64 relations: Acid-free paper, Alexander Bain (inventor), American National Standards Institute, ASCII, AT&T Corporation, Basile Bouchon, Baudot code, Bit bucket, Bit numbering, Book music, BoPET, Byte, Casting (metalworking), Chad (paper), Character encoding, Charles Wheatstone, Colossus computer, Computer-aided manufacturing, Data storage, Electronic Key Management System, Enigma machine, EPROM, Fieldata, Fill device, Friden Flexowriter, Friden, Inc., Gilbert Vernam, Harvard Mark I, ILLIAC, Intel HEX, Jacquard loom, Joseph Marie Jacquard, Key (cryptography), Keypunch, KOI-18, Legacy system, Linotype machine, Machine shop, Magnetic tape, Minicomputer, Monotype System, Monument to the Conquerors of Space, Music roll, National Security Agency, NCR Corporation, Numerical control, Piano roll, Player piano, Punched card, Punched tape, ..., Read-only memory, Regnecentralen, Sprocket, Store and forward, Tamper resistance, Telegraphy, Teleprinter, Teletype Corporation, Teletype Model 33, Tolbert Lanston, Wheatstone system, Whitespace character, Wire wrap, Zygalski sheets. Expand index (14 more) » « Shrink index
Acid-free paper is paper that if infused in water yields a neutral or basic pH (7 or slightly greater).
Alexander Bain (12 October 1811 – 2 January 1877) was a Scottish inventor and engineer who was first to invent and patent the electric clock.
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
AT&T Corp., originally the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, is the subsidiary of AT&T that provides voice, video, data, and Internet telecommunications and professional services to businesses, consumers, and government agencies.
Basile Bouchon was a textile worker in the silk center in Lyon who invented a way to control a loom with a perforated paper tape in 1725.
The Baudot code, invented by Émile Baudot, is a character set predating EBCDIC and ASCII.
In computing jargon, the bit bucket is where lost computerized data has gone, by any means; any data which does not end up where it is supposed to, being lost in transmission, a computer crash, or the like, is said to have gone to the bit bucket — that mysterious place on a computer where lost data goes, as in.
In computing, bit numbering (or sometimes bit endianness) is the convention used to identify the bit positions in a binary number or a container for such a value.
Book music is a medium for storing the music played on mechanical organs, mainly of European manufacture.
BoPET (biaxially-oriented polyethylene terephthalate) is a polyester film made from stretched polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and is used for its high tensile strength, chemical and dimensional stability, transparency, reflectivity, gas and aroma barrier properties, and electrical insulation.
The byte is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bits, representing a binary number.
In metalworking and jewellery making, casting is a process in which a liquid metal is somehow delivered into a mold (it is usually delivered by a crucible) that contains a hollow shape (i.e., a 3-dimensional negative image) of the intended shape.
Chad refers to fragments sometimes created when holes are made in a paper, card or similar synthetic materials, such as computer punched tape or punched cards.
Character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system.
Sir Charles Wheatstone FRS (6 February 1802 – 19 October 1875), was an English scientist and inventor of many scientific breakthroughs of the Victorian era, including the English concertina, the stereoscope (a device for displaying three-dimensional images), and the Playfair cipher (an encryption technique).
Colossus was a set of computers developed by British codebreakers in the years 1943–1945 to help in the cryptanalysis of the Lorenz cipher.
Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) is the use of software to control machine tools and related ones in the manufacturing of workpieces.
Data storage is the recording (storing) of information (data) in a storage medium.
The Electronic Key Management System (EKMS) system is a United States National Security Agency led program responsible for Communications Security (COMSEC) key management, accounting, and distribution.
The Enigma machines were a series of electro-mechanical rotor cipher machines developed and used in the early- to mid-20th century to protect commercial, diplomatic and military communication.
An EPROM (rarely EROM), or erasable programmable read-only memory, is a type of memory chip that retains its data when its power supply is switched off.
FIELDATA (also written as Fieldata) was a pioneering computer project run by the US Army Signal Corps in the late 1950s that intended to create a single standard (as defined in MIL-STD-188A/B/C) for collecting and distributing battlefield information.
A fill device or key loader is a module used to load cryptographic keys into electronic encryption machines.
The Friden Flexowriter was a teleprinter, a heavy-duty electric typewriter capable of being driven not only by a human typing, but also automatically by several methods, including direct attachment to a computer and by use of paper tape.
Friden Calculating Machine Company (Friden, Inc.) was an American manufacturer of typewriters and mechanical, later electronic calculators.
