201 relations: Abdul Haye, Abdul Qadir (Muslim leader), Africa, Akali movement, All-India Muslim League, Ambala district, Amritsar district, Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam, Arabic, Arain, Arya Samaj, Attock District, Bahadur Shah Zafar, Bahawalpur (princely state), Balochistan, Pakistan, Battle of Gujrat, Beas River, Bengal Army, Bengal Presidency, Bihar, British Empire, British Indian Army, British Malaya, British Raj, Cambridge, Canada, Chamba State, Chandigarh, Charles Grenville Mansel, Chenab River, Chhotu Ram, Corps of Guides (India), Cotton, Delhi, Dera Ghazi Khan District, Diarchy, Doaba Daudzai Tehsil, Dominion of India, Dominion of Pakistan, Durbar (court), East India Company, East Punjab, Evan Meredith Jenkins, Faisalabad, Faisalabad District, Faridkot State, Firozpur district, Forman Christian College, Gottlieb Wilhelm Leitner, Government College University (Lahore), ..., Government Medical College, Amritsar, Government of India Act 1858, Government of India Act, 1919, Government of India Act, 1935, Gujranwala District, Gujrat District, Gurdaspur district, Gurgaon district, Haryana, Henry Lawrence's "Young Men", Henry Montgomery Lawrence, Herbert William Emerson, Hill States of India, Himachal Pradesh, Hisar district, History of India, History of the Punjab, Hong Kong, Hoshiarpur, Hoshiarpur district, Illinois, Indian Civil Service (British India), Indian Councils Act 1861, Indian Councils Act 1909, Indian National Congress, Indian Rebellion of 1857, Indian subcontinent, Indus River, Islamabad Capital Territory, Jalandhar, Jalandhar district, Jallianwala Bagh massacre, James Broun-Ramsay, 1st Marquess of Dalhousie, Jat people, Jhang District, Jhelum District, Jhelum River, Jind State, John Lawrence, 1st Baron Lawrence, Kahlur, Kalsia, Kamboj, Kangra district, Kapurthala State, Karnal district, Kashmir, Kenya, Khalsa College, Amritsar, Khushwant Singh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, King Edward Medical University, Lahore, Lahore District, Lala Lajpat Rai, Latin, Lawrence College, Murree, Legislative assembly, List of governors of Punjab (British India), Loharu State, Lower Himalayan Range, Ludhiana district, Mahabharata, Malaysia, Malerkotla State, Malik Khizar Hayat Tiwana, Mandi State, Manohar Lal (economist), Mianwali District, Misl, Montagu Sherard Dawes Butler, Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms, Montgomery District, Mughal emperors, Mughal Empire, Multan, Multan District, Murree, Muzaffargarh District, Myanmar, Nabha State, North-West Frontier Province (1901–2010), North-Western Provinces, Odisha, Partition of India, Pataudi State, Patiala and East Punjab States Union, Patiala State, Persian language, Presidencies and provinces of British India, Princely state, Punjab, Punjab Canal Colonies, Punjab Irregular Force, Punjab Land Alienation Act, 1900, Punjab Province (British India), Punjab, India, Punjab, Pakistan, Punjabi University, Queen Victoria, Rajput, Rajputana, Rajputana Agency, Ramayana, Ravi River, Rawalpindi, Rawalpindi District, Reginald Dyer, Rigvedic rivers, Rohtak district, Rowlatt Act, Sahiwal, Saini, Sanskrit, Sargodha, Second Anglo-Sikh War, Shahab-ud-Din Virk, Shahpur District, Sheikhupura District, Shimla, Shimla district, Shiromani Akali Dal, Sialkot District, Siba State, Sikandar Hayat Khan (Punjabi politician), Sikh Empire, Sikh Khalsa Army, Sindh, Sirmur State, States and union territories of India, Sugarcane, Suket State, Sulaiman Mountains, Sundar Singh Majithia, Sutlej, Tanzania, Tehsil, The Great Game, Tibet, Tobacco, Tons River, Turco-Persian tradition, Uganda, Unionist Party (Punjab), United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, Vaisakhi, Vedic period, West Punjab, Wheat, World War I, Yamuna, 1907 Punjab unrest. Expand index (151 more) » « Shrink index
Mian Abdul Haye (December 1889 – 20 December 1946) was a prominent Punjabi lawyer and politician during the British Raj.
