive and members of the legislature are elected by the citizens and must govern within an existing written constitution.
Consul (abbrev. cos.; Latin plural consules) was the title of one of the chief magistrates of the Roman Republic, and subsequently a somewhat significant title under the Roman Empire.
A consul is an official representative of the government of one state in the territory of another, normally acting to assist and protect the citizens of the consul's own country, and to facilitate trade and friendship between the people of the two countries.
A contingency plan is a plan devised for an outcome other than in the usual (expected) plan.
A controlled-access highway is a type of highway which has been designed for high-speed vehicular traffic, with all traffic flow and ingress/egress regulated.
Coqui is the common name for several species of small frogs in the genus Eleutherodactylus native to Puerto Rico.
Cordillera Central (English: Central Mountains range), is the main mountain range in Puerto Rico.
Coriander (Coriandrum sativum), also known as cilantro or Chinese parsley, is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae.
Corozal is a municipality of Puerto Rico (U.S.) located in the central-eastern region, north of Orocovis and Barranquitas; south Vega Alta; southwest of Toa Alta; east of Morovis and Orocovis; and west of Naranjito.
Corsica (Corse; Corsica in Corsican and Italian, pronounced and respectively) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France.
Corsican immigration to Puerto Rico came about as a result of various economic and political changes in mid-19th century Europe; among those factors were the social-economic changes which came about in Europe as a result of the Second Industrial Revolution, political discontent and widespread crop failure due to long periods of drought, and crop diseases.
The Cádiz Cortes was the first national assembly to claim sovereignty in Spain.
Costa Rica ("Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.
The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
The cuisine of the United States reflects its history.
Isla Culebra (Snake Island) is an island-municipality of Puerto Rico and geographically part of the Virgin Islands.
Dallas is a city in the U.S. state of Texas.
Danza is a musical genre that originated in Ponce, a city in southern Puerto Rico.
David Joseph Valentin (April 29, 1952 – March 8, 2017) was an American Latin jazz flautist.
A decree is a rule of law usually issued by a head of state (such as the president of a republic or a monarch), according to certain procedures (usually established in a constitution).
Delma S. Arrigoitia, PhD, J.D., (born February 10, 1945) is a historian, author, educator and lawyer whose written works cover the life and works of some of Puerto Rico's most prominent politicians of the early 20th century.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
Desecheo (Isla Desecheo) is a small uninhabited island of the archipelago of Puerto Rico located in the northeast of the Mona Passage; 13 mi (21 km) from the west coast (Punta Higüero) of the main island of Puerto Rico and 31 mi (50 km) northeast of Mona Island.
Diego de Torres Vargas (1590–1649), a priest, was the first person to write a book about the history of Puerto Rico.
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".
The Anglican diocese of North East Caribbean and Aruba was formed in 1842 as the Diocese of Antigua and the Leeward Islands when the Anglican diocese of Barbados, then with the Diocese of Jamaica one of the two dioceses covering the Caribbean, was sub-divided.
The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.
Dominican immigration to Puerto Rico dates back to the beginning of European colonization of the Americas.
Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017.
Double jeopardy is a procedural defence that prevents an accused person from being tried again on the same (or similar) charges and on the same facts, following a valid acquittal or conviction.
Downes v. Bidwell,, was a case in which the US Supreme Court decided whether US territories were subject to the provisions and protections of the US Constitution.
Dulce de leche (doce de leite) is a confection prepared by slowly heating sweetened milk to create a substance that derives its flavor from the Maillard reaction, also changing color, with an appearance and flavor similar to caramel.
The Dutch (Dutch), occasionally referred to as Netherlanders—a term that is cognate to the Dutch word for Dutch people, "Nederlanders"—are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands.
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Eduardo "Eddie" Palmieri (born December 15, 1936) is a Grammy Award-winning pianist, bandleader, musician, and composer of Puerto Rican ancestry.
Edgardo Vega Yunqué (May 20, 1936August 26, 2008) was a Puerto Rican novelist and short-story writer, who also used the Americanized pen name Ed Vega.
Eggplant (Solanum melongena) or aubergine is a species of nightshade grown for its edible fruit.
El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (commonly called ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific (between approximately the International Date Line and 120°W), including off the Pacific coast of South America.
El Nuevo Día (English: The New Day) is the newspaper with the highest circulation in Puerto Rico, reaching a readership of 1.2 million people with over 200,000 daily copies.
El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.
El Vocero de Puerto Rico is a Puerto Rican free newspaper that is published in San Juan.
Pico El Yunque or El Yunque Peak is a mountain that is located fully within the boundaries of the El Yunque National Forest, part of the U.S. Forest Service, which is the only tropical rainforest that belongs to the U.S. Forest Service.
El Yunque National Forest, formerly known as the Caribbean National Forest, is a forest located in northeastern Puerto Rico.
Electric power distribution is the final stage in the delivery of electric power; it carries electricity from the transmission system to individual consumers.
The electric power industry covers the generation, transmission, distribution and sale of electric power to the general public and industry.
Electric power transmission is the bulk movement of electrical energy from a generating site, such as a power plant, to an electrical substation.
Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy.
Emigration is the act of leaving a resident country or place of residence with the intent to settle elsewhere.
Encomienda was a labor system in Spain and its empire.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The Eocene Epoch, lasting from, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era.
Eryngium foetidum is a tropical perennial herb in the family Apiaceae.
Esmeralda Santiago (born May 17, 1948) is a Puerto Rican author and former actress known for her novels and memoirs.
ESPN (originally an acronym for Entertainment and Sports Programming Network) is a U.S.-based global cable and satellite sports television channel owned by ESPN Inc., a joint venture owned by The Walt Disney Company (80%) and Hearst Communications (20%).
Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico is the official name of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.
Eugenio María de Hostos (January 11, 1839 – August 11, 1903), known as "El Gran Ciudadano de las Américas" ("The Great Citizen of the Americas"), was a Puerto Rican educator, philosopher, intellectual, lawyer, sociologist, novelist, and Puerto Rican independence advocate.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
The executive branch of the government of Puerto Rico is responsible for executing the laws of Puerto Rico, as well as causing them to be executed.
The executive departments of the government of Puerto Rico provide public services to the citizens of Puerto Rico.
Fajardo is a small city and municipality in Puerto Rico (U.S.) located in the east region of the island, bordering the Atlantic Ocean, north of Ceiba and east of Luquillo.
Félix Lope María Córdova Dávila (November 20, 1878 – December 3, 1938) was a political leader and judge from Puerto Rico who served as Puerto Rico's fourth Resident Commissioner in Congress and later as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico.
Félix Juan Trinidad García (born January 10, 1973), also known as "Tito" Trinidad, is a Puerto Rican former professional boxer who competed from 1990 to 2008.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent agency of the United States government created by statute (and) to regulate interstate communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable.
The Federal Election Commission (FEC) is an independent regulatory agency whose purpose is to enforce campaign finance law in United States federal elections.
The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is an agency of the United States Department of Homeland Security, initially created by Presidential Reorganization Plan No.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
The federal judiciary of the United States is one of the three co-equal branches of the federal government of the United States organized under the United States Constitution and laws of the federal government.
The Federal Reserve Bank of New York is one of the 12 Federal Reserve Banks of the United States.
Voting rights of United States citizens in Puerto Rico, like the voting rights of residents of other United States territories, differ from those of United States citizens in each of the fifty states and the District of Columbia.
The Federated States of Micronesia (abbreviated FSM and also known simply as Micronesia) is an independent sovereign island nation and a United States associated state consisting of four states from west to east, Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei and Kosraethat are spread across the Western Pacific Ocean.
Ferdinand VII (Fernando; 14 October 1784 – 29 September 1833) was twice King of Spain: in 1808 and again from 1813 to his death.
The International Basketball Federation, more commonly known as FIBA, FIBA World, or FIBA International, from its French name Fédération internationale de basket-ball, is an association of national organizations which governs international competition in basketball.
The FIBA AmeriCup (previously known as the FIBA Americas Championship) is the name commonly used to refer to the American Basketball Championship that takes place every two years between national teams of the Western Hemisphere continents.
The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA; French for "International Federation of Association Football") is an association which describes itself as an international governing body of association football, futsal, and beach soccer.
Filiberto Ojeda Ríos (April 26, 1933 – September 23, 2005) was the commander-in-chief ("Responsable General") of the Boricua Popular Army (Ejército Popular Boricua, a.k.a., Los Macheteros).
A first-past-the-post (FPTP) voting method is one in which voters indicate on a ballot the candidate of their choice, and the candidate who receives the most votes wins.
The flag of Puerto Rico represents and symbolizes the island of Puerto Rico and its people. The origins of the current flag of Puerto Rico, adopted by the commonwealth of Puerto Rico in 1952, can be traced to 1868, when the first Puerto Rican flag, "The Revolutionary Flag of Lares", was conceived by Dr. Ramón Emeterio Betances and embroidered by Mariana "Brazos de Oro" Bracetti. This flag was used in the short-lived Puerto Rican revolt against Spanish rule in the island, known as "El Grito de Lares"."Puerto Rico - Cinco Siglos de Historia"; by: Francisco Sacrano; publisher: McGraw Hill Interamericana, SA, 1993; pag. 533 Juan de Mata Terreforte, an exiled veteran of "El Grito de Lares" and Vice-President of the Cuban Revolutionary Committee, in New York City, adopted the flag of Lares as the flag of Puerto Rico until 1895, when the current design, modeled after the Cuban flag, was unveiled and adopted by the 59 Puerto Rican exiles of the Cuban Revolutionary committee. The new flag, which consisted of five equal horizontal bands of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bears a large, white, five-pointed star in the center, was first flown in Puerto Rico on March 24, 1897, during the "Intentona de Yauco" revolt. The use and display of the Puerto Rican flag was outlawed and the only flags permitted to be flown in Puerto Rico were the Spanish flag (1492 to 1898) and the flag of the United States (1898 to 1952). In 1952, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico adopted the 1895 flag design as its official standard. The color of the triangle that was used by the administration of Luis Muñoz Marín was the dark blue. In 1995, the government of Puerto Rico issued a regulation regarding the use of the Puerto Rican flag titled: "Reglamento sobre el Uso en Puerto Rico de la Bandera del Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico", in which the government specifies the colors to be used but does not specify any official color tones or shades. Therefore, it is not uncommon to see the flag of Puerto Rico with different shades of blue displayed in the island., Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Retrieved on Feb. 25, 2009 Several Puerto Rican flags, with darker shades than sky blue were aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery during its flight into outer space on March 15, 2009., Retrieved March 12, 2009 (Spanish).
Florencio Morales "Flor" Ramos (September 5, 1915 – February 23, 1989), better known as Ramito, was a Puerto Rican trovador, and composer who was a native of Caguas, Puerto Rico.
Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
Florida (Flowery) is a municipality of Puerto Rico (U.S.) located north of Ciales, south of Barceloneta, east of Arecibo, and west of Manatí.
The Flying Spaghetti Monster (FSM) is the deity of the Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster, or Pastafarianism.
Folk art encompasses art produced from an indigenous culture or by peasants or other laboring tradespeople.
The Foraker Act,, officially known as the Organic Act of 1900, is a United States federal law that established civilian (albeit limited popular) government on the island of Puerto Rico, which had recently become a possession of the United States as a result of the Spanish–American War.
A country's foreign policy, also called foreign relations or foreign affairs policy, consists of self-interest strategies chosen by the state to safeguard its national interests and to achieve goals within its international relations milieu.
Fort Allen, officially Fort Allen Training Center, is a Puerto Rico National Guard military installation located on a 921-acre plot of land in Juana Díaz, Puerto Rico.
United States Army Garrison Fort Buchanan, Puerto Rico, is a United States Army installation in Puerto Rico.
A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Sir Francis Drake (– 28 January 1596) was an English sea captain, privateer, slave trader, naval officer and explorer of the Elizabethan era.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
Fray Íñigo Abbad y Lasierra (1745–1813), born in Estadilla, Spain, was a Benedictine monk and the first historian to extensively document Puerto Rico's history, nationality, and culture.
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
French immigration to Puerto Rico came about as a result of the economic and political situations which occurred in various places such as Louisiana (USA), Saint-Domingue (Haiti) and in Europe.
Some universally recognized rights that are seen as fundamental, i.e., contained in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the U.N. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, or the U.N. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, include the following.
Law 53 of 1948 better known as the Gag Law, (Ley de La Mordaza) was an act enacted by the Puerto Rico legislature of 1948, with the purpose of suppressing the independence movement in Puerto Rico.
Galicia (Galician: Galicia, Galiza; Galicia; Galiza) is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law.
The geography of Puerto Rico consists of an archipelago located between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of the Dominican Republic and west of the Virgin Islands.
A geologic hazard is one of several types of adverse geologic conditions capable of causing damage or loss of property and life.
George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993.
German immigration to Puerto Rico began in the early part of the 19th century and continued to increase when German businessmen immigrated and established themselves with their families on the island.
Giannina Braschi (born February 5, 1953) is a Puerto Rican writer.
The Goodwill Games was an international sports competition created by Ted Turner in reaction to the political troubles surrounding the Olympic Games of the 1980s.
The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is a legislative branch government agency that provides auditing, evaluation, and investigative services for the United States Congress.
The Government of Puerto Rico is a republican form of government with separation of powers, subject to the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United States.
The governor of Puerto Rico is the head of government of Puerto Rico and, by its nature, constitutes the executive branch of the government of the island.
GovTrack.us is a website developed by then-student Joshua Tauberer.
A grain is a small, hard, dry seed, with or without an attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
The Greater Antilles is a grouping of the larger islands in the Caribbean Sea: Cuba, Hispaniola (containing Haiti and the Dominican Republic), Puerto Rico, Jamaica, and the Cayman Islands.
Griselio Torresola (1925 – November 1, 1950) born in Jayuya, Puerto Rico, was one of two Puerto Rican nationalists from New York City who attempted to assassinate United States President Harry Truman on November 1, 1950.
The Grito de Lares (Cry of Lares)—also referred to as the Lares uprising, the Lares revolt, the Lares rebellion, or the Lares revolution—was the first major revolt against Spanish rule in Puerto Rico.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
The gross national income (GNI) is the total domestic and foreign output claimed by residents of a country, consisting of gross domestic product (GDP), plus factor incomes earned by foreign residents, minus income earned in the domestic economy by nonresidents (Todaro & Smith, 2011: 44) (all figures in millions of US dollars).
Guam (Chamorro: Guåhån) is an unincorporated and organized territory of the United States in Micronesia in the western Pacific Ocean.
Guanches were the aboriginal inhabitants of the Canary Islands.
Guavas (singular guava) are common tropical fruits cultivated and enjoyed in many tropical and subtropical regions.
Guánica is a town and municipality in southern Puerto Rico (U.S.), bordering the Caribbean Sea, south of Sabana Grande, east of Lajas, and west of Yauco.
Haiti has a sizable diaspora, present chiefly in the Dominican Republic, the United States, Canada, Cuba, the Bahamas, and France.
Ham is pork from a leg cut that has been preserved by wet or dry curing, with or without smoking.
The Harlem Globetrotters are an exhibition basketball team.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Havana (Spanish: La Habana) is the capital city, largest city, province, major port, and leading commercial center of Cuba.
Héctor Juan Pérez Martínez (September 30, 1946 – June 29, 1993), better known as Héctor Lavoe, was a Puerto Rican salsa singer.
Health insurance is insurance that covers the whole or a part of the risk of a person incurring medical expenses, spreading the risk over a large number of persons.
In general use, herbs are plants with savory or aromatic properties that are used for flavoring and garnishing food, in medicine, or as fragrances.
A highway is any public or private road or other public way on land.
Hiram Bithorn Stadium (Spanish: Estadio Hiram Bithorn) is a baseball park in San Juan, Puerto Rico, built in 1962 and designed by Puerto Rican architect Pedro Miranda.
Hispanic America (Spanish: Hispanoamérica, or América hispana), also known as Spanish America (Spanish: América española), is the region comprising the Spanish-speaking nations in the Americas.
Hispaniola (Spanish: La Española; Latin and French: Hispaniola; Haitian Creole: Ispayola; Taíno: Haiti) is an island in the Caribbean island group, the Greater Antilles.
Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject.
Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras (República de Honduras), is a republic in Central America.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Hospital Damas, formerly called Santo Asilo de Damas, is a 331-bed teaching hospital in Ponce, Puerto Rico.
Hospital Episcopal San Lucas, commonly known as Hospital San Lucas, is a hospital in Ponce, Puerto Rico.
Hospital Metropolitano Dr.
Hospital Oncológico Andrés Grillasca or, more commonly, Hospital Oncológico, is a private, nonprofit hospital in Ponce, Puerto Rico, specializing in the treatment of cancer.
The Hostosian National Independence Movement (Movimiento Independentista Nacional Hostosiano, MINH) is a leftist and pro-independence organization (and unregistered political party) in Puerto Rico.
House & Garden is an American shelter magazine published by Condé Nast Publications that focusses on interior design, entertaining, and gardening.
The House of Representatives of Puerto Rico (Spanish: Cámara de Representantes de Puerto Rico) is the lower house of the Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico, the bicameral territorial legislature of Puerto Rico.
Hunter College is one of the constituent colleges of the City University of New York, an American public university.
Hurricane Irma was an extremely powerful and catastrophic Cape Verde hurricane, the strongest observed in the Atlantic in terms of maximum sustained winds since Wilma, and the strongest storm on record to exist in the open Atlantic region.
Hurricane Jose was a powerful and erratic tropical cyclone which was the longest-lived Atlantic hurricane since Hurricane Nadine in 2012.
Hurricane Maria is regarded as being the worst natural disaster on record to affect Dominica and Puerto Rico.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
Icesi University (Universidad Icesi) is a private university located in Cali, Colombia.
Ifá is a religion and system of divination and refers to the verses of the literary corpus known as the Odu Ifá.
The Iglesia de la Santísima Trinidad (Holy Trinity Church) was organized by British residents in Ponce, Puerto Rico, as an Anglican congregation in 1869.
The Igneri were an indigenous Arawak people of the southern Greater Antilles in the Caribbean.
In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.
An import is a good brought into a jurisdiction, especially across a national border, from an external source.
The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, "The Four Regions"), also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America, and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century.
The Independence Movement in Puerto Rico refers to initiatives by inhabitants throughout the history of Puerto Rico to obtain full political independence for the island nation.
The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
The Insular Cases are a series of opinions by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1901, about the status of U.S. territories acquired in the Spanish–American War.
The Intentona de Yauco (the "Attempted Coup of Yauco") of March 1897 was the second and final major revolt against Spanish colonial rule in Puerto Rico, staged by the island's pro-independence movement in the second half of the nineteenth century.
Inter caetera ("Among other ") was a papal bull issued by Pope Alexander VI on the fourth of May (quarto nonas maii) 1493, which granted to the Catholic Majesties of Ferdinand and Isabella (as sovereigns of Castile) all lands to the "west and south" of a pole-to-pole line 100 leagues west and south of any of the islands of the Azores or the Cape Verde islands.
The Inter American University of Puerto Rico (''Spanish'': Universidad Interamericana de Puerto Rico; abbreviated UIPR) in Spanish, and often referred as "Inter"— is an ecumenical Christian university in San Germán, Puerto Rico.
The Internal Revenue Code (IRC), formally the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, is the domestic portion of federal statutory tax law in the United States, published in various volumes of the United States Statutes at Large, and separately as Title 26 of the United States Code (USC).
The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is the revenue service of the United States federal government.
An international airport is an airport that offers customs and immigration facilities for passengers travelling between countries.
International relations (IR) or international affairs (IA) — commonly also referred to as international studies (IS) or global studies (GS) — is the study of interconnectedness of politics, economics and law on a global level.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
From the 16th to the 19th centuries, there was considerable Irish immigration to Puerto Rico for a number of reasons.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Isabelo Rivera Negrón is the 21st Puerto Rico Adjutant General, and the commanding officer of the Puerto Rico National Guard.
Isla de Cabras (Goats Island in English) is an islet located at the entrance of the San Juan bay in Puerto Rico.
Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth) is the second-largest Cuban island and the seventh-largest island in the West Indies (after Cuba itself, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Trinidad, and Andros Island).
Mona (Isla de la Mona) is the third-largest island of the Puerto Rican archipelago, after the main island of Puerto Rico and Vieques.
Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the early history of Islam to the present day.
An islet is a very small island.
The Isleta de San Juan is a island off the coast of Puerto Rico, connected to the mainland by bridges and a causeway.
Ismael Rivera a.k.a. "Maelo" (October 5, 1931 – May 13, 1987), was a Puerto Rican composer and salsa singer.
The Isthmus of Panama (Istmo de Panamá), also historically known as the Isthmus of Darien (Istmo de Darién), is the narrow strip of land that lies between the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean, linking North and South America.
The Italians (Italiani) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula.
The IWA (originally an acronym for "International Wrestling Association") is a professional wrestling brand based in Puerto Rico.
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
The Jayuya Uprising, also known as the Jayuya Revolt or El Grito de Jayuya, was a Nationalist revolt that took place on October 30, 1950, in the town of Jayuya, Puerto Rico.
