108 relations: A-law algorithm, Adaptive differential pulse-code modulation, AES3, Alec Reeves, Aliasing, Amplitude, Analog signal, Analog-to-digital converter, Anti-aliasing filter, Au file format, Audio bit depth, Audio Interchange File Format, AVCHD, Bartlane cable picture transmission system, Bell Labs, Bernard M. Oliver, Beta encoder, Bipolar encoding, Blu-ray, Claude Shannon, Codec, Commutator (electric), Compact disc, Compact Disc Digital Audio, Companding, Data compression, Data stream, DATAR, Delta modulation, Differential pulse-code modulation, Digital audio, Digital data, Digital filter, Digital signal, Digital Signal 0, Digital signal processor, Digital-to-analog converter, Direct current, Douglas Whalen, DV, DVD, Dynamic range compression, Electric current, Equivalent pulse code modulation noise, Fax, Ferranti-Packard, Floating point, Frame synchronization, Franklin S. Cooper, G.711, ..., G.726, Gray code, Haskins Laboratories, HDMI, Hertz, Human voice, IEEE Communications Magazine, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Integrated circuit, ITT Corporation, Μ-law algorithm, John R. Pierce, Library of Congress, Moses G. Farmer, Multiplexing, National Inventors Hall of Fame, Nibble, Non-return-to-zero, Nyquist frequency, Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem, Oscilloscope, Philip Rubin, Plate electrode, Polynomial, Pseudorandomness, Pulse-amplitude modulation, Pulse-code modulation, Pulse-density modulation, Pulse-position modulation, Pulse-width modulation, Quantization (signal processing), Raw audio format, Raw data, Return-to-zero, RF64, Run-length limited, S/PDIF, Sampling (signal processing), Scrambler, Signal compression, Signal-to-noise ratio, Signal-to-quantization-noise ratio, SIGSALY, Sine wave, Speech, Super Audio CD, Telecommunications Research Establishment, Telegraphy, Telephony, Time-division multiplexing, Uniform distribution (continuous), VOB, Voice over IP, Voltage, WAV, World War II, .m2ts, 4ESS switch. Expand index (58 more) » « Shrink index
An A-law algorithm is a standard companding algorithm, used in European 8-bit PCM digital communications systems to optimize, i.e., modify, the dynamic range of an analog signal for digitizing.
Adaptive differential pulse-code modulation (ADPCM) is a variant of differential pulse-code modulation (DPCM) that varies the size of the quantization step, to allow further reduction of the required bandwidth for a given signal-to-noise ratio.
AES3 (also known as AES/EBU) is a standard for the exchange of digital audio signals between professional audio devices.
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Alec Harley Reeves (10 March 1902 - 13 October 1971) was a British scientist best known for his invention of pulse-code modulation (PCM).
In signal processing and related disciplines, aliasing is an effect that causes different signals to become indistinguishable (or aliases of one another) when sampled.
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The amplitude of a periodic variable is a measure of its change over a single period (such as time or spatial period).
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An analog or analogue signal is any continuous signal for which the time varying feature (variable) of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity, i.e., analogous to another time varying signal.
An analog-to-digital converter (ADC, A/D, or A to D) is a device that converts a continuous physical quantity (usually voltage) to a digital number that represents the quantity's amplitude.
An anti-aliasing filter (AAF) is a filter used before a signal sampler to restrict the bandwidth of a signal to approximately or completely satisfy the sampling theorem over the band of interest.
The Au file format is a simple audio file format introduced by Sun Microsystems.
In digital audio using pulse-code modulation (PCM), bit depth is the number of bits of information in each sample, and it directly corresponds to the resolution of each sample.
Audio Interchange File Format (AIFF) is an audio file format standard used for storing sound data for personal computers and other electronic audio devices.
AVCHD (Advanced Video Coding High Definition) is a file-based format for the digital recording and playback of high-definition video.
