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Aam Khas Bagh, today is actually remains of a highway-inn constructed for the use of royalty as well as common people (as its name denotes).
ABP Sanjha is the Punjabi language news channel, launched in 2014, by Media Content and Communication Services (MCCS), a news broadcasting company, owned by the ABP Group.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.
AIR FM Gold is a FM radio channel in Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata and Chennai, India.
Ajit (Daily Ajit) is a Punjabi language daily newspaper published in Jalandhar, India.
The Akal Takht (ਅਕਾਲ ਤਖ਼ਤ), meaning throne of the timeless one, is one of five takhts (seats of power) of the Sikhs.
Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar (15 October 1542– 27 October 1605), popularly known as Akbar I, was the third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.
The Alchon Huns, also known as the Alchono, Alxon, Alkhon, Alkhan, Alakhana and Walxon, were a nomadic people who established states in Central Asia and South Asia during the 4th and 6th centuries CE.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
All India Radio (AIR), officially known since 1956 as Ākāshvāṇī ("Voice from the Sky") is the national public radio broadcaster of India and a division of Prasar Bharati.
The almond (Prunus dulcis, syn. Prunus amygdalus) is a species of tree native to Mediterranean climate regions of the Middle East, from Syria and Turkey to India and Pakistan, although it has been introduced elsewhere.
Captain Amarinder Singh (born 11 March 1942) is an Indian politician, who is currently the 26th Chief Minister of Punjab.
Ambala railway division is one of the five railway divisions under Northern Railway zone (NR) of Indian Railways.
Amritsar, historically also known as Rāmdāspur and colloquially as Ambarsar, is a city in north-western India which is the administrative headquarters of the Amritsar district - located in the Majha region of the Indian state of Punjab.
Amritsar BRTS (Amritsar MetroBus) is the bus rapid transit system currently operational in Amritsar, Punjab, India and is the first hybrid public transportation of India to be a hybrid between a Bus Rapid Transit and a Metro Rail.
Amritsar district is one of 22 districts located in the Majha region of the state of Punjab in North India.
Amritsar Junction railway station is located in Amritsar district in the Indian state of Punjab and serves Amritsar.
Anandpur Sahib, sometimes referred to simply as Anandpur (lit. "city of bliss"), is a city in Rupnagar district (Ropar), on the edge of Shivalik Hills, in the state of Punjab, India.
The Anglo-Sikh wars were a series of 1840s conflicts between the British East India Trading Company and the Sikh Empire.
An apple is a sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus pumila).
An apricot is a fruit, or the tree that bears the fruit, of several species in the genus Prunus (stone fruits).
The Aram Bagh (اراما باغ) is the oldest Mughal Garden in India, originally built by the Mughal Emperor Babur in 1528, located about five kilometers northeast of the Taj Mahal in Agra, India.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Asceticism (from the ἄσκησις áskesis, "exercise, training") is a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from sensual pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals.
ATN Alpha ETC Punjabi is a Canadian exempt Category B Punjabi language specialty channel that is owned by Asian Television Network.
ATN PM One is a Canadian exempt Category B Punjabi language specialty channel that is owned by Asian Television Network (ATN).
ATN Punjabi 5 is a Canadian exempt Category B Punjabi language specialty channel that is owned by Asian Television Network.
ATN Punjabi Plus is a Canadian exempt Category B Punjabi language specialty channel that is owned by Asian Television Network.
Attari (ਅਟਾਰੀ), also spelled Atari, is a village of Amritsar District in the Punjab state of India, 3 km from the Indo-Pakistani border at Wagah.
Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad (محي الدين محمد) (3 November 1618 – 3 March 1707), commonly known by the sobriquet Aurangzeb (اَورنگزیب), (اورنگزیب "Ornament of the Throne") or by his regnal title Alamgir (عالمگِیر), (عالمگير "Conqueror of the World"), was the sixth, and widely considered the last effective Mughal emperor.
An auto rickshaw is a motorized development of the traditional pulled rickshaw or cycle rickshaw.
(814867) was the name of two Sanskrit grammarians, one who was a predecessor of Yaska and Panini in Iron Age India, and one who was a Sanskrit grammarian (fl. c. 9th century, during the reign of Amoghavarsha).
The Bakhshali manuscript is a mathematical text written on birch bark that was found in 1881 in the village of Bakhshali, Mardan (near Peshawar in present-day Pakistan).
Banda Singh Bahadur (born Lachman Dev) (27 October 1670 – 9 June 1716, Delhi), was a Sikh military commander who established a Sikh state with capital at Lohgarh (Haryana).
Bandi Chhor Divas ("Day of Liberation") (ਬੰਦੀ ਛੋੜ ਦਿਵਸ) is a Sikh holiday which coincides with the day of Diwali.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
Barnala is one of the districts of Indian state of Punjab.
The Basant Kite Festival of Punjab has been a historic spring time kite flying event during the Basant Panchami festival in the Punjab region in India and Pakistan.
Bathinda (also known as Tabar-e-Hind or Tabarhindh meaning the Gateway to India) is a city and Municipal Corporation in Southern part of Punjab, India.
Bathinda Airport is an airport serving Bathinda, a city in the Indian state of Punjab.
Bathinda district is in Malwa region of Punjab, India.
Bathinda railway station is located in Bathinda in the Indian state of Punjab.
The Battle of Bhangani (ਭੰਗਾਣੀ ਦਾ ਯੁੱਧ) was fought between Guru Gobind Singh's army and the combined forces of many Rajas of the Sivalik Hills (pahari rajas), on 18 September 1686, at Bhangani near Paonta Sahib.
The Bay of Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গোপসাগর) is the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean, bounded on the west and north by India and Bangladesh, and on the east by Myanmar and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India).
The Beas River also known as the Biás or Bias, (Sanskrit: विपाशा Vipāśā; Hyphasis), is a river in north India.
The Bhagavad Gita (भगवद्गीता, in IAST,, lit. "The Song of God"), often referred to as the Gita, is a 700 verse Hindu scripture in Sanskrit that is part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata (chapters 23–40 of the 6th book of Mahabharata).
Bhai Mati Das (Punjabi: ਭਾਈ ਮਤੀ ਦਾਸ; died 1675) along with his younger brother Bhai Sati Das were martyrs of early Sikh history.
The term Bhaṅgṛā (ਭੰਗੜਾ (Gurmukhi), (Shahmukhi); pronounced) refers to the traditional dance from the Indian subcontinent originating in the Majha area of the Punjab region.
Bhaṅgṛā (بھنگڑ(Shahmukhi), ਭੰਗੜਾ (Gurmukhi)) is a type of upbeat popular music associated with India and the diaspora of southeast Asia into the North America and Europe.
The Bharatiya Janata Party (translation: Indian People's Party; BJP) is one of the two major political parties in India, along with the Indian National Congress.
A bicycle, also called a cycle or bike, is a human-powered, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle, having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other.
92.7 BIG FM is a nationwide private FM radio station in India owned by Indian businessman Anil Ambani.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
The blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra), also known as the Indian antelope, is an antelope found in India, Nepal and Pakistan.
