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Pulse-width modulation

Index Pulse-width modulation

Pulse-width modulation (PWM), or pulse-duration modulation (PDM), is a modulation technique used to encode a message into a pulsing signal. [1]

70 relations: Acoustics, Aliasing, Analog signal to discrete time interval converter, Autotransformer, Average, Buck converter, Capacitor, Carrier wave, Class-D amplifier, Clock signal, Communications system, Comparator, Counter (digital), Delta-sigma modulation, Direct current, Direct Stream Digital, Duty cycle, Electric current, Electrical load, Electronic filter, Electronic oscillator, Field-effect transistor, Flicker fusion threshold, Frequency, Harmonic, Hertz, Inductor, Inertial frame of reference, Infinite switch, Insulated-gate bipolar transistor, Loudspeaker, Low-frequency oscillation, Magnetic resonance imaging, Maximum power point tracking, Message, Microcontroller, Modulation, MOSFET, PC speaker, Photovoltaics, Potentiometer, Pulse (signal processing), Pulse wave, Pulse-amplitude modulation, Pulse-code modulation, Pulse-density modulation, Pulse-position modulation, Radio control, Robotics, Sawtooth wave, ..., Servo control, Servomechanism, Servomotor, Sewing machine, Signal edge, Signaling (telecommunications), Sinc function, Sinclair Radionics, Sliding mode control, Space vector modulation, Spectrum, Subtractive synthesis, Super Audio CD, Telecommunication, TRIAC, Triangle wave, Video game music, Volt, Voltage regulator, Ward Leonard control. Expand index (20 more) »

Acoustics

Acoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound.

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Aliasing

In signal processing and related disciplines, aliasing is an effect that causes different signals to become indistinguishable (or aliases of one another) when sampled.

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Analog signal to discrete time interval converter

An analog signal to discrete time interval converter (ASDTIC) is a specialized kind of an analog-to-digital converter, which converts the analog input signal (e.g. voltage or current) to time intervals between pulses.

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Autotransformer

An Auto-transformer (sometimes called auto-step down transformer) is an electrical transformer with only one winding.

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Average

In colloquial language, an average is a middle or typical number of a list of numbers.

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Buck converter

A buck converter (step-down converter) is a DC-to-DC power converter which steps down voltage (while stepping up current) from its input (supply) to its output (load).

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Capacitor

A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores potential energy in an electric field.

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Carrier wave

In telecommunications, a carrier wave, carrier signal, or just carrier, is a waveform (usually sinusoidal) that is modulated (modified) with an input signal for the purpose of conveying information.

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Class-D amplifier

A class-D amplifier or switching amplifier is an electronic amplifier in which the amplifying devices (transistors, usually MOSFETs) operate as electronic switches, and not as linear gain devices as in other amplifiers.

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Clock signal

In electronics and especially synchronous digital circuits, a clock signal is a particular type of signal that oscillates between a high and a low state and is used like a metronome to coordinate actions of digital circuits.

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Communications system

In telecommunication, a communications system is a collection of individual communications networks, transmission systems, relay stations, tributary stations, and data terminal equipment (DTE) usually capable of interconnection and interoperation to form an integrated whole.

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Comparator

In electronics, a comparator is a device that compares two voltages or currents and outputs a digital signal indicating which is larger.

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Counter (digital)

In digital logic and computing, a counter is a device which stores (and sometimes displays) the number of times a particular event or process has occurred, often in relationship to a clock signal.

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Delta-sigma modulation

Delta-sigma (ΔΣ; or sigma-delta, ΣΔ) modulation is a method for encoding analog signals into digital signals as found in an analog-to-digital converter (ADC).

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Direct current

Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge.

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Direct Stream Digital

DSD Records (DSD) is a trademark used by Sony and Philips for their system of digitally recreating audible signals for the Super Audio CD (SACD).

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Duty cycle

A duty cycle is the fraction of one period in which a signal or system is active.

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Electric current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge.

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Electrical load

An electrical load is an electrical component or portion of a circuit that consumes (active) electric power.

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Electronic filter

Electronic filters are circuits which perform signal processing functions, specifically to remove unwanted frequency components from the signal, to enhance wanted ones, or both.

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Electronic oscillator

An electronic oscillator is an electronic circuit that produces a periodic, oscillating electronic signal, often a sine wave or a square wave.

