258 relations: Affricate consonant, Ahmad Salim, Ali Haider, Alveolar consonant, Ambala, Amrita Pritam, Amritsar, Apple Inc., Approximant consonant, Arabic, Arabic script, Australia, Back vowel, Bahawalnagar, Bathinda, Beas River, Bengali language, Bhakkar, Brahmic scripts, Bulleh Shah, Burushaski, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, Canada, Cantonese, Central vowel, Chandigarh, Chiniot, Close vowel, Close-mid vowel, Cognate, Consonant, Constitution of Pakistan, Delhi, Demographics of Afghanistan, Dental consonant, Dhani Ram Chatrik, Digraphia, Diwan Singh, Doaba, Doabi dialect, East India Company, East Pakistan, Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India, English language, Faisalabad, Faisalabad District, Fariduddin Ganjshakar, Fatehabad district, Fatehgarh Sahib, ..., Fazilka, Firozpur, Flap consonant, French language, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Glottal consonant, Google, Government of India, Government of Punjab, Pakistan, Greek language, Gujarati language, Gujari language, Gujranwala, Gujrat District, Gurdaspur, Gurdwara, Gurmukhi script, Guru Granth Sahib, Guru Nanak, Hafiz Muhammad Saeed, Hafizabad, Hanumangarh, Haryana, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Heer Ranjha, Himachal Pradesh, Hindi, Hindi-to-Punjabi Machine Translation System, Hindko, Hindustani language, Hisar (city), Hoshiarpur district, India, Indian English, Indian literature, Indian subcontinent, Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-European languages, Indo-Iranian languages, Indus River, InPage, International Mother Language Day, International Phonetic Alphabet, Islamabad, Italy, Jalandhar, Jalandhar district, Jammu and Kashmir, Janamsakhis, Jaswant Singh Rahi, Jhang, Jhangvi dialect, Jhelum, Kalami language, Kapurthala district, Karachi, Kasur, Khanewal, Kurukshetra, Laṇḍā scripts, Labial consonant, Lahnda, Lahore, Language Interface Pack, Languages of India, Languages of Pakistan, Languages with official status in India, Lingua franca, Linux, List of languages by number of native speakers, List of languages by number of native speakers in India, List of Punjabi-language newspapers, Lollywood, Ludhiana, Madho Lal Hussain, Mahmud of Ghazni, Majha, Majhi dialect, Malerkotla, Malwa, Malwai dialect, Mandarin Chinese, Mandi Bahauddin, Mansa district, Punjab, Marathi language, Mianwali, Microsoft, Microsoft Office 2007, Mid vowel, Minority language, Mirza Sahiban, Mobile device, Modernism, Moga district, Mohan Singh (poet), Munir Niazi, Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent, Nader Shah, Najm Hosain Syed, Nanak Singh, Nankana Sahib, Narowal, Nasal consonant, Nasal vowel, Nastaʿlīq script, Nath, Nationalencyklopedin, Near-close vowel, Netherlands, New Zealand, Okara City, Open vowel, Open-mid vowel, Pakistan, Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation, Pakistani English, Pakpattan, Palatal consonant, Pash, Patiala, Persian language, Portuguese language, Prakrit, Prestige (sociolinguistics), Punjab, Punjab, India, Punjab, Pakistan, Punjabi Braille, Punjabi cinema, Punjabi dialects, Punjabi Hindus, Punjabi Muslims, Punjabi Qisse, Punjabi University, Punjabi Wikipedia, Punjabipedia, Punjabis, Puran Singh, Pwadhi dialect, Qadir Yar, Rajasthan, Ravi River, Retroflex consonant, Rupnagar, Sahiwal, Saleh Muhammad Safoori, Sanskrit, Saraiki language, Sargodha, Sassui Punnhun, Second Anglo-Sikh War, Shafqat Tanvir Mirza, Shah Mohammad, Shah Sharaf, Shahmukhi alphabet, Shahpuri dialect, Shareef Kunjahi, Shauraseni language, Sheikhupura, Shina language, Shiv Kumar Batalvi, Sialkot, Sikh, Sikh Empire, Sikh scriptures, Sindhi language, Sirsa, Sohni Mahiwal, South Asia, Sri Ganganagar, States and union territories of India, Stop consonant, Sufism, Sultan Bahu, Supreme Court of Pakistan, Surjit Patar, Sutlej, Tarn Taran Sahib, The Dhahan Prize, Toba Tek Singh District, Tone (linguistics), Torwali language, Translation, Transliteration, Turco-Persian tradition, Turkic peoples, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, University of California, Los Angeles, University of the Punjab, Urdu, Urdu alphabet, Ustad Daman, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Vaar, Vehari, Velar consonant, Vowel, Waris Shah, Wazirabad, West Pakistan, Western Asia, Western Pahari, Windows Vista, 1972 Language violence in Sindh. Expand index (208 more) » « Shrink index