Bṛhatkathā (Sanskrit, "the Great Narrative") is an ancient Indian epic, said to have been written by Guṇāḍhya in a poorly-understood language known as Paiśācī.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
Bryophytes are an informal group consisting of three divisions of non-vascular land plants (embryophytes): the liverworts, hornworts and mosses.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Bus rapid transit (BRT, BRTS, busway, transitway) is a bus-based public transport system designed to improve capacity and reliability relative to a conventional bus system.
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Chandigarh is a city and a union territory in India that serves as the capital of the two neighbouring states of Haryana and Punjab.
Chandigarh Airport is an international airport which serves the Union Territory Chandigarh, Chandigarh capital region including Panchkula, Mohali and the Indian states of Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh.
Chandragupta Maurya (reign: 321–297 BCE) was the founder of the Maurya Empire in ancient India.
The Charaka Saṃhitā or Compendium of Charaka (Sanskrit चरक संहिता IAST: caraka-saṃhitā) is a Sanskrit text on Ayurveda (Indian traditional medicine).
The Chenab River (चेनाब; ਚਨਾਬ,; چناب) is a major river that flows in India and Pakistan, and is one of the 5 major rivers of the Punjab region.
The Chief Khalsa Diwan is a 111-year-old Sikh organisation, which is the central Organization of various Singh Sabhas spread across Punjab.
The Christian Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, India was the first medical school for women in Asia.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Cis-Sutlej states were a group of small states in Punjab region in the 19th century, lying between the Sutlej River on the north, the Himalayas on the east, the Yamuna River and Delhi District on the south, and Sirsa District on the west.
Clothing (also known as clothes and attire) is a collective term for garments, items worn on the body.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
The Columbia Water Center (CWC) was established in January 2008 as a branch of the Earth Institute at Columbia University.
Ficus carica is an Asian species of flowering plant in the mulberry family, known as the common fig (or just the fig).
Company rule in India (sometimes, Company Raj, "raj, lit. "rule" in Hindi) refers to the rule or dominion of the British East India Company over parts of the Indian subcontinent.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
Daily Punjab Times is a Punjabi language leading daily newspaper owned by PT Live Private Limited from Jalandhar City, publishes in the East Punjab (India) and Baljit Singh Brar is the editor.
Dalbergia sissoo, known commonly as North Indian rosewood, is a fast-growing, hardy deciduous rosewood tree native to the Indian Subcontinent and Southern Iran.
Dara Shukoh, also known as Dara Shikoh (دارا شِکوہ), (20 March 1615 – 30 August 1659), was the eldest son and heir-apparent of the fifth Mughal emperor Shah Jahan.
DD Punjabi (ਡ.ਡ. ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) is a state-owned Punjabi language TV channel, started in 1998, which is produced and telecasted from Doordarshan Kendra Jalandhar in Indian Punjab.
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
Delhi Sikh Gurdwara Management Committee or DSGMC is an autonomous organisation which manages Gurudwaras in Delhi state.
The Delhi Sultanate (Persian:دهلی سلطان, Urdu) was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
The population of Afghanistan is around 33 million as of 2016, which includes the roughly 3 million Afghan citizens living as refugees in both Pakistan and Iran.
Demography (from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, implies "writing, description or measurement") is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Devi Talab Mandir (Hindi: देवी तालाब मंदिर) or Devi Talab Temple is a Hindu temple located in Jalandhar, Punjab, India.
Dhamaal (धमाल; English translation: Fun) is a 2007 Indian comedy film directed by Indra Kumar and produced by Ashok Thakeria.
Doaba also known as Bist Doab, is the region of Punjab, India that lies between the Beas River and the Sutlej River.
Doabi is a Punjabi dialect spoken in the Doaba.
Doordarshan (abbreviated in English as DD) is an autonomous public service broadcaster founded by the Government of India, which is owned by the Broadcasting Ministry of India and is one of two divisions of Prasar Bharati.
Dulla Bhatti (popularly referred to as the "Son of Punjab" or "Robin Hood of Punjab", sometimes spelled Dulha Bhatti and also known as Abdullah Bhatti) (died 1599) came from the Punjab region of medieval India and led a revolt against Mughal rule during the rule of the emperor Akbar.
Durga, also identified as Adi Parashakti, Devī, Shakti, Bhavani, Parvati, Amba and by numerous other names, is a principal and popular form of Hindu goddess.
The Indian subcontinent has a history of devastating earthquakes.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
East Punjab (known simply as Punjab from 1950) was a province and later a state of India from 1947 until 1966, consisting of the parts of the Punjab Province of British India that went to India following the partition of the province between India and Pakistan by the Radcliffe Commission in 1947.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Faridkot district is one of the 22 districts in the state of Punjab, India with Faridkot city as the district headquarters.
Faridkot State was a self-governing princely state outside British India during the British Raj period in the Indian sub-continent.
Farīd al-Dīn Masʿūd Ganj-i-Shakar (c. 1175-1266), known reverentially as Bābā Farīd or Shaykh Farīd by Muslims, Sikhs and Hindus of the Punjab Region, or simply as Farīduddīn Ganjshakar, was a 12th-century Punjabi Muslim preacher and mystic who went on to become "one of the most revered and distinguished...
Fatehgarh Sahib district is one of the twenty-two districts of the state of Punjab in North-West India, with its headquarters in the city of Fatehgarh Sahib.
Fazilka is a town and a municipal council in Punjab, India.
Fazilka district is one of new and 22 districts in the state of Punjab in India.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
Field artillery is a category of mobile artillery used to support armies in the field.
Field hockey is a team game of the hockey family.
Financial services are the economic services provided by the finance industry, which encompasses a broad range of businesses that manage money, including credit unions, banks, credit-card companies, insurance companies, accountancy companies, consumer-finance companies, stock brokerages, investment funds, individual managers and some government-sponsored enterprises.
Firozpur, also known as Ferozepur, is a city on the banks of the Sutlej River in Firozpur District, Punjab, India.
Firozpur Cantonment railway station is located in Firozpur district in the Indian state of Punjab and serves Firozpur, on the banks of the Sutlej River.
Firozpur district is one of the twenty-two districts in the state of Punjab located in the North-West of the Republic of India.
Firozpur railway division is one of the five railway divisions under Northern Railway zone (NR) of Indian Railways.
The First Anglo-Sikh War was fought between the Sikh Empire and the East India Company between 1845 and 1846.
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
Punjabi dances are an array of folk and religious dances of the Punjabi people indigenous to the Punjab region, straddling the border of India and Pakistan.
Punjabi folk music (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਲੋਕ ਸੰਗੀਤ) is the traditional music on the traditional musical instruments of the Punjab region.
Forced conversion is adoption of a different religion or irreligion under duress.
Forward caste (also known as Forward Class, Forward Community, and General Class) is a term used in India to denote groups of people who do not qualify for any of the affirmative action schemes operated by the government of India.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
Gandhāra was an ancient kingdom situated along the Kabul and Swat rivers of Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
General Gerard Lake, 1st Viscount Lake (27 July 1744 – 20 February 1808) was a British general.