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Bartlane cable picture transmission system was a technique invented in 1920 to transmit digitized newspaper images over submarine cable lines between London and New York.
Bell Laboratories (also known as Bell Labs and formerly known as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) is a research and scientific development company that belongs to Alcatel-Lucent.
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Bernard M. Oliver (1916–1995), also known as Barney Oliver, was a scientist who made contributions in many fields, including radar, television, and computers.
A beta encoder is an analog to digital conversion (A/D) system in which a real number in the unit interval is represented by a finite representation of a sequence in base beta, with beta being a real number between 1 and 2.
In telecommunication, bipolar encoding is a type of line code, where two nonzero values are used, so that the three values are +,-, and zero.
Blu-ray or Blu-ray Disc (BD, BRD) is a digital optical disc data storage format.
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Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001) was an American mathematician, electronic engineer, and cryptographer known as "the father of information theory".
A codec is a device or computer program capable of encoding or decoding a digital data stream or signal.
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A commutator is the moving part of a rotary electrical switch in certain types of electric motors and electrical generators that periodically reverses the current direction between the rotor and the external circuit.
Compact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format.
Compact Disc Digital Audio (CDDA or CD-DA) is the standard format for audio compact discs.
In telecommunication and signal processing companding (occasionally called compansion) is a method of mitigating the detrimental effects of a channel with limited dynamic range.
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In digital signal processing, data compression, source coding, or bit-rate reduction involves encoding information using fewer bits than the original representation.
In Connection-oriented communication, a data stream is a sequence of digitally encoded coherent signals (packets of data or data packets) used to transmit or receive information that is in the process of being transmitted.
DATAR, short for Digital Automated Tracking and Resolving, was a pioneering computerized battlefield information system.
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A Delta modulation (DM or Δ-modulation) is an analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog signal conversion technique used for transmission of voice information where quality is not of primary importance.
Differential pulse-code modulation (DPCM) is a signal encoder that uses the baseline of pulse-code modulation (PCM) but adds some functionalities based on the prediction of the samples of the signal.
Digital audio is technology that can be used to record, store, generate, manipulate, and reproduce sound using audio signals encoded in digital form.
Digital data, in information theory and information systems, are discrete, discontinuous representations of information or works, as contrasted with continuous, or analog signals which behave in a continuous manner, or represent information using a continuous function.
In signal processing, a digital filter is a system that performs mathematical operations on a sampled, discrete-time signal to reduce or enhance certain aspects of that signal.
A digital signal is a type of signal that can take on a set of discrete values (a quantized signal).
Digital Signal 0 (DS0) is a basic digital signaling rate of 64 kilobits per second (kbit/s), corresponding to the capacity of one analog voice-frequency-equivalent channel.
A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor (or a SIP block), with its architecture optimized for the operational needs of digital signal processing.
In electronics, a digital-to-analog converter (DAC, D/A, D2A or D-to-A) is a function that converts digital data (usually binary) into an analog signal (current, voltage, or electric charge).
Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge.
Douglas H. Whalen is an American linguist.
DV is a format for storing digital video.
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DVD ("digital versatile disc" or "digital video disc") is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed by Philips, Sony, Toshiba, and Panasonic in 1995.
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Dynamic range compression (DRC) or simply compression reduces the volume of loud sounds or amplifies quiet sounds by narrowing or "compressing" an audio signal's dynamic range.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
In telecommunication, equivalent pulse code modulation noise (PCM) is the amount of thermal noise power on a frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) or wire channel necessary to approximate the same judgment of speech quality created by quantizing noise in a PCM channel.
Fax (short for facsimile), sometimes called telecopying or telefax, is the telephonic transmission of scanned printed material (both text and images), normally to a telephone number connected to a printer or other output device.
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Ferranti-Packard Ltd. was the Canadian division of Ferranti's global manufacturing empire, formed by the 1958 merger of Ferranti Electric and Packard Electric.
