263 relations: Achaemenid Empire, Administrative units of Pakistan, Afghanistan, Ahmad Shah Durrani, Ahmadiyya, Akbar, Alexander the Great, Amritsar, Anandpur Sahib, Anglo-Sikh wars, Arain, Ashoka, Asian Survey, Aurangzeb, Awan (tribe), Azad Kashmir, Babur, Badshahi Mosque, Bahawalpur, Bahlul Lodi, Balochistan, Banda Singh Bahadur, Bandi Chhor Divas, Beas River, Bengal, Bhagat Singh, Bhai Parmanand, Bhatra, Bhimber, Bihar, Brahmin, British Raj, Buddhism, Cambridge, Chak (village), Chamkaur, Chandigarh, Chandragupta I, Chandragupta Maurya, Chenab River, Cholistan Desert, Choudhry Rahmat Ali, Dal Khalsa (Sikh Army), Dalit, Devanagari, Dhani (settlement type), Diwali, Durrani Empire, East India Company, East Punjab, ..., Eid al-Fitr, Eurasian Plate, Faisalabad, Fatehgarh Sahib, First Anglo-Sikh War, Folk dances of Punjab, Gandhara, Gautama Buddha, Ghaznavids, Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq, Golden Temple, Gupta Empire, Gurjar, Gurmukhi script, Gurpurb, Guru Angad, Guru Gobind Singh, Guru Nanak, Guru Tegh Bahadur, Hanumangarh, Hanumangarh district, Harsha, Haryana, Hazuri Bagh, Hemu, Herat, Himachal Pradesh, Himalayas, Hindi Belt, Hindu, Hindu Kush, Hinduism, Hiran Minar, History of India, Hola Mohalla, Holi, Humayun, Huns, Illinois, India, Indian campaign of Alexander the Great, Indian Rebellion of 1857, Indian Standard Time, Indian subcontinent, Indo-Aryan peoples, Indo-Australian Plate, Indo-Greek Kingdom, Indo-Scythians, Indus River, Indus Valley Civilisation, Islam, Islam Shah Suri, Islamabad, Islamabad Capital Territory, Jahangir, Jainism, Jalal-ud-din Khalji, Jallianwala Bagh massacre, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, Jammu Division, Jat people, Jhelum, Jhelum River, Kabul Shahi, Kamboj, Kambojas, Kangra Valley, Kartar Singh Sarabha, Karva Chauth, Kashmir, Kaurava, Khalji dynasty, Khalsa, Khatri, Khizr Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Kirpal Singh, Kumhar, Kurta, Kurukshetra, Kushan Empire, Lahore, Lahore Fort, Lala Lajpat Rai, List of cities in the Punjab region by population, List of Sufi saints, Lodi dynasty, Lohri, Lower Himalayan Range, Ludhiana, Madan Lal Dhingra, Maghi, Maha Shivaratri, Mahabharata, Mahavira, Majha, Majhi dialect, Malerkotla, Mamluk dynasty (Delhi), Mankiala stupa, Maratha, Maratha Empire, Maurya Empire, Mela Chiraghan, Menander I, Mirpur, Pakistan, Misl, Mohindra College, Mughal Empire, Muhammad bin Qasim, Muhammad Iqbal, Muhammad of Ghor, Multan, Music of Punjab, Nabha, Nader Shah, Nakodar, Navaratri, Odisha, Pakistan, Partition of India, Pashtunistan, Pashtuns, Patiala salwar, Pauravas, Persian language, Peshawar, Phulkari, Porus, Presidencies and provinces of British India, Punjab insurgency, Punjab Plain, Punjab Province (British India), Punjab, India, Punjab, Pakistan, Punjabi clothing, Punjabi cuisine, Punjabi culture, Punjabi ghagra, Punjabi language, Punjabi Tamba and Kurta, Punjabi University, Punjabis, Qila Mubarak, Patiala, Raja Dahir, Rajasthan, Rajput, Raksha Bandhan, Ramayana, Ranjit Singh, Ravi River, Ravidassia religion, Rawalpindi, Rigveda, Rigvedic rivers, Sagala, Saini, Saka, Salt Range, Salwar, Sanskrit, Sardar, Sardar Ajit Singh, Saudi Arabia, Sayyid dynasty, Second Anglo-Sikh War, Seleucid Empire, Shah Jahan, Shahmukhi alphabet, Shalimar Gardens, Lahore, Shalwar kameez, Sher Shah Suri, Shia Islam, Sialkot, Sikh, Sikh Empire, Sikh holocaust of 1762, Sikhism, Sindh, Sovereignty, Sri Ganganagar district, States and union territories of India, Sufism in Punjab, Sugarcane, Sukhdev Thapar, Summer, Sunni Islam, Sutlej, Ta'if, Tarkhan (Punjab), Tarn Taran Sahib, Teeyan, Third Battle of Panipat, Time in Pakistan, Timurid dynasty, Tomb of Jahangir, Tomb of Nur Jahan, Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam, Tughlaq dynasty, Turco-Persian tradition, Turkestan, Udham Singh, Umayyad Caliphate, Urdu, Uttar Pradesh, Vaisakhi, Vedic period, Vijayadashami, Wazir Khan Mosque, Wet season, Yuezhi, Zoroastrianism. Expand index (213 more) » « Shrink index
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
The administrative units of Pakistan (انتظامی اکائیاں) consist of five provinces (Balochistan, Gilgit-Baltistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab and Sindh), one autonomous territory (Azad Jammu and Kashmir) and one federal territory (Islamabad Capital Territory).