The Ghaggar-Hakra River is an intermittent, endorheic river in India and Pakistan that flows only during the monsoon season.
Ghee is a class of clarified butter that originated from the Indian subcontinent.
Giddha (گدها) is a popular folk dance of women in Punjab region of India and Pakistan.
Sri Harmandir Sahib ("The abode of God"), also known as Darbar Sahib,, informally referred to as the Golden Temple, is a Gurdwara located in the city of Amritsar, Punjab, India.
Government Museum and Art Gallery, Chandigarh, is a premier museum of North India having collections of Gandharan sculptures, Pahari and Rajasthani miniature paintings.
The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.
The Government of Punjab also known as the State Government of Punjab, or locally as State Government, is the supreme governing authority of the Indian state of Punjab and its 22 districts.
The Grand Trunk Road is one of Asia's oldest and longest major roads.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
The Green Revolution, or Third Agricultural Revolution, refers to a set of research and the development of technology transfer initiatives occurring between the 1930s and the late 1960s (with prequels in the work of the agrarian geneticist Nazareno Strampelli in the 1920s and 1930s), that increased agricultural production worldwide, particularly in the developing world, beginning most markedly in the late 1960s.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Gulab Singh (1792–1857) was the founder of royal Dogra dynasty and first Maharaja of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, the second largest princely state in British India, which was created after the defeat of the Sikh Empire in the First Anglo-Sikh War.
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire, existing from approximately 240 to 590 CE.
Gurdaspur district is a district in the Majha region of the state of Punjab, situated in the northwest part of the Republic of India.
Gurdaspur railway station is a main railway station in Gurdaspur district, Punjab.
A gurdwara (ਗੁਰਦੁਆਰਾ, or ਗੁਰਦਵਾਰਾ,; meaning "door to the guru") is a place of worship for Sikhs.
The Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty, also known as the Pratihara Empire, was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, that ruled much of Northern India from the mid-7th to the 11th century.
Gurmukhi (Gurmukhi (the literal meaning being "from the Guru's mouth"): ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ) is a Sikh script modified, standardized and used by the second Sikh Guru, Guru Angad (1563–1606).
Guru Amar Das (5 May 1479 – 1 September 1574) was the third of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Sikh Guru on 26 March 1552 at age 73.
Guru Angad (31 March 1504 – 29 March 1552) was the second of the ten Sikh Gurus.
Guru Arjan (ਗੁਰੂ ਅਰਜੁਨ Guru Arjan) 15 April 1563 – 30 May 1606) was the first of the two Gurus martyred in the Sikh faith and the fifth of the ten total Sikh Gurus. He compiled the first official edition of the Sikh scripture called the Adi Granth, which later expanded into the Guru Granth Sahib. He was born in Goindval, in the Punjab, the youngest son of Bhai Jetha, who later became Guru Ram Das, and Mata Bhani, the daughter of Guru Amar Das. He was the first Guru in Sikhism to be born into a Sikh family. Guru Arjan led Sikhism for a quarter of a century. He completed the construction of Darbar Sahib at Amritsar, after the fourth Sikh Guru founded the town and built a pool. Guru Arjan compiled the hymns of previous Gurus and of other saints into Adi Granth, the first edition of the Sikh scripture, and installed it in the Harimandir Sahib. Guru Arjan reorganized the Masands system initiated by Guru Ram Das, by suggesting that the Sikhs donate, if possible, one tenth of their income, goods or service to the Sikh organization (dasvand). The Masand not only collected these funds but also taught tenets of Sikhism and settled civil disputes in their region. The dasvand financed the building of gurdwaras and langars (shared communal kitchens). Guru Arjan was arrested under the orders of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir and asked to convert to Islam. He refused, was tortured and executed in 1606 CE. Historical records and the Sikh tradition are unclear whether Guru Arjan was executed by drowning or died during torture. His martyrdom is considered a watershed event in the history of Sikhism. It is remembered as Shaheedi Divas of Guru Arjan in May or June according to the Nanakshahi calendar released by the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee in 2003.
Guru Gobind Singh (Gurmukhi: ਗੁਰੂ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਸਿੰਘ) (5 January 1666 – 7 October 1708), born Gobind Rai, was the tenth Sikh Guru, a spiritual master, warrior, poet and philosopher.
Guru Har Rai (16 January 1630 – 6 October 1661) revered as the seventh Nanak, was the seventh of ten Gurus of the Sikh religion.
Guru Hargobind (19 June 1595 - 3 March 1644), revered as the sixth Nanak, was the sixth of ten Gurus of the Sikh religion.
Guru Nanak (IAST: Gurū Nānak) (15 April 1469 – 22 September 1539) was the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Sikh Gurus.
Guru Ram Das (1534–1581) was the fourth of the ten Gurus of Sikhism.
Guru Tegh Bahadur (1 April 1621 – 24 November 1675), revered as the ninth Nanak, was the ninth of ten Gurus of the Sikh religion.
Gwalior is a major and the northern-most city in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh and one of the Counter-magnet cities.
The gymnosperms are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes.
Hail is a form of solid precipitation.
Har Gobind Khorana (9 January 1922 – 9 November 2011) was an Indian American biochemist.
Harike Wetland also known as "Hari-ke-Pattan", with the Harike Lake in the deeper part of it, is the largest wetland in northern India in the border of Tarn Taran Sahib district and Ferozepur district of the Punjab state in India.
Harsha (c. 590–647 CE), also known as Harshavardhana, was an Indian emperor who ruled North India from 606 to 647 CE.
Haryana, carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1November 1966 on linguistic basis, is one of the 29 states in India.
Heer Ranjha (ہیر رانجھا) is one of several popular tragic romances of Punjab.
Higher education (also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education) is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education.
Himachal Pradesh (literally "snow-laden province") is a Indian state located in North India.
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
The Hindu Shahi held sway over the Kabul Valley and Gandhara (modern-day Pakistan and Afghanistan) from as far back as the fourth century CE.
A Hindu temple is a symbolic house, seat and body of god.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Hindustan is the Persian name for India, broadly the Indian subcontinent, which later became an endonym.
The history of Buddhism spans from the 5th century BCE to the present.
History of Hinduism denotes a wide variety of related religious traditions native to the Indian subcontinent notably in modern-day Nepal and India.
The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.
The history of Islam concerns the political, social,economic and cultural developments of the Islamic civilization.
The history of Sikhism started with Guru Nanak Dev Ji, the first Guru in the fifteenth century in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent.
Hola Mohalla (ਹੋਲਾ ਮਹੱਲਾ, होला मोहल्ला), also called Hola, is a one-day Sikh festival which most often falls in March and takes place on the second day of the lunar month of Chett, a day after the Hindu spring festival Holi but sometimes coincides with Holi.
Hoshiarpur is a city and a municipal corporation in Hoshiarpur district in the Doaba region of the Indian state of Punjab.
