138 relations: Aelius Donatus, Aldus Manutius, Alphabet, Ancient Rome, Anglo-Saxons, Apostrophe, Arabic, Aristophanes, Aristophanes of Byzantium, Armenian language, ASCII, At sign, Author, Bible, British Raj, Canada, Capitalization, Carolingian dynasty, Charles I of England, Chinese language, Chinese punctuation, Cicero, Clause, Colon (punctuation), Comma, Copy editing, Copyist, Coronis (textual symbol), Danda, Demosthenes, Desktop publishing, Devanagari, Diple (textual symbol), Drama, Eats, Shoots & Leaves, Electrical telegraph, Email, Emoji, England, Euripides, First language, France, Francia, Francis George Fowler, French language, Full stop, Gamma, General Punctuation, Georgian language, Greek language, ..., Greeks, Guillemet, Harvard University, Hebrew language, Hebrew punctuation, Hervé Bazin, History of sentence spacing, History of Song, HTML, Hyphen, Indentation (typesetting), Indian subcontinent, Inverted question and exclamation marks, Iona and Peter Opie, Irish people, Isidore of Seville, James while John had had had had had had had had had had had a better effect on the teacher, Japanese language, Japanese punctuation, Jerome, Korean language, Korean punctuation, Languages of Europe, Late Middle Ages, Latin, Liturgy, Location, Logogram, Lynne Truss, Marathi language, Maya script, Mesha Stele, Modulation, Monospaced font, Morpheme, Morse code, Non-breaking space, Norman conquest of England, Obelism, Office of Public Sector Information, Online chat, Orthography, Overstrike, Oxford University Press, Paragraphos, Patent application, Persian language, Plus and minus signs, Programming language, Quotation mark, Register (sociolinguistics), Regular expression, Russian language, Sanskrit, Scribal abbreviation, Scriptio continua, Semicolon, Sentence (linguistics), Shorthand, SMS language, Song dynasty, Space (punctuation), Spanish language, Standard written English, Supplemental Punctuation, Syllabary, Syntax, Teleprinter, Terminal punctuation, Text messaging, Thai language, The Complete Plain Words, The King's English, Time, Tironian notes, Twitter, Typewriter, Typography, Unicode, Unicode symbols, Urdu, URL, Usage, Vulgate, Warring States period, Word processor, Work order, Written Chinese. Expand index (88 more) » « Shrink index
Aelius Donatus (fl. mid-fourth century AD) was a Roman grammarian and teacher of rhetoric.
Aldus Pius Manutius (Aldo Pio Manuzio; 1449/14526 February 1515) was a Venetian humanist, scholar, and educator.
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
The apostrophe ( ' or) character is a punctuation mark, and sometimes a diacritical mark, in languages that use the Latin alphabet and some other alphabets.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Aristophanes (Ἀριστοφάνης,; c. 446 – c. 386 BC), son of Philippus, of the deme Kydathenaion (Cydathenaeum), was a comic playwright of ancient Athens.
Aristophanes of Byzantium (Ἀριστοφάνης ὁ Βυζάντιος; BC) was a Hellenistic Greek scholar, critic and grammarian, particularly renowned for his work in Homeric scholarship, but also for work on other classical authors such as Pindar and Hesiod.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
The at sign, @, is normally read aloud as "at"; it is also commonly called the at symbol or commercial at.
An author is the creator or originator of any written work such as a book or play, and is thus also a writer.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Capitalisation, or capitalization,see spelling differences is writing a word with its first letter as a capital letter (upper-case letter) and the remaining letters in lower case in writing systems with a case distinction.
The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.
Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Chinese punctuation uses a different set of punctuation marks from European languages, although the concept of modern standard punctuation was adapted in the written language during the 20th century from Western punctuation marks.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
In grammar, a clause is the smallest grammatical unit that can express a complete proposition.
The colon is a punctuation mark consisting of two equally sized dots centered on the same vertical line.
The comma is a punctuation mark that appears in several variants in different languages.
Copy editing (also copyediting, sometimes abbreviated ce) is the process of reviewing and correcting written material to improve accuracy, readability, and fitness for its purpose, and to ensure that it is free of error, omission, inconsistency, and repetition.
A copyist is a person who makes copies.
A coronis (κορωνίς, korōnís, κορωνίδες, korōnídes) is a textual symbol found in ancient Greek papyri that was used to mark the ends of entire works or major sections in poetic and prose texts.
In Indic scripts, the danda (Sanskrit: दण्ड "stick") is a punctuation character.
Demosthenes (Δημοσθένης Dēmosthénēs;; 384 – 12 October 322 BC) was a Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens.
Desktop publishing (abbreviated DTP) is the creation of documents using page layout skills on a personal computer primarily for print.
Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.
Diple (διπλῆ, meaning double, referring to the two lines in the mark >) was used in margins to draw attention to something in text.