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Field-effect transistor

The field-effect transistor (FET) is a transistor that uses an electric field to control the electrical behaviour of the device.

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Flicker fusion threshold

The flicker fusion threshold (or flicker fusion rate) is a concept in the psychophysics of vision.

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Frequency

Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.

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Harmonic

A harmonic is any member of the harmonic series, a divergent infinite series.

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Hertz

The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.

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Inductor

An inductor, also called a coil, choke or reactor, is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores energy in a magnetic field when electric current flows through it.

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Inertial frame of reference

An inertial frame of reference in classical physics and special relativity is a frame of reference in which a body with zero net force acting upon it is not accelerating; that is, such a body is at rest or it is moving at a constant speed in a straight line.

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Infinite switch

An infinite switch, simmerstat, energy regulator or infinite controller is a type of switch that allows variable power output of a heating element of an electric stove.

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Insulated-gate bipolar transistor

An insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) is a three-terminal power semiconductor device primarily used as an electronic switch which, as it was developed, came to combine high efficiency and fast switching.

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Loudspeaker

A loudspeaker (or loud-speaker or speaker) is an electroacoustic transducer; which converts an electrical audio signal into a corresponding sound.

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Low-frequency oscillation

Low-frequency oscillation (LFO) is an electronic signal which is usually below 20 Hz and creates a rhythmic pulse or sweep.

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Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.

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Maximum power point tracking

Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) or sometimes just power point tracking (PPT)) is a technique used commonly with wind turbines and photovoltaic (PV) solar systems to maximize power extraction under all conditions. Although solar power is mainly covered, the principle applies generally to sources with variable power: for example, optical power transmission and thermophotovoltaics. PV solar systems exist in many different configurations with regard to their relationship to inverter systems, external grids, battery banks, or other electrical loads. Regardless of the ultimate destination of the solar power, though, the central problem addressed by MPPT is that the efficiency of power transfer from the solar cell depends on both the amount of sunlight falling on the solar panels and the electrical characteristics of the load. As the amount of sunlight varies, the load characteristic that gives the highest power transfer efficiency changes, so that the efficiency of the system is optimized when the load characteristic changes to keep the power transfer at highest efficiency. This load characteristic is called the maximum power point (MPP) and MPPT is the process of finding this point and keeping the load characteristic there. Electrical circuits can be designed to present arbitrary loads to the photovoltaic cells and then convert the voltage, current, or frequency to suit other devices or systems, and MPPT solves the problem of choosing the best load to be presented to the cells in order to get the most usable power out. Solar cells have a complex relationship between temperature and total resistance that produces a non-linear output efficiency which can be analyzed based on the I-V curve. It is the purpose of the MPPT system to sample the output of the PV cells and apply the proper resistance (load) to obtain maximum power for any given environmental conditions. MPPT devices are typically integrated into an electric power converter system that provides voltage or current conversion, filtering, and regulation for driving various loads, including power grids, batteries, or motors.

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Message

A message is a discrete unit of communication intended by the source for consumption by some recipient or group of recipients.

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Microcontroller

A microcontroller (MCU for microcontroller unit, or UC for μ-controller) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit.

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Modulation

In electronics and telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal that typically contains information to be transmitted.

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MOSFET

MOSFET showing gate (G), body (B), source (S) and drain (D) terminals. The gate is separated from the body by an insulating layer (white). surface-mount packages. Operating as switches, each of these components can sustain a blocking voltage of 120nbspvolts in the ''off'' state, and can conduct a continuous current of 30 amperes in the ''on'' state, dissipating up to about 100 watts and controlling a load of over 2000 watts. A matchstick is pictured for scale. A cross-section through an nMOSFET when the gate voltage ''V''GS is below the threshold for making a conductive channel; there is little or no conduction between the terminals drain and source; the switch is off. When the gate is more positive, it attracts electrons, inducing an ''n''-type conductive channel in the substrate below the oxide, which allows electrons to flow between the ''n''-doped terminals; the switch is on. Simulation result for formation of inversion channel (electron density) and attainment of threshold voltage (IV) in a nanowire MOSFET. Note that the threshold voltage for this device lies around 0.45 V The metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET) is a type of field-effect transistor (FET), most commonly fabricated by the controlled oxidation of silicon.

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PC speaker

A PC speaker is a loudspeaker built into most IBM PC compatible computers.