Hoshiarpur District is a district of Punjab state in northern India.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
Humidity is the amount of water vapor present in the air.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian National Congress (INC, often called Congress Party) is a broadly based political party in India.
Indian Railways (IR) is India's national railway system operated by the Ministry of Railways.
The Indian rupee sign (sign:; code: INR) is the currency sign for the Indian rupee, the official currency of India.
Indian Standard Time (IST) is the time observed throughout India, with a time offset of UTC+05:30.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
The Instrument of Accession was a legal document first introduced by the Government of India Act 1935 and used in 1947 to enable each of the rulers of the princely states under British paramountcy to join one of the new dominions of India or Pakistan created by the Partition of British India.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
ISO 3166-2:IN is the entry for India in ISO 3166-2, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which defines codes for the names of the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1.
Jagbani is a punjabi language newspaper that is circulated in the state of Punjab, India.
Jagat Singh Virk (1901/02–1931/32), best known as Jagga Jatt or Jagga Daku, was a 20th-century heroic rebel of Punjab.
Mirza Nur-ud-din Beig Mohammad Khan Salim مرزا نور الدین محمد خان سلیم, known by his imperial name (جہانگیر) Jahangir (31 August 1569 – 28 October 1627), was the fourth Mughal Emperor who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
Jalandhar, formerly known as Jullundur in British India, is a city in the Doaba region of the northwestern Indian state of Punjab.
Jalandhar Cantonment railway station is located in Jalandhar district in the Indian state of Punjab and serves Jalandhar.
Jalandhar City railway station is located in Jalandhar district in the Indian state of Punjab and serves Jalandhar.
Jalandhar district (Jalandhar Zilā) is a district in Doaba region of the state of Punjab in North-West Republic of India.
The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, also known as the Amritsar massacre, took place on 13 April 1919 when troops of the British Indian Army under the command of Colonel Reginald Dyer fired rifles into a crowd of Indians, who had gathered in Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar, Punjab.
Jammu is the largest city in the Jammu Division and the winter capital of state of Jammu and Kashmir in India.
Jammu and Kashmir (ænd) is a state in northern India, often denoted by its acronym, J&K.
Jatt Jeona Morh (ਜੱਟ ਜਿਉਣਾ ਮੌੜ), released in 1991, is a Punjabi film directed by Ravinder Ravi and starring Gugu Gill and Gurkirtan.
The Jhelum River, Vitasta (Sanskrit: वितस्ता, fem., also, Vetastā, Kashmiri: Vyeth(ویتھ/व्यथा)), is a river of northwestern India and eastern Pakistan. It is the westernmost of the five rivers of Punjab, and passes through Srinager District. It is a tributary of the Indus River and has a total length of about.
Jind is a city in the Indian state of Haryana.
The Indian Judiciary administers a ''common law system'' of legal jurisdiction, in which customs, precedents and legislation, all codify the law of the land.
Kaithal is a city and a municipal council in Kaithal district in the Indian state of Haryana.
Kanjli Wetland, a man made Wetland, which subsumes the Kanjli Lake, located in the Kapurthala district of Punjab state in India, was created in 1870 by constructing the headworks across the perennial Bien River, a tributary of the Beas River to provide irrigation facilities to the hinterland.
Kapil Dev Nikhanj (born 6 January 1959), better known as Kapil Dev, is a former Indian cricketer.
Kapurthala is a city in Punjab state of India.
Kapurthala district is a district of Punjab state in northern Republic of India.
Karachi (کراچی; ALA-LC:,; ڪراچي) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh.
Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.
The Kashmiri Pandits (also known as Kashmiri Brahmins) are a Saraswat Brahmin community from the Kashmir Valley, a mountainous region in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.
Katoch is a Rajput clan of the Chandravanshi lineage.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
Khalsa (Punjabi: "the pure") refers to both a special group of initiated Sikh warriors, as well as a community that considers Sikhism as its faith.
Khusrau Mirza (Urdu:; 16August 1587 – 26 January 1622) or Prince Khusrau was the eldest son of the Mughal emperor Jahangir.
The Khyber Pass (د خیبر درہ, درۂ خیبر) (elevation) is a mountain pass in the north of Pakistan, close to the border with Afghanistan.
Kila Raipur is a noted village of Ludhiana district in Punjab, India as it hosts the annual Kila Raipur Sports Festival, known as the Rural Olympics.
Kila Raipur Sports Festival, popularly known as the Rural Olympics, is held annually in Kila Raipur (near Ludhiana), in Punjab, India.
Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.
Kurukshetra University is a university established on 11January 1957 in Kurukshetra in the Indian state of Haryana, from the capital, Delhi.
The Kushan Empire (Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; Κυϸανο, Kushano; कुषाण साम्राज्य Kuṣāṇa Samrajya; BHS:; Chinese: 貴霜帝國; Kušan-xšaθr) was a syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century.
Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.
Lahore Junction railway station (Urdu, لاہور جنکشن ریلوے اسٹیشن) is the main railway station in Lahore, Pakistan.
The Lahore Resolution (قرارداد لاہور, Karardad-e-Lahore; Bengali: লাহোর প্রস্তাব, Lahor Prostab),was a declaration written by Muhammad Zafarullah Khan and others and presented by A. K. Fazl ul Huq, the Prime Minister of Bengal, was a formal political statement adopted by the All-India Muslim League on the occasion of its three-day general session in Lahore on 22–24 March 1940.
A lakh (abbreviated L; sometimes written Lac or Lacs) is a unit in the Indian numbering system equal to one hundred thousand (100,000; scientific notation: 105).
Langar (ਲੰਗਰ) (kitchen) is the term used in Sikhism for the community kitchen in a Gurdwara where a free meal is served to all the visitors, without distinction of religion, caste, gender, economic status or ethnicity.
Charles-Édouard Jeanneret (6 October 1887 – 27 August 1965), known as Le Corbusier, was a Swiss-French architect, designer, painter, urban planner, writer, and one of the pioneers of what is now called modern architecture.
Lepidoptera is an order of insects that includes butterflies and moths (both are called lepidopterans).
The Lion Capital of Ashoka is a sculpture of four Asiatic lions standing back to back, on an elaborate base that includes other animals.
The Chief Minister of Punjab, a north Indian state, is the head of the Government of Punjab.
This is a list of deemed universities in India established under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956.
A district (zilā) is an administrative division of an Indian state or territory.
A district of the Punjab state of India is an administrative geographical unit, headed by a Deputy Commissioner or District Magistrate, an officer belonging to the Indian Administrative Service.
This is a List of the Governors of Punjab state in India since its independence on 15 August 1947.
There are 24 high courts at the state and union territory level of India, which together with the Supreme Court of India at the national level, comprise the country's judicial system.
The national average HDI for India in 2008 was 0.467.
The Nobel Prizes (Nobelpriset, Nobelprisen) are prizes awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.
This is a list of notable Indian people from Punjab.
Poets of Punjabi language.
This is a list of channels broadcast in Punjabi language.
This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.