Jayuya is a municipality of Puerto Rico (U.S.) located in the mountainous center region of the island, north of Ponce; east of Utuado; and west of Ciales.
Jíbaro is the word used in Puerto Rico to refer to the country people, the people who farm the land in a traditional way.
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
Jenniffer Aydin González Colón (born August 5, 1976) is an American politician and the current and 20th Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico.
Jesús T. Piñero (April 16, 1897 – November 19, 1952) was the first and only native Puerto Rican to be appointed governor of Puerto Rico by the Government of the United States.
John the Baptist (יוחנן המטביל Yokhanan HaMatbil, Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, Iōánnēs ho baptistḗs or Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτίζων, Iōánnēs ho baptízōn,Lang, Bernhard (2009) International Review of Biblical Studies Brill Academic Pub p. 380 – "33/34 CE Herod Antipas's marriage to Herodias (and beginning of the ministry of Jesus in a sabbatical year); 35 CE – death of John the Baptist" ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ ⲡⲓⲡⲣⲟⲇⲣⲟⲙⲟⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ ⲡⲓⲣϥϯⲱⲙⲥ, يوحنا المعمدان) was a Jewish itinerant preacherCross, F. L. (ed.) (2005) Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd ed.
In the United States Congress, a joint resolution is a legislative measure that requires approval by the Senate and the House and is presented to the president for his approval or disapproval.
The Jones–Shafroth Act —also known as the Jones Act of Puerto Rico, Jones Law of Puerto Rico, or as the Puerto Rican Federal Relations Act of 1917— was an Act of the United States Congress, signed by President Woodrow Wilson on March 2, 1917.
José Monserrate Feliciano García (born September 10, 1945), better known simply as José Feliciano, is a Puerto Rican guitarist, singer, and songwriter, best known for many international hits, including his rendition of The Doors' "Light My Fire" and the best-selling Christmas single, "Feliz Navidad".
José Vicente Ferrer de Otero y Cintrón (January 8, 1912 – January 26, 1992), known as José Ferrer, was a Puerto Rican actor and theatre and film director.
José Pedraza González (born May 8, 1989) is a Puerto Rican professional boxer in the lightweight division and is currently ranked #2 in the world by the World Boxing Organization.
The Journal of Paleontology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the field of paleontology.
Juan Eugenio Hernández Mayoral (born April 21, 1969 on Ponce, Puerto Rico) is the Director of the Puerto Rico Federal Affairs Administration (PRFAA) since January 2, 2013 and former Senator of Puerto Rico (2005-2012).
Juan Evangelista Venegas (June 2, 1929 – April 16, 1987) was a Puerto Rican boxer notable for winning Puerto Rico's first Olympic medal.
Juan Ponce de León (1474 – July 1521) was a Spanish explorer and conquistador born in Santervás de Campos, Valladolid, Spain in 1474.
Juana Díaz is a municipality of Puerto Rico (U.S.) located in the southern coast of the island, south of Jayuya, Ciales, Orocovis and Villalba; east of Ponce; and west of Coamo and Santa Isabel and the Caribbean Sea to the south.
Juanita García Peraza, also known as "Mita" (June 24, 1897 – February 21, 1970) was the founder of the "Mita congregation", the only non-Catholic denomination religion of Puerto Rican origin.
The Judiciary of Puerto Rico is defined under the Constitution of Puerto Rico and consists of the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico, Court of Appeals, and the Court of First Instance consisting of the Superior Courts and the Municipal Courts.
Julia de Burgos (February 17, 1914 – July 6, 1953) was a poet from Puerto Rico.
In the Napoleonic era, junta was the name chosen by several local administrations formed in Spain during the Peninsular War as a patriotic alternative to the official administration toppled by the French invaders.
The Jurassic (from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period Mya.
Kaffa (Kefa) was a province on the southwestern side of Ethiopia; its capital city was Jimma.
Karst is a topography formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
The Kongo people (Kongo: Esikongo (singular: Mwisikngo, also Bakongo (singular: Mukongo) "since about 1910 it is not uncommon for the term Bakongo (singular Mukongo) to be used, especially in areas north of the Zaire river, and by intellectuals and anthropologists adopting a standard nomenclature for Bantu-speaking peoples." J. K. Thornton, "Mbanza Kongo / São Salvador" in Anderson (ed.), Africa's Urban Past (2000)) are a Bantu ethnic group primarily defined as the speakers of Kikongo (Kongo languages). They have lived along the Atlantic coast of Central Africa, in a region that by the 15th century was a centralized and well organized Kongo kingdom, but is now a part of three countries. Their highest concentrations are found south of Pointe-Noire in the Republic of Congo, southwest of Pool Malebo and west of the Kwango River in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and north of Luanda, Angola., Encyclopædia Britannica They are the largest ethnic group in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and one of the major ethnic groups in the other two countries they are found in. In 1975, the Kongo population was reported as 10,220,000. The Kongo people were among the earliest sub-Saharan Africans to welcome Portuguese traders in 1483 CE, and began converting to Catholicism in the late 15th century. They were among the first to protest slavery in letters to the King of Portugal in the 1510s and 1520s, then succumbed to the demands for slaves from the Portuguese through the 16th century. The Kongo people were a part of the major slave raiding, capture and export trade of African slaves to the European colonial interests in 17th and 18th century. The slave raids, colonial wars and the 19th-century Scramble for Africa split the Kongo people into Portuguese, Belgian and French parts. In the early 20th century, they became one of the most active ethnic groups in the efforts to decolonize Africa, helping liberate the three nations to self governance. They now occupy influential positions in the politics, administration and business operations in the three countries they are most found in.
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
"La Borinqueña" is the national anthem of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.
La Fortaleza (The Fortress) is the official residence of the Governor of Puerto Rico.
La Mallorquina is a restaurant in San Juan, Puerto Rico that specializes in the making of Puerto Rican and Spanish-particularly Palma de Mallorca-cuisine such as asopao, gazpacho, arroz con pollo, paella and flan.
La Opinión is a Spanish-language daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California, USA and distributed throughout the six counties of Southern California.
La Perla del Sur is a weekly regional Spanish-language newspaper based in Ponce, Puerto Rico.
La Perla is a historical shanty town astride the northern historic city wall of Old San Juan, Puerto Rico, stretching about 650 yards (600 m) along the rocky Atlantic coast immediately east of the Santa Maria Magdalena de Pazzis Cemetery and down the slope from (north of) Calle Norzagaray.
Labor relations is a field of study that can have different meanings depending on the context in which it is used.
The term landslide or, less frequently, landslip, refers to several forms of mass wasting that include a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep-seated slope failures, mudflows and debris flows.
The languages of Africa are divided into six major language families.
Lard is pig fat in both its rendered and unrendered forms.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
The law of the United States comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law, of which the most important is the United States Constitution, the foundation of the federal government of the United States.
The Leyes de Burgos ("Laws of Burgos"), promulgated on 27 December 1512 in Burgos, Kingdom of Castile (Spain), was the first codified set of laws governing the behavior of Spaniards in the Americas, particularly with regard to the Indigenous people of the Americas ('native Caribbean Indians').
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
The Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico (Asamblea Legislativa de Puerto Rico) is the territorial legislature of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, responsible for the legislative branch of the government of Puerto Rico.
The legislative branch of the government of Puerto Rico is responsible for enacting, amending, and repealing the laws of Puerto Rico.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
The Liberal Party of Puerto Rico was a pro-independence political party.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
A lieutenant (abbreviated Lt, LT, Lieut and similar) is a junior commissioned officer in the armed forces, fire services, police and other organizations of many nations.
The Liga de Béisbol Profesional Roberto Clemente or LBPRC formerly known as Liga de Béisbol Profesional de Puerto Rico and Puerto Rico Baseball League, is the main professional baseball league in Puerto Rico.
Lima (Quechua:, Aymara) is the capital and the largest city of Peru.
A limited-access road, known by various terms worldwide, including limited-access highway, dual-carriageway, expressway, and partial controlled access highway, is a highway or arterial road for high-speed traffic which has many or most characteristics of a controlled-access highway (freeway or motorway), including limited or no access to adjacent property, some degree of separation of opposing traffic flow, use of grade separated interchanges to some extent, prohibition of some modes of transport such as bicycles or horses, and very few or no intersecting cross-streets.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Washington, D.C. has been the federal capital city of the United States since 1819.
The following is a list of Directors of the Puerto Rico Federal Affairs Administration.
The following is a list of events for which one of the commonly accepted names includes the word "massacre." Massacre is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as "the indiscriminate and brutal slaughter of people or (less commonly) animals; carnage, butchery, slaughter in numbers".
The government-owned corporations of Puerto Rico —or public corporations (corporaciones públicas)— are a set of corporate entities owned entirely or in large part by the executive branch of the government of Puerto Rico or by its municipalities.
This list of Governors of Puerto Rico (Gobernador de Puerto Rico) includes all persons who have held that post, either under Spanish or American rule.
A hall, wall, or walk of fame is a list of individuals, achievements, or animals, usually chosen by a group of electors, to mark their fame in their field.
In Puerto Rico, boxing is considered a major sport, having produced more amateur and professional world champions than any other sport in its history.
List of rivers in Puerto Rico (U.S. Commonwealth), sorted by drainage basin and then by name.
The United States of America is a federal republic consisting of 50 states, a federal district (Washington, D.C., the capital city of the United States), five major territories, and various minor islands.
Local government in the United States refers to governmental jurisdictions below the level of the state.
Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.
Luis Alfonso Rodríguez López-Cepero (born April 15, 1978), known by his stage name Luis Fonsi, is a Puerto Rican singer, songwriter and actor, best known for his 2017 worldwide hit song "Despacito", featuring Puerto Rican rapper Daddy Yankee, which won a total of four Latin Grammy Awards.
José Luis Alberto Muñoz Marín (February 18, 1898April 30, 1980) was the first elected governor of Puerto Rico, journalist, politician, and statesman, regarded as the "Father of Modern Puerto Rico" and the "Architect of the Commonwealth." In 1948 he was the first democratically elected Governor of Puerto Rico, spearheading an administration that engineered profound economic, political and social reforms; accomplishments that were internationally lauded by many politicians, statesmen, political scientists and economists of the period.
Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport (Aeropuerto Internacional Luis Muñoz Marín, Or Isla Verde International Airport/Aeropuerto Internacional de Isla Verde) is a joint civil-military international airport named for Puerto Rico's first democratically elected governor and located in suburban Carolina, Puerto Rico, southeast of San Juan.
Luis Muñoz Rivera (July 17, 1859 – November 15, 1916) was a Puerto Rican poet, journalist and politician.
Maite Oronoz Rodríguez (born 1976) is a Puerto Rican jurist and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico.
Major League Baseball (MLB) is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada.
A majority is the greater part, or more than half, of the total.