Sheikh Sir Abdul Qadir (15 March 1874 – 9 February 1950) was a newspaper and magazine editor and a Muslim community leader in British India.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
The Akali movement, also called the Gurdwara Reform Movement, was a campaign to bring reform in the gurdwaras (the Sikh places of worship) in India during the early 1920s.
The All-India Muslim League (popularised as Muslim League) was a political party established during the early years of the 20th century in the British Indian Empire.
Ambala district is one of the 22 districts of Haryana state in the country of India with Ambala town serving as the administrative headquarters of the district.
Amritsar district is one of 22 districts located in the Majha region of the state of Punjab in North India.
Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam ("The Association for the Service of Islam") was founded in Lahore on 24 September 1884 in a mosque known as Masjid Bakan inside Mochi Gate, Lahore, by Khalifa Hameed-ud-Din.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arain (آرائیں) are a Pakistani tribe who are found mainly in the provinces of Punjab and Sindh.
Arya Samaj (Sanskrit: आर्य समाज "Noble Society" Hindi: आर्य समाज, Bengali: আর্য সমাজ, Punjabi: ਆਰੀਆ ਸਮਾਜ, Gujarati: આર્ય સમાજ) is an Indian Hindu reform movement that promotes values and practices based on the belief in the infallible authority of the Vedas.
Attock District (ضِلع اٹک) is a district in Pothohar Plateau of the Punjab Province of Pakistan.
Mirza Abu Zafar Sirajuddin Muhammad Bahadur Shah Zafar (24 October 1775 – 7 November 1862) was the last Mughal emperor.
Bahawalpur (بہاولپُور), was a princely state of British India and later, Pakistan, that existed from 1802 to 1955.
Balochistan (bəloːt͡ʃɪs't̪ɑːn) (بلوچِستان), is one of the five provinces of Pakistan.
The Battle of Gujrat was a decisive battle in the Second Anglo-Sikh War, fought on 21 February 1849, between the forces of the East India Company, and a Sikh army in rebellion against the Company's control of the Sikh Empire, represented by the child Maharaja Duleep Singh who was in British custody in Lahore.
The Beas River also known as the Biás or Bias, (Sanskrit: विपाशा Vipāśā; Hyphasis), is a river in north India.
The Bengal Army was the army of the Bengal Presidency, one of the three presidencies of British India within the British Empire.
The Bengal Presidency was once the largest subdivision (presidency) of British India, with its seat in Calcutta (now Kolkata).
Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The Indian Army (IA), often known since 1947 (but rarely during its existence) as the British Indian Army to distinguish it from the current Indian Army, was the principal military of the British Indian Empire before its decommissioning in 1947.
The term British Malaya loosely describes a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the island of Singapore that were brought under British control between the 18th and the 20th centuries.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Chamba State was one of the oldest princely states in present-day Republic of India, having been founded during the late 6th century.
Chandigarh is a city and a union territory in India that serves as the capital of the two neighbouring states of Haryana and Punjab.
Charles Grenville Mansel (1806–1886) was an English administrator in India.
The Chenab River (चेनाब; ਚਨਾਬ,; چناب) is a major river that flows in India and Pakistan, and is one of the 5 major rivers of the Punjab region.
Sir Chhotu Ram, (born Ram Richpal; 24 November 1881 – 9 January 1945) was a prominent politician in British India's Punjab Province, an ideologue of the peasants of pre-Indepenence India, who belonged to the peasants of Jat community and could transform peasantry in an unprecedented fashion in Indian sub-continent he could champion the interest of much oppressed peasants.
The Corps of Guides was a regiment of the British Indian Army which served on the North West Frontier.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
Dera Ghazi Khan is a district in the Punjab province of Pakistan.
A diarchy (from Greek δι-, di-, "double", and -αρχία, -arkhía, "ruled").
The Doaba Daudzai Tehsil was a tehsil administrative division in Peshawar District, Peshawar Division, Punjab Province, British India 1872–1893.