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Ahmad Shāh Durrānī (c. 1722 – 16 October 1772) (Pashto: احمد شاه دراني), also known as Ahmad Khān Abdālī (احمد خان ابدالي), was the founder of the Durrani Empire and is regarded as the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan.
Ahmadiyya (officially, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at; الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, transliterated: al-Jamā'ah al-Islāmiyyah al-Aḥmadiyyah; احمدیہ مسلم جماعت) is an Islamic religious movement founded in Punjab, British India, in the late 19th century.
Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar (15 October 1542– 27 October 1605), popularly known as Akbar I, was the third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Amritsar, historically also known as Rāmdāspur and colloquially as Ambarsar, is a city in north-western India which is the administrative headquarters of the Amritsar district - located in the Majha region of the Indian state of Punjab.
Anandpur Sahib, sometimes referred to simply as Anandpur (lit. "city of bliss"), is a city in Rupnagar district (Ropar), on the edge of Shivalik Hills, in the state of Punjab, India.
The Anglo-Sikh wars were a series of 1840s conflicts between the British East India Trading Company and the Sikh Empire.
The Arain (آرائیں) are a Pakistani tribe who are found mainly in the provinces of Punjab and Sindh.
Ashoka (died 232 BCE), or Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from to 232 BCE.
Asian Survey (subtitled A Bimonthly Review of Contemporary Asian Affairs) is a bimonthly academic journal of Asian studies published by the University of California Press (Berkeley, California, USA) on behalf of the Institute of East Asian Studies at the University of California, Berkeley.
Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad (محي الدين محمد) (3 November 1618 – 3 March 1707), commonly known by the sobriquet Aurangzeb (اَورنگزیب), (اورنگزیب "Ornament of the Throne") or by his regnal title Alamgir (عالمگِیر), (عالمگير "Conqueror of the World"), was the sixth, and widely considered the last effective Mughal emperor.
Awan (اعوان) is a tribe living predominantly in northern, central, and western parts of Pakistani Punjab, with significant numbers also residing in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Azad Kashmir and to a lesser extent in Sindh and Balochistan.
Azad Jammu and Kashmir (آزاد جموں و کشمیر Āzād Jammū̃ o Kaśmīr, translation: Free Jammu and Kashmir), abbreviated as AJK and commonly known as Azad Kashmir, is a nominally self-governing polity administered by Pakistan.
The Badshahi Mosque (Punjabi and بادشاہی مسجد, or "Imperial Mosque") is a Mughal era mosque in Lahore, capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab.
Bahawalpur (بہاولپُور; Punjabi), is a city located in the Punjab province of Pakistan.
Bahlul Khan Lodi (died 12 July 1489) was the chief of the Pashtun Lodi tribe and founder of Lodi dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate upon the abdication of the last claimant from the previous Sayyid rule.
Balōchistān (بلوچستان; also Balūchistān or Balūchestān, often interpreted as the Land of the Baloch) is an arid desert and mountainous region in south-western Asia.
Banda Singh Bahadur (born Lachman Dev) (27 October 1670 – 9 June 1716, Delhi), was a Sikh military commander who established a Sikh state with capital at Lohgarh (Haryana).
Bandi Chhor Divas ("Day of Liberation") (ਬੰਦੀ ਛੋੜ ਦਿਵਸ) is a Sikh holiday which coincides with the day of Diwali.
The Beas River also known as the Biás or Bias, (Sanskrit: विपाशा Vipāśā; Hyphasis), is a river in north India.
Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.
Bhagat Singh (– 23 March 1931) was an Indian nationalist considered to be one of the most influential revolutionaries of the Indian independence movement.
Parmanand (4 November 1876 – 8 December 1947) was an Indian nationalist and a prominent leader of the Hindu Mahasabha.
The Bhat, Bhatt, Bhatta, Bhatra, Bhatrai community, refers to a priest, bard, scribe in Sanskrit, a title given to learned Hindu Brahmins, Sikhs and Muslims with Saraswat Brahmin heritage.
Bhimber (بھمبر) is the chief town of Bhimber District, Azad Kashmir.
Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.
Brahmin (Sanskrit: ब्राह्मण) is a varna (class) in Hinduism specialising as priests, teachers (acharya) and protectors of sacred learning across generations.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.
Chak, a Punjabi word, is the land revenue settlement/assessment circle marking a contiguous block of land,.
Chamkaur Sahib is a Sub Divisional town in the district of Rupnagar in the Indian State of Punjab.
Chandigarh is a city and a union territory in India that serves as the capital of the two neighbouring states of Haryana and Punjab.
Chandragupta I was a king of the Gupta Empire around 319 CE.
Chandragupta Maurya (reign: 321–297 BCE) was the founder of the Maurya Empire in ancient India.
The Chenab River (चेनाब; ਚਨਾਬ,; چناب) is a major river that flows in India and Pakistan, and is one of the 5 major rivers of the Punjab region.
The Cholistan Desert (صحرائے چولستان; Saraki), also locally known as Rohi, sprawls from Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan and covers an area of.
Chaudhry Rehmat Ali (In Punjabi and) (16 November 1893 – 3 February 1951) was a Pakistani Punjabi Muslim nationalist who was one of the earliest proponents of the creation of the state of Pakistan.
Dal Khalsa was the name of the Sikh army that operated in the 18th century (1747–1780) in the Punjab region.