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Ahmad Salim or Muhammad Salim Khawaja (born 26 January 1945 in Miana Gondal, Punjab, Pakistan) is a writer, archivist and co-founder of the South Asian Research and Resource Centre, a private archive established in 2001.
Ali Haider (Urdu:علی حیدر, born 22 September 1967) is a Pakistani singer.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
Ambala, is a city and a municipal corporation in Ambala district in the state of Haryana, India, located on the border with the Indian state of Punjab and in proximity to both states capital Chandigarh.
Amrita Pritam (31 August 1919 – 31 October 2005) was an Indian writer and poet, who wrote in Punjabi and Hindi.
Amritsar, historically also known as Rāmdāspur and colloquially as Ambarsar, is a city in north-western India which is the administrative headquarters of the Amritsar district - located in the Majha region of the Indian state of Punjab.
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
Bahawalnagar (Punjabi, بہاولنگر), is the capital city of Bahawalnagar District situated in the south east region in the Punjab province of Pakistan.
Bathinda (also known as Tabar-e-Hind or Tabarhindh meaning the Gateway to India) is a city and Municipal Corporation in Southern part of Punjab, India.
The Beas River also known as the Biás or Bias, (Sanskrit: विपाशा Vipāśā; Hyphasis), is a river in north India.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
Bhakkar (بهكّر), is the principal city of Bhakkar District, Punjab, Pakistan.
The Brahmic scripts are a family of abugida or alphabet writing systems.
Syed Abdullah Shah Qadri (سید عبداللہ شاہ قادری), popularly known as Bulleh Shah, was a Mughal-era Punjabi Islamic philosopher and Sufi poet.
Burushaski (بروشسکی) is a language isolate spoken by Burusho people who reside almost entirely in northern Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, with a few hundred speakers in northern Jammu and Kashmir, India.
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Cantonese language is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its surrounding area in southeastern China.
A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Chandigarh is a city and a union territory in India that serves as the capital of the two neighbouring states of Haryana and Punjab.
Chiniot (Urdu, چنیوٹ) is a city and the administrative headquarter of Chiniot District in the state of Punjab, Pakistan.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu), also known as the 1973 Constitution is the supreme law of Pakistan.
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
The population of Afghanistan is around 33 million as of 2016, which includes the roughly 3 million Afghan citizens living as refugees in both Pakistan and Iran.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
Dhani Ram Chatrik or Dhaniram Chatrik (4 October 1876 – 18 December 1954) was a Punjabi poet and typographer.
In sociolinguistics, digraphia refers to the use of more than one writing system for the same language.
Diwan Singh Kalepani (1894–1944) was a Punjabi poet.
Doaba also known as Bist Doab, is the region of Punjab, India that lies between the Beas River and the Sutlej River.
Doabi is a Punjabi dialect spoken in the Doaba.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
East Pakistan was the eastern provincial wing of Pakistan between 1955 and 1971, covering the territory of the modern country Bangladesh.
The Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India lists the official languages of the Republic of India.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Faisalabad (فیصل آباد;; Lyallpur until 1979) is the third-most-populous city in Pakistan, and the second-largest in the eastern province of Punjab.
Faisalabad District (Lyallpur District until 1979) (Punjabi and ضلع فیصل آباد) is one of the districts of Punjab province, Pakistan.
Farīd al-Dīn Masʿūd Ganj-i-Shakar (c. 1175-1266), known reverentially as Bābā Farīd or Shaykh Farīd by Muslims, Sikhs and Hindus of the Punjab Region, or simply as Farīduddīn Ganjshakar, was a 12th-century Punjabi Muslim preacher and mystic who went on to become "one of the most revered and distinguished...
Fatehabad District, is one of the twenty-two districts of Haryana state, India.
Fatehgarh Sahib is a town and a sacred pilgrimage site of Sikhism in the north west Indian state of Punjab.
Fazilka is a town and a municipal council in Punjab, India.
Firozpur, also known as Ferozepur, is a city on the banks of the Sutlej River in Firozpur District, Punjab, India.
In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.
The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.
The Government of the Punjab (حکومتِ پنجاب.), a provincial government in the federal structure of Pakistan, is based in Lahore, the capital of the Punjab Province.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Gujarati (ગુજરાતી) is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat.
Gujari, also known as Gojri (ગુજરી, गुजरी) is a variety of Indo-Aryan spoken by the Gurjars and other tribes of India and Pakistan, with some speakers in Afghanistan.
Gujranwala (Punjabi, گوجرانوالا) is a city in Punjab, Pakistan, that is located north of the nearby provincial capital of Lahore.
Gujrat (Punjabi and ضِلع گُجرات), is a district of Punjab Province in Pakistan.
Gurdaspur is a city in the state of Punjab, situated in the northwest part of the Republic of India, between the rivers Beas and Raavi, 10 km from the international border between India and Pakistan.
A gurdwara (ਗੁਰਦੁਆਰਾ, or ਗੁਰਦਵਾਰਾ,; meaning "door to the guru") is a place of worship for Sikhs.
Gurmukhi (Gurmukhi (the literal meaning being "from the Guru's mouth"): ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ) is a Sikh script modified, standardized and used by the second Sikh Guru, Guru Angad (1563–1606).
Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ) is the religious scripture of Sikhism, regarded by Sikhs as the final, sovereign, and eternal living guru following the lineage of the ten human Sikh gurus of the Sikh religion.
Guru Nanak (IAST: Gurū Nānak) (15 April 1469 – 22 September 1539) was the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Sikh Gurus.
Hafiz Muhammad Saeed (حافظ محمد سعید, born June 5, 1950) is a Pakistani Islamist militant, who is a co-founder of Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) and the chief of Jama'at-ud-Da'wah (JuD), UN-designated terrorist organisations operating mainly from Pakistan.
Hafizabad (Punjabi and حافظ آباد) is a city and tehsil of Hafizabad district in the Punjab province of Pakistan near Gujranwala division.
Hanumangarh is a city in northern Rajasthan state in western India, situated on the banks of the river Ghaggar also identified as Ancient Sarasvati river, located about 400 km from Delhi.
Haryana, carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1November 1966 on linguistic basis, is one of the 29 states in India.
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים, Ha-Universita ha-Ivrit bi-Yerushalayim; الجامعة العبرية في القدس, Al-Jami'ah al-Ibriyyah fi al-Quds; abbreviated HUJI) is Israel's second oldest university, established in 1918, 30 years before the establishment of the State of Israel.
Heer Ranjha (ہیر رانجھا) is one of several popular tragic romances of Punjab.
Himachal Pradesh (literally "snow-laden province") is a Indian state located in North India.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hindi to Punjabi machine translation system, developed at Punjabi University, Patiala by Gurpreet Singh Lehal and Dr.