Between gaining independence from the United Kingdom on 15 August 1947 and the proclamation of a republic on 26 January 1950, India was an independent dominion in the British Commonwealth of Nations with king George VI as its head of state.
Pakistan (পাকিস্তান অধিরাজ্য; مملکتِ پاکستان), also called the Dominion of Pakistan, was an independent federal dominion in South Asia that was established in 1947 as a result of the Pakistan movement, followed by the simultaneous partition of British India to create a new country called Pakistan.
Durbar (दरबार, দরবার, دربار) is an Indo-Aryan word, equally common in many South Asian languages.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
East Punjab (known simply as Punjab from 1950) was a province and later a state of India from 1947 until 1966, consisting of the parts of the Punjab Province of British India that went to India following the partition of the province between India and Pakistan by the Radcliffe Commission in 1947.
Sir Evan Meredith Jenkins (2 February 1896 – 1985) was a British colonial administrator and the last governor of the Punjab in the British Empire.
Faisalabad (فیصل آباد;; Lyallpur until 1979) is the third-most-populous city in Pakistan, and the second-largest in the eastern province of Punjab.
Faisalabad District (Lyallpur District until 1979) (Punjabi and ضلع فیصل آباد) is one of the districts of Punjab province, Pakistan.
Faridkot State was a self-governing princely state outside British India during the British Raj period in the Indian sub-continent.
Firozpur district is one of the twenty-two districts in the state of Punjab located in the North-West of the Republic of India.
Forman Christian College is an independent research liberal arts university located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan founded in 1864.
Gottlieb Wilhelm Leitner or Gottlieb William Leitner M.A., Ph.D., L.L.D., D.O.L. (14 October 1840 – 22 March 1899) was a British orientalist.
The Government College University (GCU) is a public research university located in the downtown, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
Government Medical College, formerly known as Glancy Medical College, was established in 1864 in Lahore, British India and located to Amritsar, India in 1920.
The Government of India Act 1858 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (21 & 22 Vict. c. 106) passed on August 2, 1858.
The Government of India Act 1919 (9 & 10 Geo. 5 c. 101) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Government of India Act,1935 was originally passed in August 1935 (25 & 26 Geo. 5 c. 42), and is said to be the longest Act (British) of Parliament ever enacted by that time.
Gujranwala District (Punjabi and ضِلع گُوجرانوالا), is a district in Punjab, Pakistan.
Gujrat (Punjabi and ضِلع گُجرات), is a district of Punjab Province in Pakistan.
Gurdaspur district is a district in the Majha region of the state of Punjab, situated in the northwest part of the Republic of India.
Gurgaon (also known as Gurugram) district is one of the 22 Districts of Haryana in northern India.
Haryana, carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1November 1966 on linguistic basis, is one of the 29 states in India.
Henry Lawrence's "Young Men", also known as "the Paladins of the Punjaub", were a group of East India Company officers sent to act as "advisers" to the Sikhs after the First Sikh War in 1846.
Brigadier-General Sir Henry Montgomery Lawrence KCB (28 June 18064 July 1857) was a British military officer, surveyor, administrator and statesman in British India.
Sir Herbert William Emerson, (1881–1962) was a public servant in British India, mostly known for his time as the governor of the Punjab (12 April 1933 — ? ? 1938).
The Hill States of India were princely states lying in the northern border regions of the British Indian Empire.
Himachal Pradesh (literally "snow-laden province") is a Indian state located in North India.
Hisar district (ضِلع حِصار), is one of the 22 districts of Haryana state, India.
The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.
The History of the Punjab concerns the history of the Punjab region the Northern area of the Indian Subcontinent that straddles the modern day countries of India and Pakistan.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Hoshiarpur is a city and a municipal corporation in Hoshiarpur district in the Doaba region of the Indian state of Punjab.
Hoshiarpur District is a district of Punjab state in northern India.
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.
The Indian Civil Service (ICS) for part of the 19th century officially known as the Imperial Civil Service, was the elite higher civil service of the British Empire in British India during British rule in the period between 1858 and 1947.
The Indian Councils Act 1861 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that transformed the Viceroy of India's executive council into a cabinet run on the portfolio system.
The (9 Edw. 7 c. 4), commonly known as the Morley-Minto Reforms (or as the Minto-Morley Reforms), was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that brought about a limited increase in the involvement of Indians in the governance of British India.