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Photovoltaics

Photovoltaics (PV) is a term which covers the conversion of light into electricity using semiconducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic effect, a phenomenon studied in physics, photochemistry, and electrochemistry.

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Potentiometer

A potentiometer is a three-terminal resistor with a sliding or rotating contact that forms an adjustable voltage divider.

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Pulse (signal processing)

A pulse in signal processing is a rapid, transient change in the amplitude of a signal from a baseline value to a higher or lower value, followed by a rapid return to the baseline value.

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Pulse wave

A pulse wave or pulse train is a kind of non-sinusoidal waveform that includes square waves (duty cycle of 50%) and similarly periodic but asymmetrical waves (duty cycles other than 50%).

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Pulse-amplitude modulation

Pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM), is a form of signal modulation where the message information is encoded in the amplitude of a series of signal pulse.

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Pulse-code modulation

Pulse-code modulation (PCM) is a method used to digitally represent sampled analog signals.

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Pulse-density modulation

Pulse-density modulation, or PDM, is a form of modulation used to represent an analog signal with a binary signal.

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Pulse-position modulation

Pulse-position modulation (PPM) is a form of signal modulation in which M message bits are encoded by transmitting a single pulse in one of 2^M possible required time shifts.

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Radio control

Radio control (often abbreviated to R/C or simply RC) is the use of radio signals to remotely control a device.

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Robotics

Robotics is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and science that includes mechanical engineering, electronics engineering, computer science, and others.

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Sawtooth wave

The sawtooth wave (or saw wave) is a kind of non-sinusoidal waveform.

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Servo control

Servo control is achieved by sending a servo a PWM (pulse-width modulation) signal, a series of repeating pulses of variable width where either the width of the pulse (most common modern hobby servos) or the duty cycle of a pulse train (less common today) determines the position to be achieved by the servo.

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Servomechanism

In control engineering a servomechanism, sometimes shortened to servo, is an automatic device that uses error-sensing negative feedback to correct the action of a mechanism.

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Servomotor

A servomotor is a rotary actuator or linear actuator that allows for precise control of angular or linear position, velocity and acceleration.

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Sewing machine

A sewing machine is a machine used to stitch fabric and other materials together with thread.

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Signal edge

In electronics, a signal edge is a transition in a digital signal either from low to high (0 to 1) or from high to low (1 to 0).

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Signaling (telecommunications)

In telecommunication, signaling has the following meanings.

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Sinc function

In mathematics, physics and engineering, the cardinal sine function or sinc function, denoted by, has two slightly different definitions.

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Sinclair Radionics

Sinclair Radionics Ltd was a company founded by Sir Clive Sinclair in Cambridge, England which developed hi-fi products, radios, calculators and scientific instruments.

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Sliding mode control

In control systems, sliding mode control, or SMC, is a nonlinear control method that alters the dynamics of a nonlinear system by application of a discontinuous control signal (or more rigorously, a set-valued control signal) that forces the system to "slide" along a cross-section of the system's normal behavior.

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Space vector modulation

Space vector modulation (SVM) is an algorithm for the control of pulse width modulation (PWM).

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Spectrum

A spectrum (plural spectra or spectrums) is a condition that is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary, without steps, across a continuum.

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Subtractive synthesis

Subtractive synthesis is a method of sound synthesis in which partials of an audio signal (often one rich in harmonics) are attenuated by a filter to alter the timbre of the sound.

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Super Audio CD

Super Audio CD (SACD) is a read-only optical disc for audio storage, introduced in 1999.

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Telecommunication

Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.

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TRIAC

TRIAC, from triode for alternating current, is a generic trademark for a three terminal electronic component that conducts current in either direction when triggered.

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Triangle wave

A triangle wave is a non-sinusoidal waveform named for its triangular shape.

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Video game music

Video game music is the soundtrack that accompanies video games.

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Volt

The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.

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Voltage regulator

A voltage regulator is an electronic circuit that provides a stable DC voltage independent of the load current, temperature and AC line voltage variations.

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Ward Leonard control

Ward Leonard control, also known as the Ward Leonard drive system, was a widely used DC motor speed control system introduced by Harry Ward Leonard in 1891.

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Redirects here:

PWMIC, Pulse duration modulation, Pulse width, Pulse width modulation, Pulse width modulator, Pulse-duration modulation, Pulse-width modulation integrated circuit, Pulse-width modulator, Pulsewidth modulation, Time proportioning.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulse-width_modulation

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