Hindko (ہندکو ALA-LC) is a cover term for a diverse group of Lahnda (Western Punjabi) dialects spoken by people of various ethnic backgrounds in several discontinuous areas in northwestern Pakistan, primarily in the provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab.
Hindustani (हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی, ||lit.
Hisar is the administrative headquarters of Hisar district of Hisar division in the state of Haryana in northwestern India.
Hoshiarpur District is a district of Punjab state in northern India.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indian English is any of the forms of English characteristic of India.
Indian literature refers to the literature produced on the Indian subcontinent until 1947 and in the Republic of India thereafter.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
The Indo-Iranian languages or Indo-Iranic languages, or Aryan languages, constitute the largest and easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
InPage is a word processor and page layout software for languages such as Urdu, Persian, Pashto and Arabic under Windows and Mac which was first developed in 1994.
International Mother Language Day (IMLD) is a worldwide annual observance held on 21 February to promote awareness of linguistic and cultural diversity and promote multilingualism.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
Islamabad (اسلام آباد) is the capital city of Pakistan located within the federal Islamabad Capital Territory.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jalandhar, formerly known as Jullundur in British India, is a city in the Doaba region of the northwestern Indian state of Punjab.
Jalandhar district (Jalandhar Zilā) is a district in Doaba region of the state of Punjab in North-West Republic of India.
Jammu and Kashmir (ænd) is a state in northern India, often denoted by its acronym, J&K.
The Janamsakhis (ਜਨਮਸਾਖੀ, janamsākhī), literally birth stories, are writings which profess to be biographies of the first Sikh guru, Guru Nanak.
Jaswant Singh Rahi was a Punjabi poet, writer, communist and freedom fighter.
Jhang (Punjabi and جھنگ) is the capital city of Jhang District, in the province of Punjab, Pakistan.
Jhangvi (جھنگوی), Jhangochi (جھنگوچی) or Rachnavi(رچناوی) is a dialect of Pakistan that is intermediate between Punjabi and Saraiki.
Jhelum (جِہلم) is a city on the right bank of the Jhelum River, in the district of the same name in the north of Punjab province, Pakistan.
Kalami (کالامي) also known as Gawri (ګاوری), is a Dardic language spoken in the Swat Kohistan region in the upper Swat District and in the upper Panjkora river valley of Upper Dir District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Kapurthala district is a district of Punjab state in northern Republic of India.
Karachi (کراچی; ALA-LC:,; ڪراچي) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh.
Kasur or Qasur (Punjabi and قصُور) is a city located to south of Lahore, in the Pakistani province of Punjab.
Khanewal (Punjabi and خانیوال) is a city and the capital of Khanewal District in the Punjab province of Pakistan.
Kurukshetra is a city in the state of Haryana, India.
The Laṇḍā scripts (also Lahnda, Landa), meaning "without a tail", is a Punjabi word used to refer to a writing system used in Panjab and nearby parts of North India.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
Lahnda also known as Lahndi or Western Punjabi (is a group of north-western Indo-Aryan language varieties spoken in Pakistani Punjab and in parts of the neighbouring Azad Kashmir and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. These terms are exonyms and are not used by the speakers themselves. The emerging languages of this dialect area are Saraiki, Hindko and Pothohari. --> The validity of Lahnda as a genetic grouping has not been established.
Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.
In Microsoft terminology, a Language Interface Pack (LIP) is a skin for localizing a Windows operating system in languages such as Lithuanian, Serbian, Hindi, Marathi, Kannada, Tamil, and Thai.
Languages spoken in India belong to several language families, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 76.5% of Indians and the Dravidian languages spoken by 20.5% of Indians.
Pakistan is home to many dozens of languages spoken as first languages.
The Constitution of India designates the official language of the Government of India as Hindi written in the Devanagari script, as well as English.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
This article ranks human languages by their number of native speakers.