The Indian National Congress (INC, often called Congress Party) is a broadly based political party in India.
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major uprising in India between 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
Islamabad Capital Territory (وفاقی دارالحکومت, or ICT) is the one and only federal territory of Pakistan.
Jalandhar, formerly known as Jullundur in British India, is a city in the Doaba region of the northwestern Indian state of Punjab.
Jalandhar district (Jalandhar Zilā) is a district in Doaba region of the state of Punjab in North-West Republic of India.
The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, also known as the Amritsar massacre, took place on 13 April 1919 when troops of the British Indian Army under the command of Colonel Reginald Dyer fired rifles into a crowd of Indians, who had gathered in Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar, Punjab.
James Andrew Broun-Ramsay, 1st Marquess of Dalhousie (22 April 1812 – 19 December 1860), styled Lord Ramsay until 1838 and known as The Earl of Dalhousie between 1838 and 1849, was a Scottish statesman, and a colonial administrator in British India.
The Jat people (also spelled Jatt and Jaat) are a traditionally agricultural community in Northern India and Pakistan.
Jhang District (Punjabi and ضلع جھنگ) is a district of the Punjab province of Pakistan.
Jhelum District (ضِلع جِہلم), is in Pothohar Plateau of the Punjab province of Pakistan.
The Jhelum River, Vitasta (Sanskrit: वितस्ता, fem., also, Vetastā, Kashmiri: Vyeth(ویتھ/व्यथा)), is a river of northwestern India and eastern Pakistan. It is the westernmost of the five rivers of Punjab, and passes through Srinager District. It is a tributary of the Indus River and has a total length of about.
Jind State was a Cis-Sutlej state princely state of India during the British Raj until India's independence in 1947.
John Laird Mair Lawrence, 1st Baron Lawrence, (4 March 1811 – 27 June 1879), known as Sir John Lawrence, Bt., between 1858 and 1869, was an English-born Ulsterman who became a prominent British Imperial statesman who served as Viceroy of India from 1864 to 1869.
Bilaspur State or Kahlur was a princely state in the Punjab Province during the era of British India, ruled by a Hindu Rajput dynasty.
Kalsia was a princely state in Punjab, British India, one of the former Cis-Sutlej states.
The Kamboj (کمبوہ ALA-LC:, ਕੰਬੋ Kamboj), also Kamboh, is a community mainly in the Northern India and eastern Pakistan.
Kangra is the most populous district of the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh, India.
Kapurthala State, with its capital at Kapurthala, was a former Princely state of Punjab, spread across.
Karnal district is one of the 22 districts of Haryana state in northern India.
Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
Khalsa College (ਖਾਲਸਾ ਕਾਲਜ khālsā kālaj) is a historic educational institution in the northern Indian city of Amritsar in the state of Punjab, India.
Khushwant Singh (born Khushal Singh, 15 August 1915 – 20 March 2014) was an Indian author, lawyer, diplomat, journalist and politician.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (abbreviated as KP; خیبر پختونخوا; خیبر پښتونخوا) is one of the four administrative provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country along the international border with Afghanistan.
King Edward Medical University (جامعہ طبی کنگ ایڈورڈ) is a medical university located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.
Lahore District (Punjabi, ضلع لاہور) is a district in the Punjab province of Pakistan, mainly consisting of the city of Lahore.
Lala Lajpat Rai, (28 January 1865 – 17 November 1928) was an Indian freedom fighter.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lawrence College is situated in Murree Tehsil, Punjab, Pakistan.
Legislative assembly is the name given in some countries to either a legislature, or to one of its branch.
The Governor of the Punjab was head of the British administration in the province of the Punjab.
Loharu State was one of the princely states of India during the period of the British Raj.
The Mahabharata Range (महाभारत श्रृंखला mahābhārat shrinkhalā) – also called the Lesser Himalaya or the "Himachal"– is a major east-west mountain range with elevations 3,700 to 4,500 m (12,000 to 14,500 feet) along the crest, paralleling the much higher Great Himalaya range from the Indus River in Pakistan across northern India, Nepal, Sikkim and Bhutan but then the two ranges become increasingly difficult to differentiate east of Bhutan as the ranges approach the Brahmaputra River.