The following is a list of states and union territories of the Republic of India by area from largest to smallest according to the census of 2011.
India is a union of 29 states and 7 union territories.
Lohgarh is a village in Notified Area Committee of Zirakpur in district Mohali in state of Punjab in India.
Lohri is a popular winter time Punjabi folk festival, celebrated primarily by Sikhs and Hindus from the Punjab region of Indian subcontinent.
Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book publisher in the world.
Ludhiana is a city and a municipal corporation in Ludhiana district in the Indian state of Punjab, and India's largest city north of Delhi, with an area of 310sq.
Ludhiana District is one of the 22 districts in the state of Punjab in northwest India.
Ludhiana railway station is located in Ludhiana district in the Indian state of Punjab and serves Ludhiana.
A machine tool is a machine for shaping or machining metal or other rigid materials, usually by cutting, boring, grinding, shearing, or other forms of deformation.
The Mahābhārata (महाभारतम्) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
The Majha (Punjabi: ਮਾਝਾ (Gurmukhi), (Shahmukhi); Mājhā) region is recognized as the region that is located at the center of the historical Punjab region, that is northward from the right banks of river Beas, and extends up to river Jhelum at its northmost.
Majhi (ماجھی; ਮਾਝੀ) is the standard dialect of Punjabi and is spoken in the Majha region of the Punjab.
Makki di roti (ਮੱਕੀ ਦੀ ਰੋਟੀ (Gurmukhi),(Shahmukhi), मक्की दी रोटी (Devanagari)) (Urdu: مکئی کی روٹی) is a flat, unleavened Punjabi bread made from corn meal, primarily eaten in Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent.
Malerkotla (ملِیرکوٹلہ), is a city and a municipal council in Sangrur district in the Indian state of Punjab.
The State of Malerkotla or Maler Kotla(رِیاست ملِیرکوٹلہ) was a princely state in the Punjab region during the era of British India.
Malwa is the region of Punjab south of the Satluj river.
Malwai is a Punjabi dialect spoken in the Malwa region of Punjab.
Mandi Gobindgarh is a town and municipal committee in Fatehgarh Sahib district in the state of Punjab in North India.
Mangoes are juicy stone fruit (drupe) from numerous species of tropical trees belonging to the flowering plant genus Mangifera, cultivated mostly for their edible fruit.
Manmohan Singh (born 26 September 1932) is an Indian economist and politician who served as the Prime Minister of India from 2004 to 2014.
Mansa district falls under the Indian state of Punjab.
The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was an Indian power that dominated much of the Indian subcontinent in the 17th and 18th century.
A martyr (Greek: μάρτυς, mártys, "witness"; stem μάρτυρ-, mártyr-) is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party.
The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.
Mela Maghi, held at the holy city of Sri Muktsar Sahib each year in January, or the month of Magh according to Nanakshahi calendar is one of the most important melas (fairs) of India and the most important of all religiously significant gatherings of the Sikhs.
Mirza Sahiba (ਮਿਰਜ਼ਾ ਸਾਹਿਬਾਂ, مرزا صاحباں) is one of the three popular tragic romances of India.
Misl generally refers to the sovereign states of the Sikh Confederacy, that rose during the 18th century in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent after the collapse of the Mughal Empire.
Moga district is one of the twenty two districts in the state of Punjab in North-West Republic of India.
Moga railway station is located in Moga district in the Indian state of Punjab and serves Moga city.
Mohali, Ajitgarh or Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar is a city in the Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar district (SAS Nagar) in Punjab, India, which is a commercial hub lying south-west to the Union Territory of Chandigarh.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
Morus, a genus of flowering plants in the family Moraceae, comprises 10–16 species of deciduous trees commonly known as mulberries, growing wild and under cultivation in many temperate world regions.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
Multan (Punjabi, Saraiki, مُلتان), is a Pakistani city and the headquarters of Multan District in the province of Punjab.
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.
Punjab is a region in South Asia, divided into two parts East Punjab (India) and West Punjab (Pakistan).
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The Nanda dynasty originated from the region of Magadha in ancient India during the 4th century BCE and lasted between 345–321 BCE.
Nanded is a city in Maharashtra state, India.
The national highways network of India is a network of trunk roads that is managed and maintained by CPWD, Central Public Works Department, an agency of the Government of India.
National Highway 1 or NH 1 was a National Highway in Northern India that linked the national capital New Delhi to the town of Attari in Punjab near the India–Pakistan border.
National Highway 10 was a National Highway, length, in northern India that originated at Delhi and ended at the town of Fazilka in Punjab near the Indo-Pak Border.
National Highway 154 (NH 154) is a National Highway in India.
National Highway 1A (NH 1A) was a National Highway in North India that connected the Kashmir valley to Jammu and the rest of India.
National Highway 205 commonly referred to as NH 205, is a highway in India.
National Highway 5 commonly referred to as NH5, is a national highway in India running from West to East, connecting Firozpur in Punjab to the Sino-Indian border at Shipki La.
National Highway 68 (NH 68) is a National Highway in India connecting states of Rajasthan and Gujarat.
National Highway 7 (NH 7) is a highway connecting Fazilka (Punjab) to Mana (Uttarakhand) in India.
National Highway 70 (NH 70) was a National Highway in Northern India linking Jalandhar in Punjab to Mandi in Himachal Pradesh.
National Highway 703 (NH 703) is a National Highway in Northern India.
Nawan Zamana is a Punjabi language daily newspaper owned by the Arjan Singh Gargaj Foundation, published in Jalandhar, East Punjab, since 1952.
Nawanshahr is a town that became a district in 1995; now it is a municipal council in Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar district in the Indian state of Punjab.
Nirukta (निरुक्त) means "explained, interpreted" and refers to one of the six ancient Vedangas, or ancillary science connected with the Vedas – the scriptures of Hinduism.
The northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) is a medium-large raptor in the family Accipitridae, which also includes other extant diurnal raptors, such as eagles, buzzards and harriers.
The Northern Railway (abbreviated NR and उरे) is one of the 17 Railway zones of India and the northernmost zone of the Indian Railways.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
The orange is the fruit of the citrus species ''Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' in the family Rutaceae.
Other Backward Class (OBC) is a collective term used by the Government of India to classify castes which are socially or educationally or economically disadvantaged.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Pakistan Railways (پاکستان ریلویز) is the national, state-owned railway company of Pakistan.
The Pala Empire was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal.
The Panjab Digital Library is a voluntary organization digitizing and preserving the cultural heritage of Panjab since 2003.
Panjab University is a public collegiate university located in Chandigarh, India.
Paonta Sahib (पांवटा साहिब, ਪਾਂਉਟਾ ਸਾਹਿਬ) is one of the major industrial towns of Himachal Pradesh in India.
The Partition Museum is a public museum located in the Town Hall in Amritsar, India.
The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.
Pathankot is a city in the Punjab state of India.
Pathankot Airport (IATA: IXP, ICAO: VIPK) is a Civil (Domestic) Airport.
Pathankot district, is a district of Indian Punjab, located in the north zone of the state.