India is home to several hundred languages.
Punjabi-language newspapers are published and circulated in India, Pakistan and some western countries.
The Lollywood (لالی وُڈ), is the oldest film industry of Pakistani cinema based in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
Ludhiana is a city and a municipal corporation in Ludhiana district in the Indian state of Punjab, and India's largest city north of Delhi, with an area of 310sq.
Shah Hussain (شاہ حسین) was a 16th century Punjabi Sufi poet who is regarded as a pioneer of the Kafi form of Punjabi poetry.
Yamīn-ud-Dawla Abul-Qāṣim Maḥmūd ibn Sebüktegīn (یمینالدوله ابوالقاسم محمود بن سبکتگین), more commonly known as Mahmud of Ghazni (محمود غزنوی; November 971 – 30 April 1030), also known as Mahmūd-i Zābulī (محمود زابلی), was the most prominent ruler of the Ghaznavid Empire.
The Majha (Punjabi: ਮਾਝਾ (Gurmukhi), (Shahmukhi); Mājhā) region is recognized as the region that is located at the center of the historical Punjab region, that is northward from the right banks of river Beas, and extends up to river Jhelum at its northmost.
Majhi (ماجھی; ਮਾਝੀ) is the standard dialect of Punjabi and is spoken in the Majha region of the Punjab.
Malerkotla (ملِیرکوٹلہ), is a city and a municipal council in Sangrur district in the Indian state of Punjab.
Malwa is a historical region of west-central India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin.
Malwai is a Punjabi dialect spoken in the Malwa region of Punjab.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
Mandi Bahauddin (Punjabi and منڈی بهاؤالدین) is a city in central Punjab, Pakistan.
Mansa district falls under the Indian state of Punjab.
Marathi (मराठी Marāṭhī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by the Marathi people of Maharashtra, India.
Mianwali (مِيانوالى) is the capital city of Mianwali District, Pakistan.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
Microsoft Office 2007 (codenamed Office 12) is a version of Microsoft Office, a family of office suites and productivity software for Windows, developed and published by Microsoft.
A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.
A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a territory.
Mirza Sahiba (ਮਿਰਜ਼ਾ ਸਾਹਿਬਾਂ, مرزا صاحباں) is one of the three popular tragic romances of India.
A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computing device small enough to hold and operate in the hand.
Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Moga district is one of the twenty two districts in the state of Punjab in North-West Republic of India.
Mohan Singh (1905–1978) was a noted Indian poet of Punjabi language and academic, and one of the early pioneers of modern Punjabi poetry.
Munir Ahmad, better known as Munir Niazi, (منیر نیازی)(1928-2006) Sitara-e-Imtiaz Award recipient, was an Urdu and Punjabi poet from Pakistan.
Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 12th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into modern Afghanistan and Pakistan as early as the time of the Rajput kingdoms in the 8th century.
Nader Shah Afshar (نادر شاه افشار; also known as Nader Qoli Beyg نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khan تهماسپ قلی خان) (August 1688 – 19 June 1747) was one of the most powerful Iranian rulers in the history of the nation, ruling as Shah of Persia (Iran) from 1736 to 1747 when he was assassinated during a rebellion.
Najm Hosain Syed (born 1936) is a Pakistani writer.
Nanak Singh (4 July 1897 – 28 December 1971), born Hans Raj, was a poet, songwriter and novelist in the Punjabi language.
Nankana Sahib (Punjabi and ننكانہ صاحِب) is a city and capital of Nankana Sahib District in the Punjab province of Pakistan.
Narowal (نارووال), (Punjabi: نارووال) is a city in the northeast of the Punjab province of Pakistan.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the nose as well as the mouth, such as the French vowel.
Nastaʿlīq (نستعلیق, from نسخ Naskh and تعلیق Taʿlīq) is one of the main calligraphic hands used in writing the Persian alphabet, and traditionally the predominant style in Persian calligraphy.