In computing, floating point is the formulaic representation which approximates a real number so as to support a trade-off between range and precision.
In telecommunication, frame synchronization or framing is the process by which, while receiving a stream of framed data, incoming frame alignment signals (i.e., a distinctive bit sequences or syncwords) are identified (that is, distinguished from data bits), permitting the data bits within the frame to be extracted for decoding or retransmission.
Franklin Seaney Cooper (Apr. 29, 1908 - Feb. 20, 1999) was an American physicist and inventor who was a pioneer in speech research.
G.711 is an ITU-T standard for audio companding.
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G.726 is an ITU-T ADPCM speech codec standard covering the transmission of voice at rates of 16, 24, 32, and 40 kbit/s.
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The reflected binary code, also known as Gray code after Frank Gray, is a binary numeral system where two successive values differ in only one bit (binary digit).
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Haskins Laboratories is a private, independent, international, 501(c) non-profit corporation.
HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia Interface) is a proprietary audio/video interface for transferring uncompressed video data and compressed or uncompressed digital audio data from an HDMI-compliant source device, such as a display controller, to a compatible computer monitor, video projector, digital television, or digital audio device.
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The hertz (symbol Hz) is the unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.
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The voice consists of sound made by a human being using the vocal folds for talking, singing, laughing, crying, screaming etc.
The IEEE Communications Magazine is a monthly magazine published by the IEEE Communications Society dealing with all areas of communications including light-wave telecommunications, high-speed data communications, personal communications systems (PCS), ISDN, and more.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small plate ("chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
ITT Corporation (ITT) is a global manufacturing company based in the United States, producing specialty components for the aerospace, transportation, energy and industrial markets.
The µ-law algorithm (sometimes written "mu-law", often approximated as "u-law") is a companding algorithm, primarily used in 8-bit PCM digital telecommunication systems in North America and Japan.
John Robinson Pierce (March 27, 1910 – April 2, 2002), was an American engineer and author.
The Library of Congress is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress, but which is the de facto national library of the United States.
Moses Gerrish Farmer (February 9, 1820 – May 25, 1893) was an electrical engineer and inventor.
In telecommunications and computer networks, multiplexing (sometimes contracted to muxing) is a method by which multiple analog message signals or digital data streams are combined into one signal over a shared medium.
The National Inventors Hall of Fame (NIHF) is an American not-for-profit organization dedicated to the inventors and their inventions.
In computing, a nibble (often nybble or even nyble to match the vowels of byte) is a four-bit aggregation, or half an octet.
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In telecommunication, a non-return-to-zero (NRZ) line code is a binary code in which ones are represented by one significant condition, usually a positive voltage, while zeros are represented by some other significant condition, usually a negative voltage, with no other neutral or rest condition.
The Nyquist frequency, named after electronic engineer Harry Nyquist, is half of the sampling rate of a discrete signal processing system.
In the field of digital signal processing, the sampling theorem is a fundamental bridge between continuous-time signals (often called "analog signals") and discrete-time signals (often called "digital signals").
An oscilloscope, previously called an oscillograph, and informally known as a scope, CRO (for cathode-ray oscilloscope), or DSO (for the more modern digital storage oscilloscope), is a type of electronic test instrument that allows observation of constantly varying signal voltages, usually as a two-dimensional plot of one or more signals as a function of time.
Philip E. Rubin (born May 22, 1949, in Newark, New Jersey) is an American cognitive scientist, technologist, and science administrator.
In electronics, a plate, usually called anode in Britain, is a type of electrode that forms part of a vacuum tube.
In mathematics, a polynomial is an expression consisting of variables (or indeterminates) and coefficients, that involves only the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and non-negative integer exponents.
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A pseudorandom process is a process that appears to be random but is not.
Pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM), is a form of signal modulation where the message information is encoded in the amplitude of a series of signal pulses.
Pulse-code modulation (PCM) is a method used to digitally represent sampled analog signals.