Pathankot railway station is located in Pathankot district in the Indian state of Punjab and serves Pathankot.
Patiala is a city in southeastern Punjab, northwestern India.
Patiala Airport (Patiala Aviation Complex) is a civil aerodrome located in Patiala, Punjab in India.
The Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU) was a state of India uniting eight princely states between 1948 and 1956.
Patiala district is one of the twenty two districts in the state of Punjab in north-west India.
The Patiala gharana (پٹیالہ گھرانہ), is one of the gharanas (singing schools or styles) of vocal Hindustani classical music.
Patiala railway station (Punjabi: ਪਟਿਆਲਾ Hindi:पटियाला) is a railway station serving Patiala city of Punjab in India.
(पाणिनि, Frits Staal (1965),, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 15, No. 2 (Apr., 1965), pp. 99-116) is an ancient Sanskrit philologist, grammarian, and a revered scholar in Hinduism.
The peach (Prunus persica) is a deciduous tree native to the region of Northwest China between the Tarim Basin and the north slopes of the Kunlun Mountains, where it was first domesticated and cultivated.
Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) is the most widely grown type of millet.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Peshawar (پېښور; پشاور; پشور) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Phagwara railway station is located in Kapurthala district in the Indian state of Punjab and serves the textile town of Phagwara.
Pine oil is an essential oil obtained by the steam distillation of stumps, needles, twigs and cones from a variety of species of pine, particularly Pinus sylvestris.
Pinus roxburghii, commonly known as chir pine or longleaf Indian pine, is a species of pine.
A plum is a fruit of the subgenus Prunus of the genus Prunus. The subgenus is distinguished from other subgenera (peaches, cherries, bird cherries, etc.) in the shoots having terminal bud and solitary side buds (not clustered), the flowers in groups of one to five together on short stems, and the fruit having a groove running down one side and a smooth stone (or pit).
Powadh (or Puadh or Powadha) is a region of the Punjab, India and Haryana states in northwest India.
Before 1947 partition of Punjab, politics were dominated by Unionist Party as it was main party in united Punjab especially seen in 1937 elections.
The pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree in the family Lythraceae that grows between tall.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
The President of the Republic of India is the head of state of India and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces.
In India, President's rule refers to suspension of state government and imposition of direct Central Government rule in a state.
The Prime Minister of India is the leader of the executive of the Government of India.
A princely state, also called native state (legally, under the British) or Indian state (for those states on the subcontinent), was a vassal state under a local or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj.
PTC is a popular Punjabi television network from India and is owned by PTC Network.
A pteridophyte is a vascular plant (with xylem and phloem) that disperses spores (and lacks seeds).
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
The Punjab Agricultural University (PAU) in Ludhiana, Punjab is a state agricultural university in India.
High Court of Punjab and Haryana is the common High Court for Indian states of Haryana and Punjab and Union Territory of Chandigarh based in Chandigarh, India.
First (and only) Punjab Games were held from 5–11 December 2004, in Patiala city in Indian Punjab.
Punjab Gharānā (sometimes called Punjabi or Panjabi Gharānā), is a style and technique of Tabla playing that originated in the Punjab region of what is now split in present-day Pakistan and India.
The Punjab Legislative Assembly or the Punjab Vidhan Sabha (ਪੰਜਾਬ ਵਿਧਾਨ ਸਭਾ) is the unicameral legislature of the state of Punjab in northern India.
The Punjab Police (abbreviated as PP) is the police agency responsible for Law enforcement and investigations within the state of Punjab, India.
Punjab, also spelled Panjab, was a province of British India.
The Punjab Regiment is one of the oldest regiments still in service in the Indian Army, and is the most senior regional infantry regiment.
Punjab School Education Board (abbreviated P.S.E.B.) is a school board based in Chandigarh, India.
Punjab is a state in northern India.
Punjab (Urdu, Punjabi:, panj-āb, "five waters") is Pakistan's second largest province by area, after Balochistan, and its most populous province, with an estimated population of 110,012,442 as of 2017.
Punjabi cinema (پنجابی سنیما (Shahmukhi)), sometimes metonymously referred to as Pollywood, is the Punjabi language film industry of the Punjabi people of the world.
Punjabi cuisine is associated with food from the Punjab region of India and Pakistan.
The culture of the Punjab encompasses the spoken language, written literature, cuisine, science, technology, military warfare, architecture, traditions, values and history of the Punjabi people.
Punjabi folklore, more particularly its folksongs, is said to be the autobiography of its people.
Punjabi Hindus are a group of people that follow the Hindu religion and have their roots and origin in the Punjab region of the Indian Subcontinent.
Punjabi kabaddi, also called kauddi, is a contact sport that originated in the Punjab region.
Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
Punjabi literature, specifically literary works written in the Punjabi language, is characteristic of the historical Punjab of India and Pakistan and the Punjabi diaspora.
A Punjabi Qissa (پنجابی قصه (Shahmukhi), ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਕਿੱਸਾ (Gurmukhi); Plural: Qisse) is a tradition of Punjabi language oral story-telling that came to South Asia with migrants from the Arabian peninsula and contemporary Iran and Afghanistan.
Punjabi Tribune is a Punjabi language daily newspaper owned by The Tribune Trust, publishes in the Punjab, India.
Punjabi wedding traditions are a strong reflection of Punjabi culture with ritual, song, dance, food, and dress that have evolved over centuries.
The Punjabis (Punjabi:, ਪੰਜਾਬੀ), or Punjabi people, are an ethnic group associated with the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, who speak Punjabi, a language from the Indo-Aryan language family.
Puran Bhagat was a Punjabi ascetic and Prince of Sailkot.
Pwadhi (ਪੁਆਧੀ) is one of the eastern dialects of Punjabi spoken in Powadh (also Poadh or Powadha), a region of Punjab and also in parts of Haryana between the Satluj and Ghaggar river basin.
The quince (Cydonia oblonga) is the sole member of the genus Cydonia in the family Rosaceae (which also contains apples and pears, among other fruits).
Radio Mantra is owned and operated by Dainik Jagran group promoting Shri Puran Multimedia Ltd (SPML).
Radio Mirchi is a nationwide network of private FM radio stations in India.
Rajasthan (literally, "Land of Kings") is India's largest state by area (or 10.4% of India's total area).
Raksha Bandhan, also Rakshabandhan, Quote: m Hindi rakśābandhan held on the full moon of the month of Savan, when sisters tie a talisman (rakhi q.v.) on the arm of their brothers and receive small gifts of money from them.
Ramayana (रामायणम्) is an ancient Indian epic poem which narrates the struggle of the divine prince Rama to rescue his wife Sita from the demon king Ravana.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780 –1839) was the leader of the Sikh Empire, which ruled the northwest Indian subcontinent in the early half of the 19th century.
The Ravi (ਰਾਵੀ, راوی, रावी) is a transboundary river crossing northwestern India and eastern Pakistan.
Religious conversion is the adoption of a set of beliefs identified with one particular religious denomination to the exclusion of others.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.