Nath, also called as Natha, are a Shaivism sub-tradition within Hinduism.
Nationalencyklopedin, abbreviated NE, is a comprehensive contemporary Swedish-language encyclopedia, initiated by a favourable loan from the Government of Sweden of 17 million Swedish kronor in 1980, which was repaid by December 1990.
A near-close vowel or a near-high vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Okara (Punjabi, اوکاڑا), is the capital city of Okara District in the Punjab province of Pakistan.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
An open-mid vowel (also mid-open vowel, low-mid vowel, mid-low vowel or half-open vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (پاکستان نشریات), branded as Radio Pakistan (رادیو پاکستان), is a Pakistani federal corporation that serves as the national public radio and television broadcaster.
Pakistani English or Paklish is the group of English language varieties spoken and written in Pakistan.
Pakpattan (Punjabi), often referred to as Pākpattan Sharīf ("Noble Pakpattan"), is the capital city of the Pakpattan District, located in central Punjab province in Pakistan.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
Pash or Paash (9 September 1950 – 23 March 1988) was the pen name of Avtar Singh Sandhu, one of the major poets of the Naxalite movement in the Punjabi literature of the 1970s.
Patiala is a city in southeastern Punjab, northwestern India.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
The Prakrits (प्राकृत; pāuda; pāua) are any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages formerly spoken in India.
Prestige is the level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community, relative to other languages or dialects.
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
Punjab is a state in northern India.
Punjab (Urdu, Punjabi:, panj-āb, "five waters") is Pakistan's second largest province by area, after Balochistan, and its most populous province, with an estimated population of 110,012,442 as of 2017.
Punjabi Braille is the braille alphabet used in India for Punjabi.
Punjabi cinema (پنجابی سنیما (Shahmukhi)), sometimes metonymously referred to as Pollywood, is the Punjabi language film industry of the Punjabi people of the world.
The Punjabi dialects are the series of dialects spoken in the Punjab region of Pakistan and India.
Punjabi Hindus are a group of people that follow the Hindu religion and have their roots and origin in the Punjab region of the Indian Subcontinent.
Punjabi Muslims (پنجابی مسلمان (Shahmukhi); also spelled Panjabi) are a linguistic, geographic and religious ethnic group living in the region of Punjab, primarily in eastern Pakistan.
A Punjabi Qissa (پنجابی قصه (Shahmukhi), ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਕਿੱਸਾ (Gurmukhi); Plural: Qisse) is a tradition of Punjabi language oral story-telling that came to South Asia with migrants from the Arabian peninsula and contemporary Iran and Afghanistan.
Punjabi University is a state university located in Patiala, Punjab, India.
The Punjabi Wikipedia is the Punjabi language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Punjabipedia is a Punjabi language encyclopedia on Sikhism created by Punjabi University, Patiala on suggestion of Punjab Government.
The Punjabis (Punjabi:, ਪੰਜਾਬੀ), or Punjabi people, are an ethnic group associated with the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, who speak Punjabi, a language from the Indo-Aryan language family.
Professor Puran Singh (੍ਰੋ.) (1881–1931) was a Punjabi poet, scientist and mystic.
Pwadhi (ਪੁਆਧੀ) is one of the eastern dialects of Punjabi spoken in Powadh (also Poadh or Powadha), a region of Punjab and also in parts of Haryana between the Satluj and Ghaggar river basin.
Qadir Yar (1802–1892), born Qadar Baksh, was a Muslim Sandhu Jatt, was a poet of the Punjabi language.
Rajasthan (literally, "Land of Kings") is India's largest state by area (or 10.4% of India's total area).
The Ravi (ਰਾਵੀ, راوی, रावी) is a transboundary river crossing northwestern India and eastern Pakistan.
A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.
Rupnagar (formerly known as Ropar or Rupar), is a city and a municipal council in Rupnagar district in the Indian state of Punjab.