Ludhiana District is one of the 22 districts in the state of Punjab in northwest India.
The Mahābhārata (महाभारतम्) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
The State of Malerkotla or Maler Kotla(رِیاست ملِیرکوٹلہ) was a princely state in the Punjab region during the era of British India.
Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Malik Khizar Hayat Tiwana KCSI, OBE (7 August 1900 - 20 January 1975) (نواب ملک خضرحیات تیوانہ) was a Punjabi statesman, army officer, and landowner who served as the Unionist Premier of the Punjab between 1942 and 1947.
Mandi State was a native state of British India, within the Punjab; with Mandi, Himachal Pradesh as its capital.
Sir Manohar Lal (31 December 1871 – 1 May 1949) was a Punjabi economist, lawyer and politician during the British Raj.
The Mianwali District (ضِلع مِيانوالى; Pashto,ضلع میانوالی), is a district in the northwest of Punjab province, Pakistan.
Misl generally refers to the sovereign states of the Sikh Confederacy, that rose during the 18th century in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent after the collapse of the Mughal Empire.
Sir Montagu Sherard Dawes Butler, (19 May 1873 – 7 November 1952) was Governor of the Central Provinces of British India 1925–33, Lieutenant Governor of the Isle of Man 1933–37, and Master of Pembroke College, Cambridge 1937–48.
The Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms or more briefly known as Mont-Ford Reforms were reforms introduced by the British colonial government in India to introduce self-governing institutions gradually to India.
Montgomery District is an administrative district of the former Punjab Province of British India, in what is now Pakistan.
The Mughal emperors, from the early 16th century to the early 18th century, built and ruled the Mughal Empire on the Indian subcontinent, mainly corresponding to the modern countries of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
Multan (Punjabi, Saraiki, مُلتان), is a Pakistani city and the headquarters of Multan District in the province of Punjab.
Multan District (ضِلع مُلتان), is a district in the Punjab province of Pakistan.
Murree (Punjabi, مری, marī, meaning "apex") is a mountain resort town, located in the Galyat region of the Pir Panjal Range, within the Rawalpindi District of Punjab, Pakistan.
Muzaffargarh District (ضِلع مُظفّرگڑھ) is a district of the Punjab province of Pakistan.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Nabha State, with its capital at Nabha, was one of the Phulkian princely states of Punjab during the British Raj in India.
The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) was a province of British India and subsequently of Pakistan.
The North-Western Provinces was an administrative region in British India.
Odisha (formerly Orissa) is one of the 29 states of India, located in eastern India.
The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.
Pataudi State was a small princely state in India, established in 1806 during the East India Company rule in India as a part of the Delhi Territory in the Ceded and Conquered Provinces.
The Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU) was a state of India uniting eight princely states between 1948 and 1956.
Patiala State was a self-governing princely state outside British India during the British Raj period in the Indian sub-continent.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
A princely state, also called native state (legally, under the British) or Indian state (for those states on the subcontinent), was a vassal state under a local or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj.
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
The Punjab Canal Colonies is the name given to parts of western Punjab which were brought under cultivation through the construction of canals and agricultural colonisation during the British Raj.
The Punjab Irregular Force (PIF) was created in 1851 to protect the NW frontier of British India.
The Punjab Land Alienation Act of 1900 was a piece of legislation introduced by the British Raj with the aim of limiting the transfer of land ownership in Punjab Province.
Punjab, also spelled Panjab, was a province of British India.
Punjab is a state in northern India.
Punjab (Urdu, Punjabi:, panj-āb, "five waters") is Pakistan's second largest province by area, after Balochistan, and its most populous province, with an estimated population of 110,012,442 as of 2017.
Punjabi University is a state university located in Patiala, Punjab, India.
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
Rajput (from Sanskrit raja-putra, "son of a king") is a large multi-component cluster of castes, kin bodies, and local groups, sharing social status and ideology of genealogical descent originating from the Indian subcontinent.