Rivers, such as the Sapta Sindhavah ("seven rivers" सप्त सिन्धव) play a prominent part in the hymns of the Rig Veda, and consequently in early Hindu religion.
In metalworking, rolling is a metal forming process in which metal stock is passed through one or more pairs of rolls to reduce the thickness and to make the thickness uniform.
Rozana Spokesman is a Punjabi-language daily newspaper in India, mainly circulated in the Punjab region.
Rupnagar (formerly known as Ropar or Rupar), is a city and a municipal council in Rupnagar district in the Indian state of Punjab.
Rupnagar district is one of the twenty two districts in the state of Punjab in North-West Republic of India.
Sadhaura is a city and a Gram Sabha in Yamunanagar district in the Indian state of Haryana.
Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar district (SAS Nagar district)), also known as Ajitgarh district, or Mohali district is one of the twenty two districts of Punjab a state in north-west India. It was formed in April 2006 and is 18th district of Punjab, created next to Pathankot district. This district was carved out of areas falling in Ropar and Patiala District. It is situated next to the union territory of Chandigarh and Panchkula district of Haryana. SAS Nagar is named after the eldest son of Guru Gobind Singh, Sahibzada Ajit Singh which means "House of Sahibzada Ajit Singh".
Sahnewal Airport, also known as Ludhiana Airport, is the local airport serving the city of Ludhiana and other sub-cities of Ludhiana District in Punjab.
Samana is a city and a municipal council in Patiala district in the Indian state of Punjab.
The Samjhauta Express (समझौता एक्सप्रेस, Punjabi language: ਸਮਝੌਤਾ ਐਕਸਪ੍ਰੈਸ, سمجھوتا اکسپريس) commonly called the Friend Express, is a twice-weekly trainWednesday and Sunday runs between Delhi and Attari in India and Lahore in Pakistan.
Sammi (Gurmukhi: ਸੰਮੀ, Shahmukhi: سمّی) is a traditional dance form originating from the tribal communities of Punjab.
Sangrur is a town in the Indian state of Punjab, India.
Sangrur district is in the state of Punjab in North-West Republic of India.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sarasvati River (Sanskrit: सरस्वती नदी, IAST: sárasvatī nadī) is one of the Rigvedic rivers mentioned in the Rig Veda and later Vedic and post-Vedic texts.
Saraswati (सरस्वती) is the Hindu goddess of knowledge, music, art, wisdom and learning worshipped throughout Nepal and India.
Sarson da saag (Sarson ka saag, in Hindi, Urdu) is a popular vegetarian dish from the Punjab and Rajasthan regions of the Indian subcontinent, made from mustard greens (sarson) and Indian spices.
SAS Nagar Mohali railway station is main railway station in Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar district in Punjab.
Sassi Punnuh or Sassui Punhun (سَسُئيِ پُنهوُن, Sassi Punnun) is a love story from Sindi and Balochi folklore.
The Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) are officially designated groups of historically disadvantaged people in India.
A scientific instrument is, broadly speaking, a device or tool used for scientific purposes, including the study of both natural phenomena and theoretical research.
Scindia (anglicized from Shinde and also spelled as Scindhia, Sindhia, Sindia) is a Hindu Maratha dynasty that ruled the Gwalior State.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
The Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803–1805) was the second conflict between the British East India Company and the Maratha Empire in India.
The Second Anglo-Sikh War was a military conflict between the Sikh Empire and the British East India Company that took place in 1848 and 1849.
The Semantic Web is an extension of the World Wide Web through standards by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).
A sewing machine is a machine used to stitch fabric and other materials together with thread.
Mirza Shahab-ud-din Baig Muhammad Khan Khurram (5 January 1592 – 22 January 1666), better known by his regnal name Shah Jahan (شاہ جہاں), (Persian:شاه جهان "King of the World"), was the fifth Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1628 to 1658.
Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar district (formerly Nawanshahr district) is one of the districts in Doaba region of the state of Punjab in North-West Republic of India.
Shahmukhi (Gurmukhi: ਸ਼ਾਹਮੁਖੀ, meaning literally "from the King's mouth") is a Perso-Arabic alphabet used by Muslims in Punjab to write the Punjabi language.
Shami kabab or shaami kabab (شامی کباب, শামী কাবাব) is a local variety of kebab from the Indian subcontinent; it is part of the Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi cuisines.
Shatabdi Express trains are a series of fast (called superfast in India) passenger trains operated by Indian Railways to connect Metro cities with other cities important for tourism, pilgrimage or business.
The Shiromani Akali Dal (SAD), (translation: Supreme Akali Party) is a political party in India.
The Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (or SGPC) is an organization in India responsible for the management of gurdwaras, Sikh places of worship in three states of Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh and union territory of Chandigarh.
The Shunga Empire (IAST) was an ancient Indian dynasty from Magadha that controlled areas of the central and eastern Indian subcontinent from around 187 to 78 BCE.
Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa.
A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.
Sikh Architecture is a style of architecture that is characterized with values of progressiveness, exquisite intricacy, austere beauty and logical flowing lines.
The Sikh Empire (also Sikh Khalsa Raj, Sarkar-i-Khalsa or Pañjab (Punjab) Empire) was a major power in the Indian subcontinent, formed under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who established a secular empire based in the Punjab.
The Sikh gurus established Sikhism over the centuries, beginning in the year 1469.
The Sikh Khalsa Army (Punjabi: ਸਿੱਖ ਖਾਲਸਾ ਫੌਜ (Sikh Khalsa Phauj), Persian:سیک ارتش خالصا-ارتش لاهور), also known as the Army of Lahore, Punjab Army, Khalsa or simply Sikh Army was the military force of the Sikh Empire, formed in 1799 with the capture of Lahore by Ranjit Singh. From then on the army was modernized on Franco-British principles. It was divided in three wings: the Fauj-i-Khas (elites), Fauj-i-Ain (regular force) and Fauj-i-Be Qawaid (irregulars). Due to the lifelong efforts of the Maharaja and his European officers, it gradually became a prominent fighting force of Asia. Ranjit Singh changed and improved the training and organisation of his army. He reorganized responsibility and set performance standards in logistical efficiency in troop deployment, manoeuvre, and marksmanship. He reformed the staffing to emphasize steady fire over cavalry and guerrilla warfare, improved the equipment and methods of war. The military system of Ranjit Singh combined the best of both old and new ideas. He strengthened the infantry and the artillery. He paid the members of the standing army from treasury, instead of the Mughal method of paying an army with local feudal levies.
The Sikh Light Infantry, previously known as The Mazabhi and Ramdasia Sikh Regiment, is a light infantry regiment of the Indian Army.
The Sikh Regiment is an infantry regiment of the Indian Army that recruits from the Sikh community.
Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.
Sindh (سنڌ; سِندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country.
Sirhind-Fatehgarh (ਸਰਹਿੰਦ-ਫ਼ਤਿਹਗੜ੍ਹ) is a city and a municipal council in Fatehgarh Sahib district in the Indian state of Punjab.