Dalit, meaning "broken/scattered" in Sanskrit and Hindi, is a term mostly used for the castes in India that have been subjected to untouchability.
Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.
Dhani (ढाणी) or Thok is a type of hamlet, the smallest conglomeration of houses, in sandy Bagar region of northwestern states of Rajasthan, Haryana and Punjab in India.
Diwali or Deepavali is the Hindu festival of lights celebrated every year in autumn in the northern hemisphere (spring in southern hemisphere).
The Durrani Empire (د درانیانو واکمني), also called the Afghan Empire (د افغانانو واکمني), was founded and built by Ahmad Shah Durrani.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
East Punjab (known simply as Punjab from 1950) was a province and later a state of India from 1947 until 1966, consisting of the parts of the Punjab Province of British India that went to India following the partition of the province between India and Pakistan by the Radcliffe Commission in 1947.
Eid al-Fitr (عيد الفطر) is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting (sawm).
The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate which includes most of the continent of Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the traditional continents of Europe and Asia), with the notable exceptions of the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Chersky Range in East Siberia.
Faisalabad (فیصل آباد;; Lyallpur until 1979) is the third-most-populous city in Pakistan, and the second-largest in the eastern province of Punjab.
Fatehgarh Sahib is a town and a sacred pilgrimage site of Sikhism in the north west Indian state of Punjab.
The First Anglo-Sikh War was fought between the Sikh Empire and the East India Company between 1845 and 1846.
Punjabi dances are an array of folk and religious dances of the Punjabi people indigenous to the Punjab region, straddling the border of India and Pakistan.
Gandhāra was an ancient kingdom situated along the Kabul and Swat rivers of Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
The Ghaznavid dynasty (غزنویان ġaznaviyān) was a Persianate Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin, at their greatest extent ruling large parts of Iran, Afghanistan, much of Transoxiana and the northwest Indian subcontinent from 977 to 1186.
Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq, Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, or Ghazi Malik (Ghazi means 'fighter for Islam'), (died c. 1325) was the founder of the Tughluq dynasty in India, who reigned over the Sultanate of Delhi from 1320 to 1325.
Sri Harmandir Sahib ("The abode of God"), also known as Darbar Sahib,, informally referred to as the Golden Temple, is a Gurdwara located in the city of Amritsar, Punjab, India.
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire, existing from approximately 240 to 590 CE.
Gurjar or Gujjar are a pastoral agricultural ethnic group with populations in India, Nepal, Pakistan, and a small number in northeastern Afghanistan.
Gurmukhi (Gurmukhi (the literal meaning being "from the Guru's mouth"): ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ) is a Sikh script modified, standardized and used by the second Sikh Guru, Guru Angad (1563–1606).
A Gurpurab ((Punjabi: ਗੁਰਪੁਰਬ)) in Sikh tradition is a celebration of an anniversary of a Guru's birth marked by the holding of a festival.
Guru Angad (31 March 1504 – 29 March 1552) was the second of the ten Sikh Gurus.
Guru Gobind Singh (Gurmukhi: ਗੁਰੂ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਸਿੰਘ) (5 January 1666 – 7 October 1708), born Gobind Rai, was the tenth Sikh Guru, a spiritual master, warrior, poet and philosopher.
Guru Nanak (IAST: Gurū Nānak) (15 April 1469 – 22 September 1539) was the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Sikh Gurus.
Guru Tegh Bahadur (1 April 1621 – 24 November 1675), revered as the ninth Nanak, was the ninth of ten Gurus of the Sikh religion.
Hanumangarh is a city in northern Rajasthan state in western India, situated on the banks of the river Ghaggar also identified as Ancient Sarasvati river, located about 400 km from Delhi.
Hanumangarh district is a district in the state of Rajasthan in India.
Harsha (c. 590–647 CE), also known as Harshavardhana, was an Indian emperor who ruled North India from 606 to 647 CE.
Haryana, carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1November 1966 on linguistic basis, is one of the 29 states in India.
Hazuri Bagh (حضوری باغ) is a garden in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan, bounded by the Lahore Fort to the east, Badshahi Mosque to the west, the Samadhi of Ranjit Singh to the north, and the Roshnai Gate to the south.
Hemu (also known as Hemu Vikramaditya and Hemchandra Vikramaditya) (died 5 November 1556) was a Hindu general and Chief Minister of Adil Shah Suri of the Suri Dynasty during a period in Indian history when the Mughals and Afghans were vying for power across North India.
Herat (هرات,Harât,Herât; هرات; Ἀλεξάνδρεια ἡ ἐν Ἀρίοις, Alexándreia hē en Aríois; Alexandria Ariorum) is the third-largest city of Afghanistan.
Himachal Pradesh (literally "snow-laden province") is a Indian state located in North India.
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.
The Hindi Belt or Hindi Desh, sometimes referred to as the Hindi-Urdu Region, is a linguistic region in north-central India where Hindi (including its dialects) and Urdu are widely spoken.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
The Hindu Kush, also known in Ancient Greek as the Caucasus Indicus (Καύκασος Ινδικός) or Paropamisadae (Παροπαμισάδαι), in Pashto and Persian as, Hindu Kush is an mountain range that stretches near the Afghan-Pakistan border,, Quote: "The Hindu Kush mountains run along the Afghan border with the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan".
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Hiran Minar (ہرن مینار; or "The Deer Tower") is an early 17th-century Mughal-era complex located in the town of Sheikhupura, in the Pakistani province of Punjab.
The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.