In present-day Spain a mancomunidad (mancomunidat, mancomunidá, mancomunitat, mankomunitatea; in English "commonwealth") is a free association or commonwealth of municipalities.
Manhattan is the most densely populated borough of New York City, its economic and administrative center, and its historical birthplace.
Manuel Macías y Casado (1845–1937) was a Spanish general.
Manuel Zeno Gandía (January 10, 1855 – January 30, 1930) was a Puerto Rican physician, poet, novelist, journalist and politician.
Manufacturing in Puerto Rico is the largest economic sector in the economy of Puerto Rico; composing almost half (about 46%) of the gross domestic product (GDP) of Puerto Rico.
María de las Mercedes Barbudo (1773 – February 17, 1849) was a Puerto Rican political activist, the first woman Independentista in the island, and a "Freedom Fighter".
Marco Antonio Muñiz (born September 16, 1968), known professionally as Marc Anthony, is an American singer, actor, record producer and television producer.
Marcos Xiorro was the slave name of an enslaved African in Spanish Puerto Rico who, in 1821, planned and conspired to lead a slave revolt against the sugarcane plantation owners and the Spanish Colonial government.
The Marshall Islands, officially the Republic of the Marshall Islands (Aolepān Aorōkin M̧ajeļ), is an island country located near the equator in the Pacific Ocean, slightly west of the International Date Line.
Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public.
The mass media is a diversified collection of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication.
Mauby (in Trinidad and Tobago, Saint Lucia, Jamaica, St. Vincent and The Grenadines, Grenada, Guyana, Bermuda, Barbados, Antigua and Barbuda and Anguilla), but also known as maví (or mabí) in the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, mabi in Haiti and Martinique, and maubi in the Virgin Islands and Dutch Caribbean islands of St. Eustatius, St. Maarten and Saba), is a tree bark-based beverage grown, and widely consumed, in the Caribbean. It is made with sugar and the bark and/or fruit of certain species in the genus Colubrina including Colubrina elliptica (also called behuco indio) and Colubrina arborescens, a small tree native to the northern Caribbean and south Florida. Recipes usually include other ingredients as well, spices such as aniseed being very common. Mauby was traditionally a fermented beverage made in small batches, but is now predominantly a commercial non-fermented soft drink. Haiti and the Dominican Republic are two of the largest Caribbean exporters of the bark and leaves. Often the drink is fermented using a portion of the previous batch, while sometimes it is consumed unfermented. Mauby is often bought as a pre-made syrup and then mixed with water (sparkling or still) to the consumer's taste, but many make it themselves at home or purchase it from neighbourhood producers or street sellers. Its taste is initially sweet, somewhat like root beer, but changes to a prolonged, but not astringent bitter aftertaste. To many, it is an acquired taste, and has been known to cause an initial laxative reaction unexpected to many first-time drinkers.
The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.
The Mayagüez Metropolitan Statistical Area is a United States Census Bureau defined Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) in west central Puerto Rico.
Mayagüez is the eighth-largest municipality of Puerto Rico (U.S.). It was founded as Nuestra Señora de la Candelaria, and is also known as La Sultana del Oeste (The Sultaness of the West), Ciudad de las Aguas Puras (City of Pure Waters), or Ciudad del Mangó (City of the Mango).
In many countries, a mayor (from the Latin maior, meaning "bigger") is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town.
The mayors of Puerto Rico encompass the different mayors of the municipalities of Puerto Rico; each mayor being the highest-ranking officer of their corresponding municipality.
McJoe Arroyo Acevedo (born December 5, 1985) is a Puerto Rican professional boxer competing in the super flyweight division and former IBF Super Flyweight Champion.
McWilliams Arroyo Acevedo (born December 5, 1985) is a Puerto Rican professional boxer.
Medicaid in the United States is a joint federal and state program that helps with medical costs for some people with limited income and resources.
Meetings, incentives, conferences and exhibitions (MICE) is a type of tourism in which large groups, usually planned well in advance, are brought together for a particular purpose.
Melicoccus bijugatus, commonly called Spanish lime, genip, guinep, genipe, ginepa, kenèp, quenepa, quenepe, chenet, canepa, mamón, limoncillo, skinip, kinnip, huaya, ackee, or mamoncillo, is a fruit-bearing tree in the soapberry family Sapindaceae, native or naturalized across the New World tropics including South and Central America, and parts of the Caribbean.
Mercedita Airport is a public use airport located three nautical miles (6 km) east of the central business district of Ponce, Puerto Rico.
The Merchant Marine Act of 1920 is a United States federal statute that provides for the promotion and maintenance of the American merchant marine.
Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing.
The Metropolitan University —or Universidad Metropolitana (UMET) in Spanish— is a private, non-profit, and secular university system in Puerto Rico.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Miami is a major port city on the Atlantic coast of south Florida in the southeastern United States.
Microsoft Word (or simply Word) is a word processor developed by Microsoft.
Miguel Ángel Cotto Vázquez (born October 29, 1980) is a Puerto Rican former professional boxer who competed from 2001 to 2017.
Miguel de la Torre y Pando, conde de Torrepando (13 December 1786, in Bernales – 1843, in Madrid) was a Spanish General, Governor and Captain General, who served in Spain, Venezuela, Colombia and Puerto Rico during the Spanish American wars of independence and after.
Miguel Piñero (December 19, 1946 – June 16, 1988) was a playwright, actor and co-founder of the Nuyorican Poets Café.
The recorded military history of Puerto Rico encompasses the period from the 16th century, when Spanish conquistadores battled native Taínos in the rebellion of 1511, to the present employment of Puerto Ricans in the United States Armed Forces in the military campaigns in Afghanistan and Iraq.
Millard Evelyn Tydings (April 6, 1890February 9, 1961) was an American attorney, author, soldier, state legislator, and served as a Democratic Representative and Senator in the United States Congress from Maryland, serving in the House from 1923 to 1927 and in the Senate from 1927 to 1951.
Milwaukee Deep, also known as The Milwaukee Depth, is the deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean and is part of the Puerto Rico Trench.
Minority Rights Group International (MRG) is an international human rights organisation founded with the objective of working to secure rights for ethnic, national, religious and linguistic minorities and indigenous peoples around the world.
The Mita Congregation (Congregación Mita) is a Christian denomination headquartered in Puerto Rico.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Mofongo is a Puerto Rican dish with fried plantains as its main ingredient.
The monarchy of Spain (Monarquía de España), constitutionally referred to as the Crown (La Corona), is a constitutional institution and historic office of Spain.
Monica Puig Marchán (born September 27, 1993) is a Puerto Rican professional tennis player and the reigning Olympic champion.
Monito Island (‘Little Mona') (Islote Monito) is an uninhabited island about 3.1 miles (5 kilometers) northwest of the much larger Mona Island.
The Montreal Expos (Les Expos de Montréal) were a Canadian professional baseball team based in Montreal, Quebec.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
Movimiento Unión Soberanista (MUS) (English: Sovereign Union Movement) is a Puerto Rican political party.
Multiracial Americans are Americans who have mixed ancestry of "two or more races".
The municipalities of Puerto Rico number seventy-eight incorporated towns and cities.
A municipality is usually a single urban or administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and state laws to which it is subordinate.
The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a men's professional basketball league in North America; composed of 30 teams (29 in the United States and 1 in Canada).
National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
The National Guard of the United States, part of the reserve components of the United States Armed Forces, is a reserve military force, composed of National Guard military members or units of each state and the territories of Guam, the Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia, for a total of 54 separate organizations.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.
Natural resource economics deals with the supply, demand, and allocation of the Earth's natural resources.
The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) is a United States-based, non-profit international environmental advocacy group, with its headquarters in New York City and offices in Washington, D.C.; San Francisco; Los Angeles; New Delhi, India; Chicago; Bozeman, Montana; and Beijing, China.
The Naval War College (NWC or NAVWARCOL) is the staff college and "Home of Thought" for the United States Navy at Naval Station Newport in Newport, Rhode Island.
Nelson Dieppa (born February 25, 1971) is a Puerto Rican professional boxer.
Neoclassicism (from Greek νέος nèos, "new" and Latin classicus, "of the highest rank") is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of classical antiquity.
The New Progressive Party (Partido Nuevo Progresista, PNP or NPP) is a political party in Puerto Rico that advocates for the island to become a state of the United States.
The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de la Nueva España) was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events.
Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Nichiren Buddhism is a branch of Mahayana Buddhism based on the teachings of the 13th century Japanese Buddhist priest Nichiren (1222–1282) and is one of the "Kamakura Buddhism" schools.
Nicholas II or Nikolai II (r; 1868 – 17 July 1918), known as Saint Nicholas II of Russia in the Russian Orthodox Church, was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
Non-voting members of the United States House of Representatives (called either delegates or resident commissioner, in the case of Puerto Rico) are representatives of their territory in the House of Representatives, but who do not have a right to vote on proposed legislation in the full House but are nevertheless able to participate in certain other House functions.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
The Northeastern United States, also referred to as the American Northeast or simply the Northeast, is a geographical region of the United States bordered to the north by Canada, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Southern United States, and to the west by the Midwestern United States.
NotiCel is an online newspaper that covers news related to Puerto Rico.
Nuyorican is a portmanteau of the terms "New York" and "Puerto Rican" and refers to the members or culture of the Puerto Rican diaspora located in or around New York City, or of their descendants (especially those raised or still living in the New York area).
The Nuyorican Movement is a cultural and intellectual movement involving poets, writers, musicians and artists who are Puerto Rican or of Puerto Rican descent, who live in or near New York City, and either call themselves or are known as Nuyoricans.
Oceanic crust is the uppermost layer of the oceanic portion of a tectonic plate.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Okra or okro, known in many English-speaking countries as ladies' fingers or ochro, is a flowering plant in the mallow family.
Old San Juan (Viejo San Juan) is a barrio of San Juan, Puerto Rico, located on the Isleta de San Juan.
The Oligocene is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present (to). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain.
The olive, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "European olive", is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands and Réunion.
Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.
Omar Alfredo Rodríguez-López (born September 1, 1975) is an American multi-instrumentalist, songwriter, producer, writer, actor and film director.
Opera (English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere) is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers.
An operating budget is the annual budget of an activity stated in terms of Budget Classification Code, functional/subfunctional categories and cost accounts.
Operation Bootstrap (Operación Manos a la Obra) is the name given to a series of projects which transformed the economy of Puerto Rico into an industrial and developed one.
Oral literature or folk literature corresponds in the sphere of the spoken (oral) word to literature as literature operates in the domain of the written word.
Oregano (Origanum vulgare) is a flowering plant in the mint family (Lamiaceae).
The Organization of American States (Organización de los Estados Americanos, Organização dos Estados Americanos, Organisation des États américains), or the OAS or OEA, is a continental organization that was founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states.