Rājputāna (Rajasthani/राजपूताना), (راجپُوتانہ), meaning “Land of the Rajputs”, was a region in India that included mainly the present-day Indian state of Rajasthan rajput are 10 percent in rajasthan mostly mp and mla of rajasthan are of rajput community after gurjar and meena it is the 3rd largest populated community in rajasthan arat and some adjoining areas of Sindh in modern-day southern Pakistan.
The Rajputana Agency was a political office of the British Indian Empire dealing with a collection of native states in Rajputana (now in Rajasthan, northwestern India), under the political charge of an Agent reporting directly to the Governor-General of India and residing at Mount Abu in the Aravalli Range.
Ramayana (रामायणम्) is an ancient Indian epic poem which narrates the struggle of the divine prince Rama to rescue his wife Sita from the demon king Ravana.
The Ravi (ਰਾਵੀ, راوی, रावी) is a transboundary river crossing northwestern India and eastern Pakistan.
Rawalpindi (Punjabi, راولپِنڈى), commonly known as Pindi (پِنڈی), is a city in the Punjab province of Pakistan.
Rawalpindi District (Punjabi and ضِلع راولپِنڈى), is a district located in the northernmost part of the Punjab province of Pakistan.
Colonel Reginald Edward Harry Dyer CB (9 October 1864 – 23 July 1927) was an officer of the British Indian Army who, as a temporary brigadier-general, was responsible for the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in Amritsar (in the province of Punjab).
Rivers, such as the Sapta Sindhavah ("seven rivers" सप्त सिन्धव) play a prominent part in the hymns of the Rig Veda, and consequently in early Hindu religion.
Rohtak district is one of the 22 districts of Haryana state in Northern India.
The Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act of 1919, popularly known as the Rowlatt Act and also known as the Black Act, was a legislative act passed by the Imperial Legislative Council in Delhi on March 18, 1919, indefinitely extending the emergency measures of preventive indefinite detention, incarceration without trial and judicial review enacted in the Defence of India Act 1915 during the First World War.
Sahiwal (Punjabi and ساہِيوال) is a city in Punjab, Pakistan.
Saini is a caste of North India who were traditionally landowners (zamindars) and farmers.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sargodha (Punjabi and سرگودھا) is the 11th largest city in Pakistan with a population of 1.5 million.
The Second Anglo-Sikh War was a military conflict between the Sikh Empire and the British East India Company that took place in 1848 and 1849.
Chaudhry Sir Shahab-ud-Din Virk (died 1946) was a Punjabi lawyer and politician of British India.
Shahpur District was a district in current day Pakistan from 1893, during the British Raj, till 1960.
Shekhupura (ضِلع شيخُوپُورہ) (ضِلع شيخُوپُور), is a district of Punjab province, Pakistan.
Shimla, also known as Simla, is the capital and the largest city of the northern Indian state of Himachal Pradesh.
Shimla district of Himachal Pradesh lies between longitude 77.00" and 78.19" east and latitude 30.45" and 31.44" north, with its headquarters in Shimla.
The Shiromani Akali Dal (SAD), (translation: Supreme Akali Party) is a political party in India.
Sialkot District (Punjabi and ضِلع سيالكوٹ), is one of the districts of the Punjab provinces of Pakistan.
Siba State, was a small independent Indian hill state in the Lower Himalayas.
Captain (retired) Sardar Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan, KBE (also written Sikandar Hyat Khan or Sikander Hyat-Khan at times) (5 June 1892 in Multan–25/26 December 1942) was a statesman from the Punjab.
The Sikh Empire (also Sikh Khalsa Raj, Sarkar-i-Khalsa or Pañjab (Punjab) Empire) was a major power in the Indian subcontinent, formed under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who established a secular empire based in the Punjab.
The Sikh Khalsa Army (Punjabi: ਸਿੱਖ ਖਾਲਸਾ ਫੌਜ (Sikh Khalsa Phauj), Persian:سیک ارتش خالصا-ارتش لاهور), also known as the Army of Lahore, Punjab Army, Khalsa or simply Sikh Army was the military force of the Sikh Empire, formed in 1799 with the capture of Lahore by Ranjit Singh. From then on the army was modernized on Franco-British principles. It was divided in three wings: the Fauj-i-Khas (elites), Fauj-i-Ain (regular force) and Fauj-i-Be Qawaid (irregulars). Due to the lifelong efforts of the Maharaja and his European officers, it gradually became a prominent fighting force of Asia. Ranjit Singh changed and improved the training and organisation of his army. He reorganized responsibility and set performance standards in logistical efficiency in troop deployment, manoeuvre, and marksmanship. He reformed the staffing to emphasize steady fire over cavalry and guerrilla warfare, improved the equipment and methods of war. The military system of Ranjit Singh combined the best of both old and new ideas. He strengthened the infantry and the artillery. He paid the members of the standing army from treasury, instead of the Mughal method of paying an army with local feudal levies.