Gilbert Sandford Vernam (3 April 1890 – 7 February 1960) was a Worcester Polytechnic Institute 1914 graduate and AT&T Bell Labs engineer who, in 1917, invented an additive polyalphabetic stream cipher and later co-invented an automated one-time pad cipher.
The IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC), called Mark I by Harvard University’s staff, was a general purpose electromechanical computer that was used in the war effort during the last part of World War II.
ILLIAC (Illinois Automatic Computer) was a series of supercomputers built at a variety of locations, some at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Intel HEX is a file format that conveys binary information in ASCII text form.
The Jacquard machine is a device fitted to a power loom that simplifies the process of manufacturing textiles with such complex patterns as brocade, damask and matelassé.
Joseph Marie Charles dit (called or nicknamed) Jacquard (7 July 1752 – 7 August 1834), was a French weaver and merchant.
In cryptography, a key is a piece of information (a parameter) that determines the functional output of a cryptographic algorithm.
A keypunch is a device for precisely punching holes into stiff paper cards at specific locations as determined by keys struck by a human operator.
The KOI-18 is a hand-held paper tape reader developed by the U.S. National Security Agency as a fill device for loading cryptographic keys, or "crypto variables," into security devices, such as encryption systems.
In computing, a legacy system is an old method, technology, computer system, or application program, "of, relating to, or being a previous or outdated computer system." Often a pejorative term, referencing a system as "legacy" means that it paved the way for the standards that would follow it.
The Linotype machine is a "line casting" machine used in printing sold by the Mergenthaler Linotype Company and related companies.
A machine shop is a room, building, or company where machining is done.
Magnetic tape is a medium for magnetic recording, made of a thin, magnetizable coating on a long, narrow strip of plastic film.
A minicomputer, or colloquially mini, is a class of smaller computers that was developed in the mid-1960s and sold for much less than mainframe and mid-size computers from IBM and its direct competitors.
The Monotype system is system for printing by hot-metal typesetting from a keyboard.
The Monument to the Conquerors of Space (p) was erected in Moscow in 1964 to celebrate achievements of the Soviet people in space exploration.
A music roll is a storage medium used to operate a mechanical musical instrument.
The National Security Agency (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence.
The NCR Corporation (originally National Cash Register) is a company that makes self-service kiosks, point-of-sale terminals, automated teller machines, check processing systems, barcode scanners, and business consumables.
Computer numerical control (CNC) is the automation of machine tools by means of computers executing pre-programmed sequences of machine control commands.
A piano roll is a music storage medium used to operate a player piano, piano player or reproducing piano.
A player piano (also known as pianola) is a self-playing piano, containing a pneumatic or electro-mechanical mechanism that operates the piano action via pre-programmed music recorded on perforated paper, or in rare instances, metallic rolls, with more modern implementations using MIDI.
A punched card or punch card is a piece of stiff paper that can be used to contain digital data represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions.
Punched tape or perforated paper tape is a form of data storage, consisting of a long strip of paper in which holes are punched to store data.
Read-only memory (ROM) is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices.
Regnecentralen, or RC for short, was the first Danish computer company, founded on October 12, 1955.
A sprocket or sprocket-wheel is a profiled wheel with teeth, or cogs, that mesh with a chain, track or other perforated or indented material.
Store and forward is a telecommunications technique in which information is sent to an intermediate station where it is kept and sent at a later time to the final destination or to another intermediate station.
Tamper resistance is resistance to tampering (intentional malfunction or sabotage) by either the normal users of a product, package, or system or others with physical access to it.
Telegraphy (from Greek: τῆλε têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message.
A teleprinter (teletypewriter, Teletype or TTY) is an electromechanical typewriter that can be used to send and receive typed messages through various communications channels, in both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint configurations.
The Teletype Corporation, a part of American Telephone and Telegraph Company's Western Electric manufacturing arm since 1930, came into being in 1928 when the Morkrum-Kleinschmidt Company changed its name to the name of its trademark equipment.
The Teletype Model 33 is an electromechanical teleprinter designed for light-duty office.
Tolbert Lanston (3 February 1844, Troy, Ohio – 18 February 1913) was the American founder of Monotype, inventing a mechanical typesetting system patented in 1887 and the first hot metal typesetter a few years later.
The Wheatstone system was an automated telegraph system that replaced a human operator with machines capable of sending and recording Morse code at a consistent fast rate.
In computer programming, white space is any character or series of characters that represent horizontal or vertical space in typography.
Wire wrap was invented to wire telephone crossbar switches, and later adapted to construct electronic circuit boards.
The method of Zygalski sheets was a cryptologic technique used by the Polish Cipher Bureau before and during World War II, and during the war also by British cryptologists at Bletchley Park, to decrypt messages enciphered on German Enigma machines.