The Orinoco River is one of the longest rivers in South America at.
Orlando Radhames Antigua Fernández (born February 20, 1973), nicknamed "Hurricane", is a former Dominican-American basketball player and is currently an assistant coach at the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign under Brad Underwood.
Orlando Manuel "Peruchin" Cepeda Pennes (born September 17, 1937) is a Puerto Rican former Major League Baseball first baseman and a member of the National Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown, New York.
Orlando Meléndez, a.k.a. "El Gato" (The Cat) (born February 14, 1979), is the first Puerto Rican-born basketball player ever to play for the Harlem Globetrotters.
Orthodox Judaism is a collective term for the traditionalist branches of Judaism, which seek to maximally maintain the received Jewish beliefs and observances and which coalesced in opposition to the various challenges of modernity and secularization.
The Ortoiroid people were the second wave of human settlers of the Caribbean who began their migration into the Antilles around 2000 BCE They were preceded by the Casimiroid peoples (~4190-2165 BCE).
Oscar Collazo (January 20, 1914 – February 21, 1994) was one of two Puerto Rican militants of the Nationalist Party who on November 1, 1950, attempted to assassinate U.S. President Harry S. Truman in Washington, DC.
Oscar Littleton Chapman (October 22, 1896 – February 8, 1978) was the U.S. Secretary of the Interior, during President Truman's administration, from 1949 to 1953.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Puerto Rico: The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is a self-governing unincorporated territory of the United States of America located in the northeastern Caribbean, east of the Dominican Republic and west of the Virgin Islands.
Pacific Islands Americans, also known as Oceanian Americans, Pacific Islander Americans, or Native Hawaiian and/or other Pacific Islander Americans, are Americans who have ethnic ancestry among the indigenous peoples of Oceania (viz. Polynesians, Melanesians and Micronesians).
Pagliacci (literal translation, Clowns)The title is sometimes incorrectly rendered in English with a definite article as I pagliacci.
Palau (historically Belau, Palaos, or Pelew), officially the Republic of Palau (Beluu er a Belau), is an island country located in the western Pacific Ocean.
Palo, also known as Las Reglas de Congo, is a religion with various denominations which developed in Cuba among Central African slaves and their descendants who originated in the Congo Basin.
The Pan American Games (also known colloquially as the Pan Am Games) is a major sporting event in the Americas featuring summer sports, in which thousands of athletes participate in a variety of competitions.
Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
Papier-mâché (literally "chewed paper") is a composite material consisting of paper pieces or pulp, sometimes reinforced with textiles, bound with an adhesive, such as glue, starch, or wallpaper paste.
Pasteles (singular pastel) are a traditional dish in several Latin American countries.
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, often shortened to the Affordable Care Act (ACA) or nicknamed Obamacare, is a United States federal statute enacted by the 111th United States Congress and signed into law by President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
Pedro Albizu Campos (September 12, 1891Luis Fortuño Janeiro. Album Histórico de Ponce (1692-1963). p. 290. Ponce, Puerto Rico: Imprenta Fortuño. 1963. – April 21, 1965) was a Puerto Rican attorney and politician, and the leading figure in the Puerto Rican independence movement.
Pedro Rafael Pierluisi Urrutia (born April 26, 1959) is an attorney who was the 19th Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico from 2009 to 2017.
The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire (as well as the allied powers of the Spanish Empire), the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Portugal, for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars.
Pentecostalism or Classical Pentecostalism is a renewal movement"Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals",.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing and dispensing drugs.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
The piña colada (piña, "pineapple," and colada, "strained") is a sweet cocktail made with rum, coconut cream or coconut milk, and pineapple juice, usually served either blended or shaken with ice.
A pig roast or hog roast is an event or gathering which involves the barbecuing of a whole pig.
The pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) is a perennial legume from the family Fabaceae.
The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant with an edible multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries, also called pineapples, and the most economically significant plant in the family Bromeliaceae.
A piragua is a Puerto Rican shaved ice dessert, shaped like a pyramid, consisting of shaved ice and covered with fruit-flavored syrup.
Piri Thomas (September 30, 1928 – October 17, 2011) was a writer and poet whose memoir Down These Mean Streets became a best-seller.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
La Plena is a genre of music, chant and dance native to Ponce, Puerto Rico.
A plenary power or plenary authority is a complete and absolute power to take action on a particular issue, with no limitations.
In geology, a pluton is a body of intrusive igneous rock (called a plutonic rock) that is crystallized from magma slowly cooling below the surface of the Earth.
The political party strength in Puerto Rico has been held by different political parties in the history of Puerto Rico.
The political status of Puerto Rico is that of an unincorporated territory of the United States.
A polvorón (From polvo, the Spanish word for powder, or dust; Cebuano: polboron; pulburón) is a type of heavy, soft, and very crumbly Spanish shortbread made of flour, sugar, milk, and nuts (especially almonds).
The Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico (PUPR) —commonly referred as Poly or La Poly in Spanish— is a private non-profit university located in San Juan, Puerto Rico.
The Ponce massacre was an event that took place on Palm Sunday, 21 March 1937, in Ponce, Puerto Rico, when a peaceful civilian march turned into a police shooting in which 19 civilians and two policemen were killed, and more than 200 others wounded.
The Ponce Metropolitan Statistical Area is a United States Census Bureau defined Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) in south central Puerto Rico.
Ponce is both a city and a municipality in the southern part of Puerto Rico.
The Pontifical Catholic University of Puerto Rico is a Roman Catholic university located in Ponce, Puerto Rico.
Pope Saint Pius X (Pio), born Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto, (2 June 1835 – 20 August 1914) was head of the Catholic Church from August 1903 to his death in 1914.
The Popular Democratic Party (Partido Popular Democrático, PPD) is a political party that advocates to continue as a Commonwealth of the United States with self-government.
Population genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with genetic differences within and between populations, and is a part of evolutionary biology.
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo.
The Port of San Juan (Puerto de San Juan) is a seaport facility located in the metropolitan area of San Juan, Puerto Rico.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Postmodern architecture is a style or movement which emerged in the 1960s as a reaction against the austerity, formality, and lack of variety of modern architecture, particularly in the international style advocated by Le Corbusier and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe.
Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.
The poverty threshold, poverty limit or poverty line is the minimum level of income deemed adequate in a particular country.
A power outage (also called a power cut, a power out, a power blackout, power failure or a blackout) is a short-term or a long-term loss of the electric power to a particular area.
The President of the Senate of Puerto Rico (Presidente del Senado) is the highest-ranking officer and the presiding officer of the Senate of Puerto Rico.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
Primera Hora is a newspaper based in Guaynabo, Puerto Rico and distributed daily throughout the island.
Professional wrestling (often shortened to pro wrestling or simply wrestling) is a form of sports entertainment which combines athletics with theatrical performance.
The Puerto Rico Oversight, Management, and Economic Stability Act (PROMESA) is a US federal law that established an oversight board, a process for restructuring debt, and expedited procedures for approving critical infrastructure projects in order to combat the Puerto Rican government-debt crisis.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Protestantism in Puerto Rico officially was introduced in 1872 when the first Protestant church in the Anglican tradition was established on the island.
The public debt of Puerto Rico is the money borrowed by the government of Puerto Rico through the issue of securities by the Government Development Bank and other government agencies.
Puerta de Tierra is a "sub-barrio" occupying the eastern portion of the barrio of Old San Juan in the municipality of San Juan, Puerto Rico.
The Puerto Rican amazon (Amazona vittata), also known as the Puerto Rican parrot or iguaca, is the only extant bird endemic to the archipelago of Puerto Rico belonging to the Neotropical genus Amazona.
The Puerto Rican Campaign was an American military sea and land operation on the island of Puerto Rico during the Spanish–American War.
Puerto Rican citizenship was first legislated by the United States Congress in Article 7 of the Foraker Act of 1900 and later recognized in the Constitution of Puerto Rico.
A referendum on a new constitution was held in Puerto Rico on 3 March 1952.
The Puerto Rican cuatro is the national instrument of Puerto Rico.
Puerto Rican cuisine has its roots in the cooking traditions and practices of Europe (mostly Spain), Africa and the native Taínos.
General elections were held in Puerto Rico on Tuesday, November 8, 2016 to elect the officials of the Puerto Rican government that will serve from January 2017 to January 2021, most notably the Governor of Puerto Rico.
The Puerto Rican government-debt crisis is a financial crisis affecting the government of Puerto Rico.
The Puerto Rican Independence Party (Partido Independentista Puertorriqueño, PIP) is a social-democratic political party in Puerto Rico that campaigns for the independence of Puerto Rico from United States suzerainty.
The Puerto Rican Nationalist Party (Spanish: Partido Nacionalista de Puerto Rico, PNPR) is a Puerto Rican political party which was founded on September 17, 1922.
The Puerto Rican Nationalist Party Revolts of the 1950s were a series of coordinated armed protests for the independence of Puerto Rico led by the president of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party, Don Pedro Albizu Campos, against the United States Government rule on the Island.
Puerto Rican Spanish (español puertorriqueño) is the Spanish language as characteristically spoken in Puerto Rico and by millions of people of Puerto Rican descent living in the United States and elsewhere.
The Puerto Rican spindalis (Spindalis portoricensis) is a bird endemic to the island of Puerto Rico, where it is commonly known as reina mora.
A referendum on the political status of Puerto Rico was held in Puerto Rico on November 6, 2012.
A referendum on the political status of Puerto Rico was held in Puerto Rico on June 11, 2017.
Puerto Ricans (Puertorriqueños; or boricuas) are people from Puerto Rico, the inhabitants and citizens of Puerto Rico, and their descendants.
The Puerto Ricans for Puerto Rico Party (Partido Puertorriqueños por Puerto Rico, PPR) is a Puerto Rican political party.
The Puerto Rico Adjutant General (Ayudante General de Puerto Rico) is the Commander of the Puerto Rico National Guard.
The Puerto Rico Air National Guard (PR ANG) —Guardia Nacional Aérea de Puerto Rico— is the air force militia of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, an unincorporated territory of the United States of America.
The Puerto Rico Aqueducts and Sewers Authority (PRASA) —Spanish: Autoridad de Acueductos y Alcantarillados (AAA)— is a water company and the government-owned corporation of Puerto Rico responsible for water quality, water management, and water supply in Puerto Rico.
The Puerto Rico Army National Guard (PRARNG) — officially designated in Spanish as Guardia Nacional Terrestre de Puerto Rico, but colloquially known as Ejército de la Guardia Nacional de Puerto Rico — is the Army National Guard of Puerto Rico which, together with the Puerto Rico Air National Guard, comprises the Puerto Rico National Guard.