Sindh (سنڌ; سِندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country.
Sirmur (also spelled as Sirmor, Sirmaur, Sirmour,or Sirmoor) was an independent kingdom in India, founded in 1616, located in the region that is now the Sirmaur district of Himachal Pradesh.
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
Suket State was one of the Princely states of India during the period of the British Raj.
The Sulaiman Mountains (د كسي غرونه; Balochi/Urdu/کوه سليمان), or Kōh-e Sulaymān, are the southern extension of the Hindu Kush mountain system, located in the Zabul, Kandahar and Loya Paktia regions of Afghanistan, and in the southern Federally Administered Tribal Areas (South Waziristan and Frontier Region Dera Ismail Khan), most of northern Balochistan, and some of southwestern Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan.
Sardar Bahadur Sardar Sir Sundar Singh Majithia CIE (17 February 1872 – June 1941) was an Indian landowner and politician.
The Sutlej River (alternatively spelled as Satluj River) (सतलुज, ਸਤਲੁਜ, शतद्रुम (shatadrum), is the longest of the five rivers that flow through the historic crossroads region of Punjab in northern India and Pakistan. The Sutlej River is also known as Satadree. It is the easternmost tributary of the Indus River. The waters of the Sutlej are allocated to India under the Indus Waters Treaty between India and Pakistan, and are mostly diverted to irrigation canals in India. There are several major hydroelectric projects on the Sutlej, including the 1,000 MW Bhakra Dam, the 1,000 MW Karcham Wangtoo Hydroelectric Plant, and the 1,530 MW Nathpa Jhakri Dam. The river basin area in India is located in Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan and Haryana states.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
A tehsil (also known as a mandal, taluk, taluq or taluka) is an administrative division of some countries of South Asia.
"The Great Game" was a political and diplomatic confrontation that existed for most of the nineteenth century between the British Empire and the Russian Empire over Afghanistan and neighbouring territories in Central and Southern Asia.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
The Tons (टौंस नदी) is the largest tributary of the Yamuna and flows through Garhwal region in Uttarakhand, touching Himachal Pradesh.
The composite Turco-Persian tradition, Turko-Persia in historical perspective, Cambridge University Press, 1991 refers to a distinctive culture that arose in the 9th and 10th centuries (AD) in Khorasan and Transoxiana (present-day Afghanistan, Iran, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, minor parts of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan).
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
The Unionist Party was a political party based in the Punjab Province during the period of British rule in India.
The United Provinces of Agra and Oudh was a province of India under the British Raj, which existed from 1902 to 1947; the official name was shortened by the Government of India Act 1935 to United Provinces (UP), by which the province had been commonly known, and by which name it was also a province of independent India until 1950.
Vaisakhi (IAST), also known as Baisakhi, Vaishakhi, or Vasakhi is a historical and religious festival in Sikhism and Hinduism.
The Vedic period, or Vedic age, is the period in the history of the northwestern Indian subcontinent between the end of the urban Indus Valley Civilisation and a second urbanisation in the central Gangetic Plain which began in BCE.
West Punjab was a province of Pakistan from 1947 to 1955.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
The Yamuna (Hindustani: /jəmʊnaː/), also known as the Jumna, (not to be mistaken with the Jamuna of Bangladesh) is the longest and the second largest tributary river of the Ganges (Ganga) in northern India.
The 1907 Punjab unrests were a period of unrest in the British Indian province of Punjab, principally around the Colonisation bill that was implemented in the province in 1906.
British Punjab, British punjab, Crescat e fluviis, Delhi district, Punjab (British India, Punjab (British India), Punjab Province, British India, Punjab division, Punjab, British India, Undivided Punjab.