Sirsa district, is the largest district of Haryana state.
The Sivalik Hills is a mountain range of the outer Himalayas.
Sohni Mahiwal or Suhni Mehar (سوہنی معینوال, ਸੋਹਣੀ ਮਹੀਂਵਾਲ; سهڻي ميهار) is one of the four popular tragic romances of Punjab.
A soundtrack, also written sound track, can be recorded music accompanying and synchronized to the images of a motion picture, book, television program or video game; a commercially released soundtrack album of music as featured in the soundtrack of a film, video or television presentation; or the physical area of a film that contains the synchronized recorded sound.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Sporting equipment, also called sporting goods, has various forms depending on the sport, but it is essential to complete the sport.
Sri Guru Ram Das Jee International Airport named after Guru Ram Das Ji, the fourth Sikh Guru and the founder of Amritsar city, is an international airport about northwest of the city of Amritsar, Punjab, India.
Sri Muktsar Sahib district is one of the twenty two districts in the Indian Punjab and earlier known as khidraane di dhaab.
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities.
A subsidiary alliance, in South Asian history, describes a tributary alliance between a Native state and either French India, or later the British East India Company.
The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
Suresh Arora is a 1982 cadre IPS officer and is the current Chief of the Punjab Police.
The Sutlej River (alternatively spelled as Satluj River) (सतलुज, ਸਤਲੁਜ, शतद्रुम (shatadrum), is the longest of the five rivers that flow through the historic crossroads region of Punjab in northern India and Pakistan. The Sutlej River is also known as Satadree. It is the easternmost tributary of the Indus River. The waters of the Sutlej are allocated to India under the Indus Waters Treaty between India and Pakistan, and are mostly diverted to irrigation canals in India. There are several major hydroelectric projects on the Sutlej, including the 1,000 MW Bhakra Dam, the 1,000 MW Karcham Wangtoo Hydroelectric Plant, and the 1,530 MW Nathpa Jhakri Dam. The river basin area in India is located in Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan and Haryana states.
The Taj Mahal (meaning "Crown of the Palace") is an ivory-white marble mausoleum on the south bank of the Yamuna river in the Indian city of Agra.
The Takht Sri Darbar Sahib Damdama Sahib, one of the five Takhts or Seat of Temporal Authority of Sikhism, Takht Sri Damdama Sahib is in Bathinda in Punjab, India and is the place where Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Sikh Guru, prepared the full version of the Sikh scriptures called Sri Guru Granth Sahib in 1705.
Tandoori chicken is chicken dish prepared by roasting chicken marinated in yoghurt and spices in a tandoor, a cylindrical clay oven.
Tarn Taran district is one of the districts in the Majha region of Punjab in North-West Republic of India.
Taxila (from Pāli: Takkasilā, Sanskrit: तक्षशिला,, meaning "City of Cut Stone" or " Rock") is a town and an important archaeological site in the Rawalpindi District of the Punjab, Pakistan, situated about north-west of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, just off the famous Grand Trunk Road.
Teeyan (ਤੀਆਂ) is the Punjabi name of the festival of Teej which is celebrated in Punjab and Haryana (where it is also called Haryali teej) which is dedicated to the onset of the monsoon and focuses on daughtershttp://www.teeyandamela.com/ and sisters.
A tehsil (also known as a mandal, taluk, taluq or taluka) is an administrative division of some countries of South Asia.
In India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, a tehsildar is a tax Officer accompanied with Revenue inspectors.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
Thanesar (sometimes called Thaneswar and, archaically, Sthanishvara) is a historic town and an important Hindu pilgrimage centre on the banks of the Ghaggar river in the state of Haryana in northern India.
The Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert, is a large arid region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent that covers an area of and forms a natural boundary between India and Pakistan.
The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions (such as Crown dependencies, provinces, or states).
The New Cambridge History of India is a major multi-volume work of historical scholarship published by Cambridge University Press.
The Tribune is an Indian English-language daily newspaper published from Chandigarh, New Delhi, Jalandhar, Dehradun and Bathinda.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
The Timurid dynasty (تیموریان), self-designated as Gurkani (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān), was a Sunni Muslim dynasty or clan of Turco-Mongol lineageB.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006Encyclopædia Britannica, "", Online Academic Edition, 2007.
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.
The Treaty of Lahore of 9 March 1846, was a peace treaty marking the end of the First Anglo-Sikh War.
Trigarta kingdom was an ancient kingdom in the Northern India region of the Indian subcontinent with its capital at Prasthala (modern Jalandhar) and fort in Kangra.
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
A union territory is a type of administrative division in the Republic of India.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Vijayendrapal Singh Badnore (born 12 May 1948) is the Governor of Punjab, India.
Vaisakhi (IAST), also known as Baisakhi, Vaishakhi, or Vasakhi is a historical and religious festival in Sikhism and Hinduism.
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
The Vedic period, or Vedic age, is the period in the history of the northwestern Indian subcontinent between the end of the urban Indus Valley Civilisation and a second urbanisation in the central Gangetic Plain which began in BCE.
Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans as food as part of a meal.
The Vidhan Sabha the Legislative Assembly is the lower house (in states with bicameral) or the sole house (in unicameral states) of the state legislature in the different states of India.
A vine (Latin vīnea "grapevine", "vineyard", from vīnum "wine") is any plant with a growth habit of trailing or scandent (that is, climbing) stems, lianas or runners.
Virasat-e-Khalsa (ਵਿਰਾਸਤ-ਏ-ਖਾਲਸਾ) is a museum of Sikhism, located in the holy town, Anandpur Sahib, near Chandigarh, the capital of the state of Punjab.
The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) or domestic Asian water buffalo is a large bovid originating in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and China.
West Punjab was a province of Pakistan from 1947 to 1955.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
The World Kabaddi League (WKL) is a professional Circle style Kabaddi League in India, United States, Canada, Pakistan and the United Kingdom.
The Yamuna (Hindustani: /jəmʊnaː/), also known as the Jumna, (not to be mistaken with the Jamuna of Bangladesh) is the longest and the second largest tributary river of the Ganges (Ganga) in northern India.
Zee Punjabi was a Punjabi language Indian cable and satellite television channel based in India, part of Zee Entertainment Enterprises, which was fully owned by Essel Group.
The 14th Lok Sabha (17 May 2004 – 18 May 2009) was convened after the Indian general election, 2004 held in four phases during 20 April – 10 May 2004, which led to the formation of First Manmohan Singh ministry (2004–2009).
The 15th Indian Census was conducted in two phases, house listing and population enumeration.
The 2014 World Kabaddi Cup is the fifth edition of the circle style World Kabaddi Cup, held from 7 December to 20 December 2014 with the Opening Ceremony on 6 December 2014 at the Guru Gobind Singh Stadium in Jalandhar.
9X Tashan is a Punjabi language music channel operated by between 9X Media In India and JUS Broadcasting In USA who also owns 9XM, 9X Jalwa, 9x Jhakaas, 9XO, JUS Punjabi, JUS One and JUS 24x7 Comedy.
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