The Puerto Rico Democracy Act is a bill to provide for a federally sanctioned self-determination process for the people of Puerto Rico.
The Department of Natural and Environmental Resources of Puerto Rico —Departamento de Recursos Naturales y Ambientales (DRNA)— is the executive department of the government of Puerto Rico tasked with protecting, conserving, developing, and managing the natural and environmental resources of Puerto Rico.
The Department of State of Puerto Rico (Spanish: Departamento de Estado de Puerto Rico) is responsible of promoting the cultural, political, and economical relations between Puerto Rico and foreign countries, and other jurisdictions of the United States.
The Department of Treasury of Puerto Rico (Departamento de Hacienda de Puerto Rico) is the executive department of the government of Puerto Rico responsible for the treasury of Puerto Rico.
The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) —Spanish: Autoridad de Energía Eléctrica (AEE)— is an electric power company and the government-owned corporation of Puerto Rico responsible for electricity generation, power distribution, and power transmission on the island.
The Puerto Rico Federal Affairs Administration (PRFAA)—Administración de Asuntos Federales de Puerto Rico—is the executive agency of the government of Puerto Rico that represents the government of the island and its dependencies and municipalities before entities of or in the United States, including.
The Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950 was an Act of Congress of the 81st United States Congress signed by President Harry Truman in July 3, 1950.
The Puerto Rico government budget balance is the overall result of the budget of the government of Puerto Rico over the course of a fiscal year beginning on July 1 and ending on June 30 of the following year.
The Government Development Bank for Puerto Rico (GDB) —Banco Gubernamental de Fomento para Puerto Rico (BGF)— is the government bond issuer, intragovernmental bank, fiscal agent, and financial advisor of the government of Puerto Rico.
The Puerto Rico Health Reform Reforma de Salud de Puerto Rico, and locally referred to simply as La Reforma (The Reform) is a government-run program which provides medical and healthcare services to indigent and impoverished citizens of Puerto Rico by means of contracting private health insurance companies, as opposed to the traditional system of government-owned hospitals and emergency centers.
The Puerto Rico Highways and Transportation Authority (PRHTA) Autoridad de Carreteras y Transportación (ACT) is the government-owned corporation of Puerto Rico charged with constructing, operating, and maintaining roads, bridges, avenues, highways, tunnels, public parkings, tolls, and other transit facilities in Puerto Rico.
The Puerto Rico Metropolitan Bus Authority —Autoridad Metropolitana de Autobuses de Puerto Rico (AMA)— is a government-owned corporation and public transport bus service based in the San Juan metropolitan area.
Puerto Rico made its debut at the Baseball World Cup, then known as the "Amateur World Series" in 1940, only two years after the creation of the Liga de Béisbol Profesional Roberto Clemente (LBPPR), which at the moment was an amateur league.
The Puerto Rico national basketball team (Selección de Baloncesto de Puerto Rico) is governed by the Puerto Rican Basketball Federation (Federación de Baloncesto de Puerto Rico).
The Puerto Rico national football team (Selección de fútbol de Puerto Rico) represents Puerto Rico in international football, and is controlled by the Federación Puertorriqueña de Fútbol (FPF).
The Puerto Rico National Guard (PRNG)—Guardia Nacional de Puerto Rico—is the national guard of Puerto Rico.
The Office of Legislative Services of Puerto Rico was created on January 27, 1954 to provide research, translation, library and legislative drafting services to all members of the Puerto Rico Legislative Assembly.
The Office of Management and Budget of Puerto Rico —Spanish: Oficina de Gerencia y Presupuesto de Puerto Rico (OGP)— is a Cabinet-level office, and the largest office within the Office of the Governor of Puerto Rico.
The Puerto Rico Police (Policía de Puerto Rico)also known in Puerto Rico as La Uniformadais the state police of Puerto Rico.
The Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration (PRRA) was one of the alphabet agencies of the New Deal established by the administration of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
The Puerto Rico representative districts (distritos representativos) refers to the electoral districts in which Puerto Rico is divided for the purpose of electing 40 of the 51 members of the House of Representatives of Puerto Rico (with the other 11 being elected at-large).
The Puerto Rico senatorial districts (distritos senatoriales) refers to the electoral districts in which Puerto Rico is divided for the purpose of electing 16 of the 27 members of the Senate of Puerto Rico (with the other 11 being elected at-large).
The Puerto Rico Soccer League or PRSL is an association football league in Puerto Rico founded in 2008.
The Puerto Rico State Commission on Elections —Spanish: Comisión Estatal de Elecciones de Puerto Rico (CEEPR or CEE-PUR)— is the government agency of the executive branch of the government of Puerto Rico that oversees and manages elections in Puerto Rico as well as guaranteeing the right to vote to its citizens.
The Puerto Rico State Guard (PRSG) —Guardia Estatal de Puerto Rico— is the state defense force of Puerto Rico that operates under the sole authority of the governor of Puerto Rico who, in turn, delegates such authority to the Puerto Rico Adjutant General.
The Puerto Rico Symphony Orchestra (PRSO) (Orquesta Sinfónica de Puerto Rico in Spanish) a musical ensemble sponsored by the Government of Puerto Rico.
The Puerto Rico Trench is located on the boundary between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin (the only categories for ethnicity).
A radio station is a set of equipment necessary to carry on communication via radio waves.
Rafael Cordero y Molina (October, 1790–July 5, 1868), known as Maestro Cordero, was a self-educated Puerto Rican who provided free schooling to the children of his city regardless of race or social standing.
The Rafael Cordero Santiago Port of the Americas (POTA) Puerto de las Américas Rafael Cordero Santiago is a megaport currently under construction in Ponce, Puerto Rico.
Rafael Antonio Cortijo (January 11, 1928 – October 3, 1982) was a Puerto Rican musician, orchestra leader, and composer.
Rafael Hernández Airport is a joint civil-military airport located in Aguadilla, Puerto Rico.
Sir Ralph Abercromby (sometimes spelt Abercrombie) (7 October 173428 March 1801) was a Scottish soldier and politician.
Ramón Emeterio Betances y Alacán (April 8, 1827 – September 16, 1898) was a Puerto Rican nationalist.
Captain Ramón Power y Giralt (October 7, 1775 – June 10, 1813), commonly known as Ramón Power, was, according to Puerto Rican historian Lidio Cruz Monclova, among the first native-born Puerto Ricans to refer to himself as a "Puerto Rican" and to fight for the equal representation of Puerto Rico in front of the parliamentary government of Spain.
Rapid transit or mass rapid transit, also known as heavy rail, metro, MRT, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas.
Within the study of demography, the rate of natural increase (RNI) is classified as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
A raw material, also known as a feedstock or most correctly unprocessed material, is a basic material that is used to produce goods, finished products, energy, or intermediate materials which are feedstock for future finished products.
Ray Barretto (April 29, 1929 – February 17, 2006) was an American Grammy Award-winning conga drummer and bandleader of Puerto Rican ancestry.
The Río Piedras massacre occurred on October 24, 1935, at the University of Puerto Rico in Río Piedras.
Río Piedras is a former municipality of Puerto Rico, which was consolidated with the capital municipality of San Juan, Puerto Rico in 1951.
As of 2012, the real estate industry in Puerto Rico constituted about 14.8% of the gross domestic product of Puerto Rico, about 1% of all of the employee compensation on the island and, together with finance and insurance (FIRE), about 3.7% of all the employment on the jurisdiction.
A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.
Reform Judaism (also known as Liberal Judaism or Progressive Judaism) is a major Jewish denomination that emphasizes the evolving nature of the faith, the superiority of its ethical aspects to the ceremonial ones, and a belief in a continuous revelation not centered on the theophany at Mount Sinai.
Reggaeton (also known as reggaetón and reguetón) is a music genre which originated in Puerto Rico during the late 1990s.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
Modern republicanism is a guiding political philosophy of the United States that has been a major part of American civic thought since its founding.
The Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico (Spanish: Comisionado Residente de Puerto Rico) is a non-voting member of the United States House of Representatives elected by the voters of Puerto Rico every four years, the only member of the House of Representatives who serves a four-year term.
The Revolutionary Committee of Puerto Rico (Comité Revolucionario de Puerto Rico) was founded by Puerto Rican exiles such as Juan Ríus Rivera, Ramón Emeterio Betances and José Francisco Basora living at the time in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.
Ricardo Antonio "Ricky" Rosselló Nevares (born March 7, 1979) is an American politician who is currently Governor of Puerto Rico.
Rice pudding is a dish made from rice mixed with water or milk and other ingredients such as cinnamon and raisins.
The so-called Richter magnitude scale – more accurately, Richter's magnitude scale, or just Richter magnitude – for measuring the strength ("size") of earthquakes refers to the original "magnitude scale" developed by Charles F. Richter and presented in his landmark 1935 paper, and later revised and renamed the Local magnitude scale, denoted as "ML" or "ML".
Enrique José Martín Morales (born December 24, 1971), commonly known as Ricky Martin, is a Puerto Rican singer, actor and author.
Road running is the sport of running on a measured course over an established road (as opposed to track and field and cross country running).
Robert Summers (June 22, 1922 – April 17, 2012) was an economist and professor at the University of Pennsylvania, where he taught from 1960.
Roberto "Robbie" Alomar Velázquez (born February 5, 1968) is a former Major League Baseball player (1988–2004), regarded highly as a second baseman.
Roberto Enrique Clemente Walker (August 18, 1934 – December 31, 1972) was a Puerto Rican professional baseball right fielder who played 18 seasons in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the Pittsburgh Pirates.
Roosevelt Roads Naval Station is a former United States Navy base in the town of Ceiba, Puerto Rico.
The Royal Decree of Graces of 1815 (Spanish: Real Cédula de Gracias) is a legal order approved by the Spanish Crown in the early half of the 19th century to encourage Spaniards and, later, Europeans of non-Spanish origin, to settle in and populate the colonies of Puerto Rico and Cuba.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
Ruggero (or Ruggiero) Leoncavallo (23 April 18579 August 1919) was an Italian opera composer and librettist.
Saladoid culture is a pre-Columbian indigenous culture of territory in present-day Venezuela and the Caribbean that flourished from 500 BCE to 545 CE.
Salinas (Salines) is a municipality in the southern part of Puerto Rico (U.S.) located in the southern coast of the island, south of Aibonito and Cayey; southeast of Coamo, east of Santa Isabel; and west of Guayama.
Salsa music is a popular dance music that initially arose in New York City during the 1960s.
San Germán (Saint Germain) is a municipality located in the southwestern region of Puerto Rico (U.S.), south of Mayagüez and Maricao, north of Lajas, east of Hormigueros and Cabo Rojo, and west of Sabana Grande.