Hola Mohalla (ਹੋਲਾ ਮਹੱਲਾ, होला मोहल्ला), also called Hola, is a one-day Sikh festival which most often falls in March and takes place on the second day of the lunar month of Chett, a day after the Hindu spring festival Holi but sometimes coincides with Holi.
Holi (Holī), also known as the "festival of colours", is a spring festival celebrated all across the Indian subcontinent as well as in countries with large Indian subcontinent diaspora populations such as Jamaica, Suriname, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, South Africa, Malaysia, the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Mauritius, and Fiji.
Nasir-ud-Din Muḥammad (نصیرالدین محمد|translit.
The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe, between the 4th and 6th century AD.
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian campaign of Alexander the Great began in 326BC.
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major uprising in India between 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.
Indian Standard Time (IST) is the time observed throughout India, with a time offset of UTC+05:30.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
Indo-Aryan peoples are a diverse Indo-European-speaking ethnolinguistic group of speakers of Indo-Aryan languages.
The Indo-Australian Plate is a major tectonic plate that includes the continent of Australia and surrounding ocean, and extends northwest to include the Indian subcontinent and adjacent waters.
The Indo-Greek Kingdom or Graeco-Indian Kingdom was an Hellenistic kingdom covering various parts of Afghanistan and the northwest regions of the Indian subcontinent (parts of modern Pakistan and northwestern India), during the last two centuries BC and was ruled by more than thirty kings, often conflicting with one another.
Indo-Scythians is a term used to refer to Scythians (Sakas), who migrated into parts of central, northern and western South Asia (Sogdiana, Bactria, Arachosia, Gandhara, Sindh, Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra) from the middle of the 2nd century BC to the 4th century AD.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islam Shah Suri (reigned: 1545–1554) was the second ruler of the Suri dynasty which ruled part of India in the mid-16th century.
Islamabad (اسلام آباد) is the capital city of Pakistan located within the federal Islamabad Capital Territory.
Islamabad Capital Territory (وفاقی دارالحکومت, or ICT) is the one and only federal territory of Pakistan.
Mirza Nur-ud-din Beig Mohammad Khan Salim مرزا نور الدین محمد خان سلیم, known by his imperial name (جہانگیر) Jahangir (31 August 1569 – 28 October 1627), was the fourth Mughal Emperor who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
Jalal-ud-din Khalji (r. 1290-1296; died 19 July 1296) was the founder and first Sultan of the Khalji dynasty that ruled the Delhi Sultanate from 1290 to 1320.
The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, also known as the Amritsar massacre, took place on 13 April 1919 when troops of the British Indian Army under the command of Colonel Reginald Dyer fired rifles into a crowd of Indians, who had gathered in Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar, Punjab.
Jammu is the largest city in the Jammu Division and the winter capital of state of Jammu and Kashmir in India.
Jammu and Kashmir (ænd) is a state in northern India, often denoted by its acronym, J&K.
Jammu is one of the three administrative divisions within Jammu and Kashmir, the northernmost state in India.
The Jat people (also spelled Jatt and Jaat) are a traditionally agricultural community in Northern India and Pakistan.
Jhelum (جِہلم) is a city on the right bank of the Jhelum River, in the district of the same name in the north of Punjab province, Pakistan.
The Jhelum River, Vitasta (Sanskrit: वितस्ता, fem., also, Vetastā, Kashmiri: Vyeth(ویتھ/व्यथा)), is a river of northwestern India and eastern Pakistan. It is the westernmost of the five rivers of Punjab, and passes through Srinager District. It is a tributary of the Indus River and has a total length of about.
The Kabul Shahi dynasties also called ShahiyaSehrai, Fidaullah (1979).
The Kamboj (کمبوہ ALA-LC:, ਕੰਬੋ Kamboj), also Kamboh, is a community mainly in the Northern India and eastern Pakistan.
The Kambojas were a tribe of Iron Age India, frequently mentioned in Sanskrit and Pali literature.
Kangra Valley is situated in the Western Himalayas.
Kartar Singh Sarabha (Punjabi: ਕਰਤਾਰ ਸਿੰਘ ਸਰਾਭਾ (Gurmukhi); (Shahmukhi); 24 May 1896 – 16 November 1915) was a Sikh revolutionary who was among the most famous and reputed martyrs of Punjab.
Karva Chauth is a one-day festival celebrated by Hindu women in Northern India, in which married women fast from sunrise to moonrise for the safety and longevity of their husbands.
Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.
Kaurava (कौरव) is a Sanskrit term for the descendants of Kuru, a legendary king who is the ancestor of many of the characters of the Mahābhārata.
The Khalji or Khilji dynasty was a Muslim dynasty which ruled large parts of the Indian subcontinent between 1290 and 1320.
Khalsa (Punjabi: "the pure") refers to both a special group of initiated Sikh warriors, as well as a community that considers Sikhism as its faith.
Khatri is a caste from the northern Indian subcontinent.
Sayyid Khizr Khan ibn Malik Sulaiman (reigned 28 May 1414 – 20 May 1421) was the founder of the Sayyid dynasty, the ruling dynasty of the Delhi sultanate, in northern India soon after the invasion of Timur and the fall of the Tughlaq dynasty.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (abbreviated as KP; خیبر پختونخوا; خیبر پښتونخوا) is one of the four administrative provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country along the international border with Afghanistan.
Kirpal Singh (6 February 1894 – 21 August 1974) was a spiritual master (satguru).
Kumhar is a caste or community in India and Pakistan.