Sahiwal (Punjabi and ساہِيوال) is a city in Punjab, Pakistan.
Saleh Muhammad Safoori Miana (accessdate The book gives an introduction to Mai Safoora, Saleh Muhammad Safoori and Ali Haider. The collection contains the tales of Sassi Punnun, Sohni Mahiwal, two si-harfis, two poetic tribute to Sufi Sultan Abdul Hakeem and Jati Abdal and one in memory of his mother Mai Safoora. Other chapters present the history of the area and the style of the life of the people and the close relationship between the different religious communities settled in Sidhnai belt of River Ravi.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Saraiki (سرائیکی, also spelt Siraiki, or less often Seraiki) is an Indo-Aryan language of the Lahnda (Western Punjabi) group, spoken in the south-western half of the province of Punjab in Pakistan.
Sargodha (Punjabi and سرگودھا) is the 11th largest city in Pakistan with a population of 1.5 million.
Sassi Punnuh or Sassui Punhun (سَسُئيِ پُنهوُن, Sassi Punnun) is a love story from Sindi and Balochi folklore.
The Second Anglo-Sikh War was a military conflict between the Sikh Empire and the British East India Company that took place in 1848 and 1849.
Shafqat Tanvir Mirza – known by many as STM – (February 6, 1932 – November 20, 2012) was a Pakistani writer and journalist.
Shah Mohammad (1780–1862) (ਸ਼ਾਹ ਮੁਹੰਮਦ/شاہ محمّد) was a Punjabi poet who lived during the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh and is best known for Jangnama which depicts the First Anglo-Sikh War that took place after the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
Shah Sharaf (1640–1724) is a famous Punjabi Sufi Poet.
Shahmukhi (Gurmukhi: ਸ਼ਾਹਮੁਖੀ, meaning literally "from the King's mouth") is a Perso-Arabic alphabet used by Muslims in Punjab to write the Punjabi language.
Shahpuri is a Punjabi dialect spoken in the Sargodha Division of Punjab Province in Pakistan.
Shareef Kunjahi (شریف کنجاہی (Shahmukhi)) (1914–2007) was a leading writer and poet of Punjabi.
A Dramatic Prakrit, Shauraseni was the chief language used in drama in northern medieval India.
Shekhupura (شیخُوپُورہ, شیخُوپُور) is a city the Pakistani province of Punjab.
Shina (Shina: (Perso-Arabic)) is a language from the Dardic sub-group of the Indo-Aryan languages family spoken by the Shina people, a plurality of the people in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, as well as in pockets in India such as in Dah Hanu, Gurez and Dras.
p Shiv Kumar Batalvi (23 July 1936 – 6 May 1973) was a Punjabi language poet, who was most known for his romantic poetry, noted for its heightened passion, pathos, separation and lover's agony.
Sialkot (سيالكوٹ and سيالكوٹ) is a city in Punjab, Pakistan.
A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.
The Sikh Empire (also Sikh Khalsa Raj, Sarkar-i-Khalsa or Pañjab (Punjab) Empire) was a major power in the Indian subcontinent, formed under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who established a secular empire based in the Punjab.
The principal Sikh scripture is the Adi Granth (First Scripture), more commonly called the Guru Granth Sahib.
Sindhi (سنڌي, सिन्धी,, ਸਿੰਧੀ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the historical Sindh region, spoken by the Sindhi people.
Sirsa, is a city and a municipal council in Sirsa district in the westernmost region of the Indian state of Haryana, bordering Punjab and Rajasthan.
Sohni Mahiwal or Suhni Mehar (سوہنی معینوال, ਸੋਹਣੀ ਮਹੀਂਵਾਲ; سهڻي ميهار) is one of the four popular tragic romances of Punjab.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
Sri Ganganagar (SGNR) is a planned city and the northern-most city of the Indian state of Rajasthan, near the borders of Rajasthan and Punjab states and the international border of India and Pakistan.