Pulse-density modulation, or PDM, is a form of modulation used to represent an analog signal with digital data.
Pulse-position modulation (PPM) is a form of signal modulation in which M message bits are encoded by transmitting a single pulse in one of 2^M possible required time-shifts.
Pulse-width modulation (PWM), or pulse-duration modulation (PDM), is a modulation technique used to encode a message into a pulsing signal.
Quantization, in mathematics and digital signal processing, is the process of mapping a large set of input values to a (countable) smaller set.
RAW Audio format or just RAW Audio is a computer format for storing uncompressed audio in raw form.
Raw data (also known as primary data) is a term for data collected from a source.
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Return-to-zero (RZ or RTZ) describes a line code used in telecommunications signals in which the signal drops (returns) to zero between each pulse.
RF64 is a BWF-compatible multichannel file format enabling file sizes to exceed 4 GB.
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Run length limited or RLL coding is a line coding technique that is used to send arbitrary data over a communications channel with bandwidth limits.
S/PDIF (Sony/Philips Digital Interface Format) is a type of digital audio interconnect used in consumer audio equipment to output audio over reasonably short distances.
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In signal processing, sampling is the reduction of a continuous signal to a discrete signal.
In telecommunications, a scrambler is a device that transposes or inverts signals or otherwise encodes a message at the transmitter to make the message unintelligible at a receiver not equipped with an appropriately set descrambling device.
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Signal compression is the use of various techniques to reduce the amount of data that must be transmitted from one point to another in order to convey information.
Signal-to-noise ratio (abbreviated SNR) is a measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise.
Signal-to-Quantization-Noise Ratio (SQNR or SNqR) is widely used quality measure in analysing digitizing schemes such as PCM (pulse code modulation) and multimedia codecs.
In cryptography, SIGSALY (also known as the X System, Project X, Ciphony I, and the Green Hornet) was a secure speech system used in World War II for the highest-level Allied communications.
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The sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical curve that describes a smooth repetitive oscillation.
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Speech is the vocalized form of human communication.
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Super Audio CD (SACD) is a read-only optical disc for audio storage, introduced in 1999.
The Telecommunications Research Establishment (TRE) was the main United Kingdom research and development organization for radio navigation, radar, infra-red detection for heat seeking missiles, and related work for the Royal Air Force (RAF) during World War II and the years that followed.
Telegraphy (from Greek: τῆλε tele, "at a distance" and γράφειν graphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual/symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message.
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Telephony is the field of technology involving the development, application, and deployment of telecommunication services for the purpose of electronic transmission of voice, fax, or data, between distant parties.
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Time-division multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
In probability theory and statistics, the continuous uniform distribution or rectangular distribution is a family of symmetric probability distributions such that for each member of the family, all intervals of the same length on the distribution's support are equally probable.
VOB (Video Object) is the container format in DVD-Video media.
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Voice over IP (VoIP) is a methodology and group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet.
Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (denoted or) is the difference in electric potential energy between two points per unit electric charge.
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Waveform Audio File Format (WAVE, or more commonly known as WAV due to its filename extension) (rarely, Audio for Windows) is a Microsoft and IBM audio file format standard for storing an audio bitstream on PCs.
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World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.
M2TS is a filename extension used for the Blu-ray Disc Audio-Video (BDAV) MPEG-2 Transport Stream (M2TS) container file format.
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The 4ESS switch is a Class 4 telephone electronic switching system that was the first digital electronic toll switch introduced by Western Electric for long-distance switching.
Adapted Differential Pulse Code Modulation, Adaptive Differential PCM, LPCM, Linear PCM, Linear Pulse Code Modulation, Linear pcm, Linear pulse code modulation, Linear pulse-code modulation, Lpcm, PCM, PCM audio, PCM synthesis, Pcm, Pulse Code Modulation, Pulse code modulation, Pulse-code modulated.