A kurta (कुर्ता, কুর্তা, ਕੁੜਤਾ, کرتہ) is an upper garment for men and women, originating in the Indian subcontinent, with regional variations of form.
Kurukshetra is a city in the state of Haryana, India.
The Kushan Empire (Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; Κυϸανο, Kushano; कुषाण साम्राज्य Kuṣāṇa Samrajya; BHS:; Chinese: 貴霜帝國; Kušan-xšaθr) was a syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century.
Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.
The Lahore Fort (Punjabi and شاہی قلعہ: Shahi Qila, or "Royal Fort"), is a citadel in the city of Lahore, Pakistan.
Lala Lajpat Rai, (28 January 1865 – 17 November 1928) was an Indian freedom fighter.
The following is a list of the largest cities in the Punjab region by population located in modern divisions which were part of the British Punjab Province as at 1947 when the modern countries of India and Pakistan were created.
Sufi saints or Wali (ولي, plural ʾawliyāʾ أولياء) played an instrumental role in spreading Islam throughout the world.
The Lodi dynasty (or Lodhi) was an Afghan dynasty that ruled the Delhi Sultanate from 1451 to 1526.
Lohri is a popular winter time Punjabi folk festival, celebrated primarily by Sikhs and Hindus from the Punjab region of Indian subcontinent.
The Mahabharata Range (महाभारत श्रृंखला mahābhārat shrinkhalā) – also called the Lesser Himalaya or the "Himachal"– is a major east-west mountain range with elevations 3,700 to 4,500 m (12,000 to 14,500 feet) along the crest, paralleling the much higher Great Himalaya range from the Indus River in Pakistan across northern India, Nepal, Sikkim and Bhutan but then the two ranges become increasingly difficult to differentiate east of Bhutan as the ranges approach the Brahmaputra River.
Ludhiana is a city and a municipal corporation in Ludhiana district in the Indian state of Punjab, and India's largest city north of Delhi, with an area of 310sq.
Shaheed Madan Lal Dhingra (Punjabi: ਮਦਨ ਲਾਲ ਢੀਂਗਰਾ) (8 February 1883 – 17 August 1909) was an Indian revolutionary independence activist.
Maghi is the annual festival and one of the seasonal gathering of the Sikhs.
Maha Shivaratri a Hindu festival celebrated annually in honour of the god Shiva.
The Mahābhārata (महाभारतम्) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.
Mahavira (IAST), also known as Vardhamāna, was the twenty-fourth Tirthankara (ford-maker) of Jainism which was revived and re-established by him.
The Majha (Punjabi: ਮਾਝਾ (Gurmukhi), (Shahmukhi); Mājhā) region is recognized as the region that is located at the center of the historical Punjab region, that is northward from the right banks of river Beas, and extends up to river Jhelum at its northmost.
Majhi (ماجھی; ਮਾਝੀ) is the standard dialect of Punjabi and is spoken in the Majha region of the Punjab.
Malerkotla (ملِیرکوٹلہ), is a city and a municipal council in Sangrur district in the Indian state of Punjab.
The Mamluk Dynasty (sometimes referred as Slave Dynasty or Ghulam Dynasty) (سلطنت مملوک), (غلام خاندان) was directed into Northern India by Qutb ud-Din Aibak, a Turkic Mamluk slave general from Central Asia.
The Mankiala Stupa (مانكياله اسٹوپ) is a 2nd-century Buddhist stupa near the village of Tope Mankiala, in Pakistan's Punjab province.
The Maratha (IAST:Marāṭhā; archaically transliterated as Marhatta or Mahratta) is a group of castes in India found predominantly in the state of Maharashtra.
The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was an Indian power that dominated much of the Indian subcontinent in the 17th and 18th century.
The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.
Mela Chiraghan or Mela Shalimar (میلہ چراغاں; "Festival of Lights") is a three-day annual festival to mark the urs (death anniversary) of the Punjabi poet and Sufi saint Shah Hussain (1538-1599) who lived in Lahore in the 16th century.
Menander I Soter (Μένανδρος Α΄ ὁ Σωτήρ, Ménandros A' ho Sōtḗr, "Menander I the Saviour"; known in Indian Pali sources as Milinda) was an Indo-Greek King of the Indo-Greek Kingdom (165Bopearachchi (1998) and (1991), respectively. The first date is estimated by Osmund Bopearachchi and R. C. Senior, the other Boperachchi/155 –130 BC) who administered a large empire in the Northwestern regions of the Indian Subcontinent from his capital at Sagala.
Mirpur (Urdu, Punjabi: مِيرپُور), more commonly known as New Mirpur City, is the capital of Mirpur district and is the second largest city of Azad Kashmir after Muzaffarabad.
Misl generally refers to the sovereign states of the Sikh Confederacy, that rose during the 18th century in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent after the collapse of the Mughal Empire.
Established in 1875, Government Mohindra College Patiala, Punjab, is the oldest institution of contemporary higher learning in Northern India.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
‘Imād ad-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Qāsim ath-Thaqafī (عماد الدين محمد بن القاسم الثقفي; c. 695715) was an Umayyad general who conquered the Sindh and Multan regions along the Indus River (now a part of Pakistan) for the Umayyad Caliphate.
Muhammad Iqbal (محمد اِقبال) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938), widely known as Allama Iqbal, was a poet, philosopher, and politician, as well as an academic, barrister and scholar in British India who is widely regarded as having inspired the Pakistan Movement.
Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori (معز الدین محمد غوری), born Shihab ad-Din (1149 – March 15, 1206), also known as Muhammad of Ghor, was Sultan of the Ghurid Empire along with his brother Ghiyath ad-Din Muhammad from 1173 to 1202 and as the sole ruler from 1202 to 1206.
Multan (Punjabi, Saraiki, مُلتان), is a Pakistani city and the headquarters of Multan District in the province of Punjab.
Punjab is a region in South Asia, divided into two parts East Punjab (India) and West Punjab (Pakistan).
Nabha is a historic city and municipal council in the Patiala district to the south-west of the Indian state of Punjab.
Nader Shah Afshar (نادر شاه افشار; also known as Nader Qoli Beyg نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khan تهماسپ قلی خان) (August 1688 – 19 June 1747) was one of the most powerful Iranian rulers in the history of the nation, ruling as Shah of Persia (Iran) from 1736 to 1747 when he was assassinated during a rebellion.
Nakodar (pronounced Nuh-Koh-Durh; ਨਕੋਦਰ) is a town and a municipal council in Jalandhar district in the Indian state of Punjab.
Navaratri (नवरात्रि, literally "nine nights"), also spelled Navratri or Navarathri, is a nine nights (and ten days) Hindu festival, celebrated in the autumn every year.
Odisha (formerly Orissa) is one of the 29 states of India, located in eastern India.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.
Pashtūnistān (پښتونستان; also called Pakhtūnistān, or Pathānistān, meaning the "land of Pashtuns") is the geographic historical region inhabited by the indigenous Pashtun people of modern-day Afghanistan and Pakistan, wherein Pashtun culture, language, and national identity have been based.
The Pashtuns (or; پښتانه Pax̌tānə; singular masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pukhtuns), historically known as ethnic Afghans (افغان, Afğān) and Pathans (Hindustani: پٹھان, पठान, Paṭhān), are an Iranic ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
A Patiala salwar (also called a pattian walee salwar) (also pronounced as shalwar in Urdu) is a type of female trousers which has its roots in Patiala City in the Northern region of Punjab state in India.
Pauravas or Paurav Rashtra was an ancient Indian kingdom in the northwest Indian subcontinent (present-day Pakistan and India).
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Peshawar (پېښور; پشاور; پشور) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Phulkari (ਫੁਲਕਾਰੀ) embroidery technique from the Punjab region (divided between India and Pakistan) and Haryana literally means flower work, which was at one time used as the word for embroidery, but in time the word “Phulkari” became restricted to embroidered shawls and head scarfs.
Porus or Poros (from Ancient Πῶρος, Pôros), was a great Indian king from the Punjab region, whose territory spanned the region between the Hydaspes (River of Jhelum) and Acesines (Chenab River), in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
The insurgency in Punjab originated in the late 1970s, as some Sikhs, including Khalistan proponents, turned to militancy.
The Punjab Plain is a large alluvial plain in Pakistan and the north-west of India.
Punjab, also spelled Panjab, was a province of British India.
Punjab is a state in northern India.
Punjab (Urdu, Punjabi:, panj-āb, "five waters") is Pakistan's second largest province by area, after Balochistan, and its most populous province, with an estimated population of 110,012,442 as of 2017.
In the ancient Punjab region, people wore cotton clothing.
Punjabi cuisine is associated with food from the Punjab region of India and Pakistan.
The culture of the Punjab encompasses the spoken language, written literature, cuisine, science, technology, military warfare, architecture, traditions, values and history of the Punjabi people.
The Punjabi ghagra is a four-piece outfit known as tewar or 'ti-or' which was traditionally worn by Punjabi women throughout the Punjab region with the outfit comprising a head scarf (Phulkari), kurta or kurti, ghagra and either a suthan (baggy trousers with a tight band at the ankles) or the Punjabi salwar.
Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
Punjabi Kurta and Tamba are traditional costume for men of Punjab.
Punjabi University is a state university located in Patiala, Punjab, India.
The Punjabis (Punjabi:, ਪੰਜਾਬੀ), or Punjabi people, are an ethnic group associated with the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, who speak Punjabi, a language from the Indo-Aryan language family.
Qila Mubarak is an ancient fortress of Sikh architecture in Patiala, India.
Raja Dahar (راجا ڏاھر; राजा दाहिर, IAST: Rājā Dāhir; 663 – 712 CE) was the last Hindu ruler of Sindh.
Rajasthan (literally, "Land of Kings") is India's largest state by area (or 10.4% of India's total area).
Rajput (from Sanskrit raja-putra, "son of a king") is a large multi-component cluster of castes, kin bodies, and local groups, sharing social status and ideology of genealogical descent originating from the Indian subcontinent.
Raksha Bandhan, also Rakshabandhan, Quote: m Hindi rakśābandhan held on the full moon of the month of Savan, when sisters tie a talisman (rakhi q.v.) on the arm of their brothers and receive small gifts of money from them.
Ramayana (रामायणम्) is an ancient Indian epic poem which narrates the struggle of the divine prince Rama to rescue his wife Sita from the demon king Ravana.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780 –1839) was the leader of the Sikh Empire, which ruled the northwest Indian subcontinent in the early half of the 19th century.
The Ravi (ਰਾਵੀ, راوی, रावी) is a transboundary river crossing northwestern India and eastern Pakistan.