San José Church (Iglesia de San José), located in Old San Juan within the historic colonial section of the capital of Puerto Rico, is one of the first significant works of architecture on the island.
San Juan Bay (Bahía de San Juan) is the inlet adjacent to Old San Juan in northeastern Puerto Rico.
San Juan National Historic Site (Sitio Histórico Nacional de San Juan) in the Old San Juan section of San Juan, Puerto Rico, is a National Park Service-managed historic site which protects and interprets colonial-era forts such as Castillo San Felipe del Morro, bastions, powder houses, and three fourths of the old city wall.
San Juan (Saint John) is the capital and most populous municipality in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, an unincorporated territory of the United States.
The San Juan–Caguas–Guaynabo metropolitan area is a United States Census Bureau defined metropolitan statistical area (MSA) in northeastern Puerto Rico.
Santería, also known as Regla de Ocha, La Regla de Ifá, or Lucumí, is an Afro-American religion of Caribbean origin that developed in the Spanish Empire among West African descendants.
Santurce is one of the districts (or barrios) of San Juan, Puerto Rico, United States.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions.
Seattle is a seaport city on the west coast of the United States.
The Secretary of State of Puerto Rico (Secretario de Estado de Puerto Rico) leads all efforts that promote the cultural, political, and economical relations between Puerto Rico and foreign countries, and other jurisdictions of the United States.
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.
Segundo Ruiz Belvis (May 13, 1829 – November 3, 1867) was an abolitionist who also fought for Puerto Rico's right to independence.
Seismology (from Ancient Greek σεισμός (seismós) meaning "earthquake" and -λογία (-logía) meaning "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies.
The Senate of Puerto Rico (Senado de Puerto Rico) is the upper house of the Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico, the territorial legislature of Puerto Rico.
The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.
Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum, also called benne.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
A share taxi (also called shared taxi) is a mode of transport which falls between a taxicab and a bus.
The Sierra Club is an environmental organization in the United States.
Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar Palacios Ponte y Blanco (24 July 1783 – 17 December 1830), generally known as Simón Bolívar and also colloquially as El Libertador, was a Venezuelan military and political leader who played a leading role in the establishment of Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Panama as sovereign states, independent of Spanish rule.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Slavery in the Spanish American colonies was an economic and social institution central to the operations of the Spanish Empire - it bound Africans and indigenous people to a relationship of colonial exploitation.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
The Alien Registration Act, popularly known as the Smith Act, 76th United States Congress, 3d session, ch.
The United States Social Security Administration (SSA) is an independent agency of the U.S. federal government that administers Social Security, a social insurance program consisting of retirement, disability, and survivors' benefits.
Sonia Maria Sotomayor (born June 25, 1954) is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, appointed by President Barack Obama in May 2009 and confirmed in August 2009.
Soursop (also graviola, custard apple, and in Latin America, guanábana) is the fruit of Annona muricata, a broadleaf, flowering, evergreen tree.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
South End Press was a non-profit book publisher run on a model of participatory economics.
The free association movement in Puerto Rico refers to initiatives throughout the history of Puerto Rico aimed at changing the current political status of Puerto Rico to that of a sovereign freely associated state.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spanish Colonial architecture represents Spanish colonial influence on New World and East Indies' cities and towns, and it is still being seen in the architecture as well as in the city planning aspects of conserved present-day cities.
The Spanish Colonial Revival Style is an architectural stylistic movement arising in the early 20th century based on the Spanish Colonial architecture of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
The Political Constitution of the Spanish Monarchy (Constitución Política de la Monarquía Española), also known as the Constitution of Cádiz (Constitución de Cádiz) and as La Pepa, was the first Constitution of Spain and one of the earliest constitutions in world history.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The Spanish treasure fleet, or West Indies Fleet from Spanish Flota de Indias, also called silver fleet or plate fleet (from the Spanish plata meaning "silver"), was a convoy system adopted by the Spanish Empire from 1566 to 1790, linking Spain with its territories in America across the Atlantic.
The Spanish West Indies or the Spanish Antilles (also known as "Las Antillas Occidentales" or simply "Las Antillas Españolas" in Spanish) was the former name of the Spanish colonies in the Caribbean.
The Spanish–American War (Guerra hispano-americana or Guerra hispano-estadounidense; Digmaang Espanyol-Amerikano) was fought between the United States and Spain in 1898.
The President of the House of Representatives of Puerto Rico —commonly called the Speaker of the House (Presidente de la Cámara de Representantes)— is the highest-ranking officer and the presiding officer of the House of Representatives of Puerto Rico.
The Special Committee on Decolonization (its full official title being the Special Committee on the Situation with regard to the Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples; also known as the U.N. Special Committee of the 24 on Decolonization, the Committee of 24, or simply, the Decolonization Committee) was created in 1961 by the General Assembly of the United Nations with the purpose of monitoring implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples and to make recommendations on its application.
A spice is a seed, fruit, root, bark, or other plant substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food.
State defense forces (SDF; also known as state military, state guards, or state military reserves) in the United States are military units that operate under the sole authority of a state government.
State governments of the United States are institutional units in the United States exercising some of the functions of government at a level below that of the federal government.
In economics, a government monopoly (or public monopoly) is a form of coercive monopoly in which a government agency or government corporation is the sole provider of a particular good or service and competition is prohibited by law.
The statehood movement in Puerto Rico aims to make Puerto Rico a state of the United States.
Status quo is a Latin phrase meaning the existing state of affairs, particularly with regard to social or political issues.
The status quo movement in Puerto Rico refers to initiatives throughout the history of Puerto Rico aimed at maintaining the current political status of Puerto Rico, that of a commonwealth of the United States.
Streetball or street basketball is a variation of basketball typically played on outdoor courts, featuring significantly less formal structure and enforcement of the game's rules.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).
A sugar beet is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose and which is grown commercially for sugar production.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
The Summer Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'été) or the Games of the Olympiad, first held in 1896, is an international multi-sport event that is hosted by a different city every four years.
Supplemental Security Income (SSI) is a United States government means-tested welfare program that provides cash assistance and health care coverage (i.e., Medicaid) to people with low-income and limited assets who are either aged 65 or older, blind, or disabled (children included).
The Supreme Court of Puerto Rico —Tribunal Supremo de Puerto Rico (TSPR)— is the highest court of Puerto Rico, having judicial authority to interpret and decide questions of Puerto Rican law.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
A Swiss roll, jelly roll, or cream roll is a type of sponge cake roll filled with whipped cream, jam, or icing.
A synagogue, also spelled synagog (pronounced; from Greek συναγωγή,, 'assembly', בית כנסת, 'house of assembly' or, "house of prayer", Yiddish: שול shul, Ladino: אסנוגה or קהל), is a Jewish house of prayer.
The Taíno people are one of the indigenous peoples of the Caribbean.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Tapioca is a starch extracted from cassava root (Manihot esculenta).
Tax exemption is a monetary exemption which reduces taxable income.
Because Puerto Rico is a U.S. territory, only government employees pay federal income tax.
Tectonics is the process that controls the structure and properties of the Earth's crust and its evolution through time.
Telemundo Internacional is a Latin American basic cable and satellite television network that is owned by the NBCUniversal Hispanic Enterprises and Content subsidiary of NBCUniversal.
Telephone numbers in Puerto Rico are assigned under the North American Numbering Plan (NANP).
A television station is a set of equipment managed by a business, organisation or other entity, such as an amateur television (ATV) operator, that transmits video content via radio waves directly from a transmitter on the earth's surface to a receiver on earth.
Tembleque is a coconut dessert pudding from Puerto Rico.
Territories of the United States are sub-national administrative divisions directly overseen by the United States (U.S.) federal government.
The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Influence of Sea Power Upon History: 1660–1783 is a history of naval warfare published in 1890 by Alfred Thayer Mahan.
The Journal of Commerce is a biweekly magazine published in the United States that focuses on global trade topics.
The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a weekly medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
"The Star-Spangled Banner" is the national anthem of the United States.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
The Weather Channel is an American basic cable and satellite television channel, owned by Byron Allen's Entertainment Studios.
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was an American statesman and writer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909.
Theodore "Ted" Roosevelt III (September 13, 1887 – July 12, 1944), known as Theodore Roosevelt Jr.,While it was President Theodore Roosevelt who was legally named Theodore Roosevelt Jr., the President's fame made it simpler to call his son "Junior".
Thespesia grandiflora is a tree in the Malvaceae family of the Rosids order.
Thomas Rivera Schatz (born June 10, 1966) is a Puerto Rican politician, legal advisor, attorney, and former prosecutor.
Tibetan Buddhism is the form of Buddhist doctrine and institutions named after the lands of Tibet, but also found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas and much of Central Asia.
Title 48 of the United States Code outlines the role of United States territories and insular areas in the United States Code.
Ernesto Antonio "Tito" Puente (April 20, 1923 – May 31, 2000) was an American musician, songwriter and record producer.
Tourism in Puerto Rico attracted 3.7 million visitors in 2016 and 3.5 million visitors in 2015, a notable increase from the average of 2010-2014 at 3.1 million.
A trade agreement (also known as trade pact) is a wide ranging taxes, tariff and trade treaty that often includes investment guarantees.
Transportation in Puerto Rico includes a system of roads, highways, freeways, airports, ports and harbors, and railway systems, serving a population of approximately 4 million inhabitants year-round.
The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security that has authority over the security of the traveling public in the United States.
The Treaty of Paris of 1898 (Filipino: Kasunduan sa Paris ng 1898; Spanish: Tratado de París (1898)) was an agreement made in 1898 that involved Spain relinquishing nearly all of the remaining Spanish Empire, especially Cuba, and ceding Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines to the United States.
The Tren Urbano (English: Urban Train) is a fully automated rapid transit system that serves the municipalities of San Juan, Guaynabo and Bayamón in Puerto Rico.
Triage is the process of determining the priority of patients' treatments based on the severity of their condition.
Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests (TSMF), also known as tropical moist forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome, sometimes referred to as jungle.
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.
Tropical rainforests are rainforests that occur in areas of tropical rainforest climate in which there is no dry season – all months have an average precipitation of at least 60 mm – and may also be referred to as lowland equatorial evergreen rainforest.
A tsunami (from 津波, "harbour wave"; English pronunciation) or tidal wave, also known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake.
Tubers are enlarged structures in some plant species used as storage organs for nutrients.
The twenty-foot equivalent unit (often TEU or teu) is an inexact unit of cargo capacity often used to describe the capacity of container ships and container terminals.
The Tydings–McDuffie Act, officially the Philippine Independence Act, is a United States federal law that established the process for the Philippines, then an American colony, to become an independent country after a ten-year transition period.
U.S. News & World Report is an American media company that publishes news, opinion, consumer advice, rankings, and analysis.
A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.