Drama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance: a play performed in a theatre, or on radio or television.
Eats, Shoots & Leaves: The Zero Tolerance Approach to Punctuation is a non-fiction book written by Lynne Truss, the former host of BBC Radio 4's Cutting a Dash programme.
An electrical telegraph is a telegraph that uses electrical signals, usually conveyed via dedicated telecommunication circuit or radio.
Electronic mail (email or e-mail) is a method of exchanging messages ("mail") between people using electronic devices.
are ideograms and smileys used in electronic messages and web pages.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Euripides (Εὐριπίδης) was a tragedian of classical Athens.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.
Francis George Fowler (1871–1918), familiarly known as F. G. Fowler and sometimes Frank Fowler, was an English writer on English language, grammar and usage.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The full point or full stop (British and broader Commonwealth English) or period (North American English) is a punctuation mark.
Gamma (uppercase, lowercase; gámma) is the third letter of the Greek alphabet.
General Punctuation is a Unicode block containing punctuation, spacing, and formatting characters for use with all scripts and writing systems.
Georgian (ქართული ენა, translit.) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Guillemets, or angle quotes, are a pair of punctuation marks in the form of sideways double chevrons (« and »), used instead of quotation marks in a number of languages.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Hebrew punctuation is similar to that of English and other Western languages, Modern Hebrew having imported additional punctuation marks from these languages in order to avoid the ambiguities sometimes occasioned by the relative paucity of such symbols in Biblical Hebrew.
Hervé Bazin (17 April 191117 February 1996) was a French writer, whose best-known novels covered semi-autobiographical topics of teenage rebellion and dysfunctional families.
The history of sentence spacing is the evolution of sentence spacing conventions from the introduction of movable type in Europe by Johannes Gutenberg to the present day.
The History of Song or Song Shi (Sòng Shǐ) is one of the official Chinese historical works known as the Twenty-Four Histories of China that records the history of the Song dynasty (960–1279).
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the standard markup language for creating web pages and web applications.
The hyphen (‐) is a punctuation mark used to join words and to separate syllables of a single word.
In the written form of many languages, an indentation is an empty space at the beginning of a line to signal the start of a new paragraph.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
Inverted question marks (¿) and exclamation marks (Commonwealth English) or exclamation points (American English) (¡) are punctuation marks used to begin interrogative and exclamatory sentences (or clauses), respectively, in written Spanish and sometimes also in languages which have cultural ties with Spanish, such as in older standards of Galician (now it is optional and not recommended) and the Waray language.
Iona Margaret Balfour Opie, CBE, FBA (13 October 1923 – 23 October 2017) and Peter Mason Opie (25 November 1918 – 5 February 1982) were a married team of folklorists, who applied modern techniques to children's literature, summarised in their studies The Oxford Dictionary of Nursery Rhymes (1951) and The Lore and Language of Schoolchildren (1959).
The Irish people (Muintir na hÉireann or Na hÉireannaigh) are a nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry, identity and culture.
Saint Isidore of Seville (Isidorus Hispalensis; c. 560 – 4 April 636), a scholar and, for over three decades, Archbishop of Seville, is widely regarded as the last of the Fathers of the Church, as the 19th-century historian Montalembert put it in an oft-quoted phrase, "The last scholar of the ancient world." At a time of disintegration of classical culture, and aristocratic violence and illiteracy, he was involved in the conversion of the Arian Visigothic kings to Catholicism, both assisting his brother Leander of Seville, and continuing after his brother's death.
"James while John had had had had had had had had had had had a better effect on the teacher" is an English sentence used to demonstrate lexical ambiguity and the necessity of punctuation, which serves as a substitute for the intonation, stress, and pauses found in speech.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
includes various written marks (besides characters and numbers), which differ from those found in European languages, as well as some not used in formal Japanese writing but frequently found in more casual writing, such as exclamation and question marks.
Jerome (Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c. 27 March 347 – 30 September 420) was a priest, confessor, theologian, and historian.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
For the Korean language, South Korea mainly uses a combination of East Asian and European punctuation, while North Korea uses a little more of the East Asian punctuation style.
Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family.
The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group, according to its beliefs, customs and traditions.
The terms location and place in geography are used to identify a point or an area on the Earth's surface or elsewhere.
In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase.
Lynne Truss (born 31 May 1955) is an English author, journalist, novelist, and radio broadcaster and dramatist.
Marathi (मराठी Marāṭhī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by the Marathi people of Maharashtra, India.
Maya script, also known as Maya glyphs, was the writing system of the Maya civilization of Mesoamerica and is the only Mesoamerican writing system that has been substantially deciphered.
The Mesha Stele, also known as the Moabite Stone, is a stele (inscribed stone) set up around 840 BCE by King Mesha of Moab (a kingdom located in modern Jordan).
In electronics and telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal that typically contains information to be transmitted.