The Ravidassia religion (also Ravidassia Dharam is a Dharmic religion, founded in the 21st-century out of Sikhism, and is based on the teachings of the 14th century Indian guru Ravidass, revered as a satguru. Historically Ravidassia represented a range of beliefs in South Asia, with some devotees of Ravidass counting themselves as Ravidassia Sikhs, but there is evidence that Ravidassia Dera first formed in the early 20th-century in colonial British India.Paramjit Judge (2014), Mapping Social Exclusion in India: Caste, Religion and Borderlands, Cambridge University Press,, pages 179-182 The Ravidassia community began to take on more cohesion following 1947, and the establishment of successful Ravidassia communities in the diaspora. Ravidassias, states Ronki Ram, accept present Sants of Ravidass Deras as Guru (saint) whereas the Sikhs do not. A new Ravidassia religion was launched following the murder of their cleric Ramanand Dass in Vienna in 2009 by some radical, where the movement declared itself to be a religion fully separated from Sikhism. Prior to their break from Sikhism, the Dera Bhallan revered and recited the Guru Granth Sahib of Sikhism in Dera Bhallan. However, following their split from mainstream Sikhism, the Dera Bhallan compiled their own holy book based exclusively on Ravidass teachings, the Amritbani Guru Ravidass Ji, and these Dera Bhallan Ravidassia temples now use this book in place of the Guru Granth Sahib.
Rawalpindi (Punjabi, راولپِنڈى), commonly known as Pindi (پِنڈی), is a city in the Punjab province of Pakistan.
The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.
Rivers, such as the Sapta Sindhavah ("seven rivers" सप्त सिन्धव) play a prominent part in the hymns of the Rig Veda, and consequently in early Hindu religion.
Sagala (Σάγγαλα), Sangala or Sakala was the name of the ancient predecessor of Sialkot, in Pakistan's northern Punjab province.
Saini is a caste of North India who were traditionally landowners (zamindars) and farmers.
Saka, Śaka, Shaka or Saca mod. ساکا; Śaka; Σάκαι, Sákai; Sacae;, old *Sək, mod. Sāi) is the name used in Middle Persian and Sanskrit sources for the Scythians, a large group of Eurasian nomads on the Eurasian Steppe speaking Eastern Iranian languages.
The Salt Range (سلسلہ کوہ نمک) is a hill system in the Punjab province of Pakistan, deriving its name from its extensive deposits of rock salt.
The Punjabi Salwar is part of the Punjabi suit which is the traditional attire of the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sardar (سردار,; "Commander" literally; "Headmaster"), also spelled as Sirdar, Sardaar, Shordar or Serdar, is a title of nobility that was originally used to denote princes, noblemen, and other aristocrats.
Sardar Ajit Singh (1881–1947) was a revolutionary, an Indian dissident, and a nationalist during the time of British rule in India.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Sayyid dynasty was the fourth dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate, with four rulers ruling from 1414 to 1451.
The Second Anglo-Sikh War was a military conflict between the Sikh Empire and the British East India Company that took place in 1848 and 1849.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
Mirza Shahab-ud-din Baig Muhammad Khan Khurram (5 January 1592 – 22 January 1666), better known by his regnal name Shah Jahan (شاہ جہاں), (Persian:شاه جهان "King of the World"), was the fifth Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1628 to 1658.
Shahmukhi (Gurmukhi: ਸ਼ਾਹਮੁਖੀ, meaning literally "from the King's mouth") is a Perso-Arabic alphabet used by Muslims in Punjab to write the Punjabi language.
The Shalimar Gardens (Punjabi, شالیمار باغ), sometimes spelt Shalamar Gardens, is a Mughal garden complex located in Lahore, capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab.
Shalwar kameez, also spelled salwar kameez or shalwar qameez, is a traditional outfit originating in the Indian subcontinent.
Shēr Shāh Sūrī (1486–22 May 1545), born Farīd Khān, was the founder of the Suri Empire in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, with its capital at Delhi. An ethnic Pashtun, Sher Shah took control of the Mughal Empire in 1538. After his accidental death in 1545, his son Islam Shah became his successor. He first served as a private before rising to become a commander in the Mughal army under Babur and then the governor of Bihar. In 1537, when Babur's son Humayun was elsewhere on an expedition, Sher Shah overran the state of Bengal and established the Suri dynasty. A brilliant strategist, Sher Shah proved himself as a gifted administrator as well as a capable general. His reorganization of the empire laid the foundations for the later Mughal emperors, notably Akbar, son of Humayun. During his seven-year rule from 1538 to 1545, he set up a new civic and military administration, issued the first Rupiya from "Taka" and re-organised the postal system of India. He further developed Humayun's Dina-panah city and named it Shergarh and revived the historical city of Pataliputra, which had been in decline since the 7th century CE, as Patna. He extended the Grand Trunk Road from Chittagong in the frontiers of the province of Bengal in northeast India to Kabul in Afghanistan in the far northwest of the country.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Sialkot (سيالكوٹ and سيالكوٹ) is a city in Punjab, Pakistan.
A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.
The Sikh Empire (also Sikh Khalsa Raj, Sarkar-i-Khalsa or Pañjab (Punjab) Empire) was a major power in the Indian subcontinent, formed under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who established a secular empire based in the Punjab.
Sikh holocaust of 1762 or The Vadda Ghallūghārā (ਵੱਡਾ ਘੱਲੂਘਾਰਾ (the Great Massacre)) was the mass-murder of the Sikhs by the Afghan forces of the Durrani Empire during the years of Afghan influence in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent owing to the repeated incursions of Ahmad Shah Durrani in February 1762.
Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.
Sindh (سنڌ; سِندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
Ganganagar District (In Hindi and Rajasthani:ज़िला श्रीगंगानगर,in Punjabi ਸ਼੍ਰੀ ਗੰਗਾਨਗਰ) is a northernmost district of Rajasthan state in western India.
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities.
Sufism has played a major role in the history of Punjab.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
Sukhdev Thapar (15 May 1907 – 23 March 1931) was an Indian revolutionary.
Summer is the hottest of the four temperate seasons, falling after spring and before autumn.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The Sutlej River (alternatively spelled as Satluj River) (सतलुज, ਸਤਲੁਜ, शतद्रुम (shatadrum), is the longest of the five rivers that flow through the historic crossroads region of Punjab in northern India and Pakistan. The Sutlej River is also known as Satadree. It is the easternmost tributary of the Indus River. The waters of the Sutlej are allocated to India under the Indus Waters Treaty between India and Pakistan, and are mostly diverted to irrigation canals in India. There are several major hydroelectric projects on the Sutlej, including the 1,000 MW Bhakra Dam, the 1,000 MW Karcham Wangtoo Hydroelectric Plant, and the 1,530 MW Nathpa Jhakri Dam. The river basin area in India is located in Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan and Haryana states.
Ta'if (الطائف) is a city in Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia at an elevation of on the slopes of Sarawat Mountains (Al-Sarawat Mountains).
Tarn Taran Sahib is a town in the Majha region of the state of Punjab, in northern India.
Teeyan (ਤੀਆਂ) is the Punjabi name of the festival of Teej which is celebrated in Punjab and Haryana (where it is also called Haryali teej) which is dedicated to the onset of the monsoon and focuses on daughtershttp://www.teeyandamela.com/ and sisters.
The Third Battle of Panipat took place on 14 January 1761 at Panipat, about north of Delhi, between a northern expeditionary force of the Maratha Empire and invading forces of the King of Afghanistan, Ahmad Shah Abdali, supported by two Indian allies—the Rohilla Najib-ud-daulah Afghans of the Doab, and Shuja-ud-Daula, the Nawab of Awadh.
Time in Pakistan is given by Pakistan Standard Time (PKT).
The Timurid dynasty (تیموریان), self-designated as Gurkani (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān), was a Sunni Muslim dynasty or clan of Turco-Mongol lineageB.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006Encyclopædia Britannica, "", Online Academic Edition, 2007.
The Tomb of Jahangir (مقبرہُ جہانگیر, جہانگير دا مقبرہ) is a 17th century mausoleum built for the Mughal Emperor Jahangir.
The Tomb of Nur Jahan (مقبرہ نورجہاں) is a 17th-century mausoleum in Lahore, Pakistan, that was built for the Mughal empress Nur Jahan.
The Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam (مقبرہ شاہ رکن عالم) located in Multan, Pakistan, is the mausoleum of the Sufi saint Sheikh Rukn-ud-Din Abul Fateh.
The Tughlaq dynasty also referred to as Tughluq or Tughluk dynasty, was a Muslim dynasty of Turko-Indian origin which ruled over the Delhi sultanate in medieval India.
The composite Turco-Persian tradition, Turko-Persia in historical perspective, Cambridge University Press, 1991 refers to a distinctive culture that arose in the 9th and 10th centuries (AD) in Khorasan and Transoxiana (present-day Afghanistan, Iran, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, minor parts of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan).
Turkestan, also spelt Turkistan (literally "Land of the Turks" in Persian), refers to an area in Central Asia between Siberia to the north and Tibet, India and Afghanistan to the south, the Caspian Sea to the west and the Gobi Desert to the east.
Udham Singh (26 December 1899 – 31 July 1940), was a Punjab revolutionary and freedom fighter belonging to the Ghadar Party best known for assassinating Michael O' Dwyer, the former Lieutenant Governor of the Punjab in India, on 13 March 1940.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Uttar Pradesh (IAST: Uttar Pradeś) is a state in northern India.
Vaisakhi (IAST), also known as Baisakhi, Vaishakhi, or Vasakhi is a historical and religious festival in Sikhism and Hinduism.
The Vedic period, or Vedic age, is the period in the history of the northwestern Indian subcontinent between the end of the urban Indus Valley Civilisation and a second urbanisation in the central Gangetic Plain which began in BCE.
Vijayadashami (IAST: Vijayadaśamī) also known as Dasara, Dusshera or Dussehra is a major Hindu festival celebrated at the end of Navratri every year.
The Wazir Khan Mosque (Punjabi and; Masjid Wazīr Khān) is 17th century mosque located in the city of Lahore, capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab.
The monsoon season, is the time of year when most of a region's average annual rainfall occurs.
The Yuezhi or Rouzhi were an ancient people first reported in Chinese histories as nomadic pastoralists living in an arid grassland area in the western part of the modern Chinese province of Gansu, during the 1st millennium BC.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
Central Pakistan, Five rivers of Punjab, Five rivers of the Punjab, Greater Panjab, Greater Punjab, Land Of Five Rivers, Land of Five Rivers, Panjab, Panjab region, Panjāb, Pentapotamia, Punjab (Province), Punjab (region), Punjab Region, Punjab area, Punjab recion, Punjab region, Punjab, region, Punjabi land, Punjabistan, Punjaub, Punjáb, Southern Punjab, The Panjab, The Punjab, The land of five rivers, The land of five waters, پنجاب, पंजाब.