Under United States law, an unincorporated territory is an area controlled by the United States government which is not part of (i.e., "incorporated" in) the United States.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
A United Nations General Assembly Resolution is voted on by all member states of the United Nations in the General Assembly.
The United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories is a list of places that the United Nations General Assembly deems to be "non-self-governing" and subject to the decolonization process.
The United Provinces of New Granada was a country in South America from 1811 to 1816, a period known in Colombian history as the Patria Boba.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is an independent agency of the United States federal government that is primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid and development assistance.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
United States Atlantic Command (acronym from 1947-1993 USLANTCOM, after 1993 USACOM) was a Unified Combatant Command of the United States Department of Defense.
The United States Census Bureau (USCB; officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.
The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is a branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the country's seven uniformed services.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit (in case citations, 11th Cir.) is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
The United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is a Cabinet department in the Executive branch of the United States federal government.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The Department of the Treasury (USDT) is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government.
The United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is a federal Cabinet-level agency that provides near-comprehensive healthcare services to eligible military veterans at VA medical centers and outpatient clinics located throughout the country; several non-healthcare benefits including disability compensation, vocational rehabilitation, education assistance, home loans, and life insurance; and provides burial and memorial benefits to eligible veterans and family members at 135 national cemeteries.
The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system.
The United States District Court for the District of Puerto Rico (in case citations, D.P.R.; Tribunal del Distrito de Puerto Rico) is the federal district court whose jurisdiction comprises the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The U.S. House Committee on Natural Resources or Natural Resources Committee (often referred to as simply Resources) is a Congressional committee of the United States House of Representatives.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
United States Joint Forces Command (USJFCOM) was a Unified Combatant Command of the United States Armed Forces.
The USA Basketball Men's National Team, commonly known as the United States Men's National Basketball Team, is the leading and most successful team in international competition, winning medals in seventeen Olympic tournaments, coming away with fifteen golds.
The United States Merchant Marine refers to either United States civilian mariners, or to U.S. civilian and federally owned merchant vessels.
The United States nationality law is a uniform rule of naturalization of the United States set out in the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, enacted under the power of Article I, section 8, clause 4 of the United States Constitution (also referred to as the Nationality Clause), which reads: Congress shall have Power - "To establish a uniform Rule of Naturalization..." The 1952 Act sets forth the legal requirements for the acquisition of, and divestiture from, American nationality.
United States Northern Command (USNORTHCOM) is a Unified Combatant Command of the U.S. military tasked with providing military support for civil authorities in the U.S., and protecting the territory and national interests of the United States within the contiguous United States, Alaska (not Hawaii), Puerto Rico, Canada, Mexico, The Bahamas, and the air, land and sea approaches to these areas.
The election of President and Vice President of the United States is an indirect election in which citizens of the United States who are registered to vote in one of the 50 U.S. states or in Washington, D.C. cast ballots not directly for those offices, but instead for members of the U.S. Electoral College, known as electors.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
The United States Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources has jurisdiction over matters related to energy and nuclear waste policy, territorial policy, native Hawaiian matters, and public lands.
The United States territorial courts are tribunals established in territories of the United States by the United States Congress, pursuant to its power under Article Four of the United States Constitution, the Territorial Clause.
The United States Virgin Islands (USVI; also called the American Virgin Islands), officially the Virgin Islands of the United States, is a group of islands in the Caribbean that is an insular area of the United States located east of Puerto Rico.
Universidad del Este (UNE) is a private non-profit institution of higher education and a component of the Ana G. Méndez University System of Puerto Rico.
Universidad del Sagrado Corazón (English: University of the Sacred Heart), abbreviated "USC" and often called simply Sagrado, is an educational institution of higher learning located in Santurce, Puerto Rico.
The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in University City section of West Philadelphia.
The University of Puerto Rico (in Spanish, Universidad de Puerto Rico, or UPR) is the main public university system of Puerto Rico and a government-owned corporation of Puerto Rico.
The University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus (Universidad de Puerto Rico, Recinto de Río Piedras), also referred to as UPR-RP and La IUPI, is a public research university.
The University of Turabo (UT) (spanish: Universidad del Turabo), part of the Ana G. Mendez University System (SUAGM), is a professionally oriented institution that offers academic studies from technical certificates to doctorates degrees.
The Utuado uprising, also known as the Utuado revolt or El Grito de Utuado, refers to the revolt against the United States government in Puerto Rico which occurred on October 30, 1950 in various localities in Puerto Rico.
Utuado is a municipality of Puerto Rico located in the central mountainous region of the island known as La Cordillera Central.
American Sign Language (ASL) developed in the United States and Canada, but has spread around the world.
Víctor A. Suárez Meléndez is a Puerto Rican lawyer and politician who was the 24th Secretary of State of Puerto Rico, as well as being the current executive director of the Puerto Rico Convention Center District Authority.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
Vicente Yáñez Pinzón (Palos de la Frontera, Spain, c. 1462 – after 1514) was a Spanish navigator, explorer, and conquistador, the younger of the Pinzón brothers.
The Viceroyalty of Peru (Virreinato del Perú) was a Spanish colonial administrative district, created in 1542, that originally contained most of Spanish-ruled South America, governed from the capital of Lima.
Victorian architecture is a series of architectural revival styles in the mid-to-late 19th century.
Vieques, in full Isla de Vieques, is an island–municipality of Puerto Rico (U.S.) in the northeastern Caribbean, part of an island grouping sometimes known as the Spanish Virgin Islands.
Vito Anthony Marcantonio (December 10, 1902 – August 9, 1954) was an Italian-American lawyer and socialist politician.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net.
In physics and engineering, in particular fluid dynamics and hydrometry, the volumetric flow rate (also known as volume flow rate, rate of fluid flow or volume velocity) is the volume of fluid which passes per unit time; usually represented by the symbol (sometimes). The SI unit is m3/s (cubic metres per second).
WAPA-TV, virtual channel 4 (UHF digital channel 27), is an independent television station licensed to San Juan, Puerto Rico.
The War of Jenkins' Ear (known as Guerra del Asiento in Spain) was a conflict between Britain and Spain lasting from 1739 to 1748, with major operations largely ended by 1742.
The War on Terror, also known as the Global War on Terrorism, is an international military campaign that was launched by the United States government after the September 11 attacks in the United States in 2001.
The Washington Nationals are a professional baseball team based in Washington, D.C. The Nationals compete in Major League Baseball (MLB) as a member club of the National League (NL) East division.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
White people is a racial classification specifier, used mostly for people of European descent; depending on context, nationality, and point of view, the term has at times been expanded to encompass certain persons of North African, Middle Eastern, and South Asian descent, persons who are often considered non-white in other contexts.
White Puerto Ricans are Puerto Ricans whose ancestry is of predominant European or other white descent, most notably from Spain (especially the Canary Islands).
Wilfred Benítez (born September 12, 1958) is a Puerto Rican former professional boxer and the youngest world champion in the sport's history.
Wilfredo Gómez Rivera, El Nuevo Día (2015-04-18).
William Henry Seward (May 16, 1801 – October 10, 1872) was United States Secretary of State from 1861 to 1869, and earlier served as Governor of New York and United States Senator.
The Winter Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'hiver) is a major international sporting event held once every four years for sports practised on snow and ice.
WIPR-TV is a non-commercial educational, full-power public television station located in San Juan, Puerto Rico, transmitting over virtual channel 6, digital 26.
WKAQ-TV, virtual channel 2 (UHF digital channel 28), is a Telemundo owned-and-operated television station licensed to San Juan, Puerto Rico.
WLII-DT, channel 11, is a Univision owned-and-operated television station that is licensed to Caguas, Puerto Rico.
The Workers' Socialist Movement (Spanish: Movimiento Socialista de los Trabajadores, MST) is a Puerto Rican democratic socialist revolutionary organization, formed in 1982 and dedicated to the self-organization and self-emancipation of the working-class in Puerto Rico, as well as international solidarity with the workers struggles worldwide.
The Working People's Party (Partido del Pueblo Trabajador or PPT) is a Puerto Rican political party.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
A high-income economy is defined by the World Bank as a country with a gross national income per capita US$12,236 or more in 2016, calculated using the Atlas method.
The World Baseball Classic (WBC) is an international baseball tournament sanctioned from 2006 to 2013 by the International Baseball Federation (IBAF) and after 2013 by the World Baseball Softball Confederation (WBSC).
The World Economic Forum (WEF) is a Swiss nonprofit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva, Switzerland.
The world economy or global economy is the economy of the world, considered as the international exchange of goods and services that is expressed in monetary units of account (money).
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The World Wrestling Council (WWC) is a professional wrestling promotion based in Puerto Rico.
The World's Best 10K (WB10K) is a road race of 10 kilometers celebrated in San Juan, Puerto Rico every year.
Yale Law School (often referred to as Yale Law or YLS) is the law school of Yale University, located in New Haven, Connecticut, United States.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
Yam is the common name for some plant species in the genus Dioscorea (family Dioscoreaceae) that form edible tubers.
Victor Guillermo "Yomo" Toro (26 July 1933 – 30 June 2012) was a Puerto Rican guitarist and cuatro player.
The Yoruba religion comprises the traditional religious and spiritual concepts and practices of the Yoruba people.
.pr is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Puerto Rico.
The 17th Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico is the current session of the Puerto Rican legislature that began meeting on January 14, 2013 and is expected to meet until to January 1, 2017.
The 1918 San Fermín earthquake, also known as the Puerto Rico earthquake of 1918, struck the island of Puerto Rico at on October 11.
The Okeechobee hurricane, also known as the San Felipe Segundo hurricane, was one of the deadliest hurricanes in the recorded history of the North Atlantic basin.
The 17th Central American and Caribbean Games were held in Ponce, a city in southern Puerto Rico.
The Twenty-second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13.2% over the 248,709,873 people enumerated during the 1990 Census.
The 2004 Summer Olympic Games (Θερινοί Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες 2004), officially known as the Games of the XXVIII Olympiad and commonly known as Athens 2004, was a premier international multi-sport event held in Athens, Greece, from 13 to 29 August 2004 with the motto Welcome Home. 10,625 athletes competed, some 600 more than expected, accompanied by 5,501 team officials from 201 countries.
The 21st Central American and Caribbean Games (Spanish: XXI Juegos Centroamericanos y del Caribe, Mayagüez 2010) took place in Mayagüez, Puerto Rico, from 18 July 2010 to 1 August 2010.
The 2010 United States Census (commonly referred to as the 2010 Census) is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census.
The 2017 Atlantic hurricane season was a hyperactive and catastrophic hurricane season.
The 65th Infantry Regiment, nicknamed "The Borinqueneers" from the original Taíno name of the island (Borinquen), is a Puerto Rican regiment of the United States Army.
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