A monospaced font, also called a fixed-pitch, fixed-width, or non-proportional font, is a font whose letters and characters each occupy the same amount of horizontal space.
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
Morse code is a method of transmitting text information as a series of on-off tones, lights, or clicks that can be directly understood by a skilled listener or observer without special equipment.
In word processing and digital typesetting, a non-breaking space (" "), also called no-break space, non-breakable space (NBSP), hard space, or fixed space, is a space character that prevents an automatic line break at its position.
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
Obelism is the practice of annotating manuscripts with marks set in the margins.
The Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the body responsible for the operation of Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO) and of other public information services of the United Kingdom.
Online chat may refer to any kind of communication over the Internet that offers a real-time transmission of text messages from sender to receiver.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
In typography, overstrike is a method of printing characters that are missing from the printer's character set.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
A paragraphos (παράγραφος, parágraphos, from para-, “beside”, and graphein, “to write”) was a mark in ancient Greek punctuation, marking a division in a text (as between speakers in a dialogue or drama) or drawing the reader's attention to another division mark, such as the two dot punctuation mark.
A patent application is a request pending at a patent office for the grant of a patent for the invention described and claimed by that application.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The plus and minus signs (+ and −) are mathematical symbols used to represent the notions of positive and negative as well as the operations of addition and subtraction.
A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.
Quotation marks, also called quotes, quote marks, quotemarks, speech marks, inverted commas or talking marks, are punctuation marks used in pairs in various writing systems to set off direct speech, a quotation, or a phrase.
In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.
A regular expression, regex or regexp (sometimes called a rational expression) is, in theoretical computer science and formal language theory, a sequence of characters that define a search pattern.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Scribal abbreviations or sigla (singular: siglum or sigil) are the abbreviations used by ancient and medieval scribes writing in Latin, and later in Greek and Old Norse.
Scriptio continua (Latin for "continuous script"), also known as scriptura continua or scripta continua, is a style of writing without spaces, or other marks between the words or sentences.
The semicolon or semi colon is a punctuation mark that separates major sentence elements.
In non-functional linguistics, a sentence is a textual unit consisting of one or more words that are grammatically linked.
Shorthand is an abbreviated symbolic writing method that increases speed and brevity of writing as compared to longhand, a more common method of writing a language.
SMS language, textese or texting language is the abbreviated language and slang commonly used with mobile phone text messaging, or other Internet-based communication such as email and instant messaging.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
In writing, a space ( ) is a blank area that separates words, sentences, syllables (in syllabification) and other written or printed glyphs (characters).
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Standard written English refers to the preferred form of English as it is written according to prescriptive authorities associated with publishing houses and schools; the standard varieties of English around the world largely align to either British or American English spelling standards.
Supplemental Punctuation is a Unicode block containing historic and specialized punctuation characters, including biblical editorial symbols, ancient Greek punctuation, and German dictionary marks.
A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent the syllables or (more frequently) moras which make up words.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
A teleprinter (teletypewriter, Teletype or TTY) is an electromechanical typewriter that can be used to send and receive typed messages through various communications channels, in both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint configurations.
Terminal punctuation refers to the punctuation marks used to identify the end of a portion of text.
Text messaging, or texting, is the act of composing and sending electronic messages, typically consisting of alphabetic and numeric characters, between two or more users of mobile phones, tablets, desktops/laptops, or other devices.
Thai, Central Thai, or Siamese, is the national and official language of Thailand and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority Thai of Chinese origin.
The Complete Plain Words, titled simply Plain Words in its 2014 revision, is a style guide written by Sir Ernest Gowers, published in 1954.
The King's English is a book on English usage and grammar.
Time is the indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future.
Tironian notes (notae Tironianae; or Tironian shorthand) is a system of shorthand invented by Tiro (94 4 BC), Marcus Tullius Cicero's slave and personal secretary, and later his freedman.
Twitter is an online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets".
A typewriter is a mechanical or electromechanical machine for writing characters similar to those produced by printer's movable type.
Typography is the art and technique of arranging type to make written language legible, readable, and appealing when displayed.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
In computing, a Unicode symbol is a Unicode character which is not part of a script used to write a natural language, but is nonetheless available for use as part of a text.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
A Uniform Resource Locator (URL), colloquially termed a web address, is a reference to a web resource that specifies its location on a computer network and a mechanism for retrieving it.
Usage is the manner in which written and spoken language is used, the "points of grammar, syntax, style, and the choice of words", and "the way in which a word or phrase is normally and correctly used".
The Vulgate is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible that became the Catholic Church's officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible during the 16th century.
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.
A word processor is a computer program or device that provides for input, editing, formatting and output of text, often plus other features.
A work order is usually a task or a job for a customer, that can be scheduled or assigned to someone.
Written Chinese comprises Chinese characters (汉字/漢字; pinyin: Hànzì, literally "Han characters") used to represent the Chinese language.
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