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Sultan Bahu (سُلطان باہُو), (also spelled Bahoo; ca 1630–1691) was a Sufi mystic, poet, and scholar active mostly in the present-day Punjab province of Pakistan.
The Supreme Court of Pakistan (عدالت عظمیٰ پاکستان; Adālat-e-Uzma Pākistān) is the apex court in the judicial hierarchy of Pakistan.
Surjit Patar is a Punjabi language writer and poet of Punjab, India.
The Sutlej River (alternatively spelled as Satluj River) (सतलुज, ਸਤਲੁਜ, शतद्रुम (shatadrum), is the longest of the five rivers that flow through the historic crossroads region of Punjab in northern India and Pakistan. The Sutlej River is also known as Satadree. It is the easternmost tributary of the Indus River. The waters of the Sutlej are allocated to India under the Indus Waters Treaty between India and Pakistan, and are mostly diverted to irrigation canals in India. There are several major hydroelectric projects on the Sutlej, including the 1,000 MW Bhakra Dam, the 1,000 MW Karcham Wangtoo Hydroelectric Plant, and the 1,530 MW Nathpa Jhakri Dam. The river basin area in India is located in Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan and Haryana states.
Tarn Taran Sahib is a town in the Majha region of the state of Punjab, in northern India.
The Dhahan Prize is an annual prize awarded by Canada-India education society for excellence in Punjabi fiction.
Toba Tek Singh District (ضلع ٹوبہ ٹیک سنگھ) is a district in the Punjab province of Pakistan.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
Torwali (توروالی), or Turvali, is a Dardic language spoken in Kohistan and Swat districts of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan.
Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text.
Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).
The composite Turco-Persian tradition, Turko-Persia in historical perspective, Cambridge University Press, 1991 refers to a distinctive culture that arose in the 9th and 10th centuries (AD) in Khorasan and Transoxiana (present-day Afghanistan, Iran, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, minor parts of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan).
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public research university in the Westwood district of Los Angeles, United States.
The University of the Punjab (جامعہ پنجاب), also referred to as Punjab University, is a public research university located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
The Urdu alphabet is the right-to-left alphabet used for the Urdu language.
Ustad Daman اُستاد دامن, (real name Chiragh Deen), چِراغ دِین, (4 September 1911 – December 3, 1984) was a Punjabi poet, writer and a mystic.
Uttar Pradesh (IAST: Uttar Pradeś) is a state in northern India.
Uttarakhand, officially the State of Uttarakhand (Uttarākhaṇḍ Rājya), formerly known as Uttaranchal, is a state in the northern part of India.
The var(in Punjabi وار ਵਾਰ), in Punjabi poetry, is a heroic ode or ballad which generally narrates legend such as stories of Punjabi folk heroes or a historical event.
Vehari also spelled Vihari (وِہاڑی), is a city about from the historical city of Multan and is the headquarters of Vehari District in the Punjab province of Pakistan.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
Waris Shah (وارث شاہ (shahmukhi), ਵਾਰਿਸ ਸ਼ਾਹ (gurmukhi); 1722–1798) was a Punjabi Sufi poet of Chishti order, known for his contribution to Punjabi literature.
Wazirabad (Urdu/وزِيرآباد) is an industrial city located in Gujranwala District, Punjab, Pakistan.
West Pakistan (مغربی پاکستان,; পশ্চিম পাকিস্তান) was one of the two exclaves created at the formation of the modern State of Pakistan following the 1947 Partition of India.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
The Western Pahari or Himachali languages (Devanagri: पश्चिमी पहाड़ी, हिमाचली) are a range of languages and dialects spoken in the western parts of the Himalayan range, in the state of Himachal Pradesh, India.
Windows Vista (codenamed Longhorn) is an operating system by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, tablet PCs and media center PCs.
1972 Language violence in Sindh occurred starting on 7 July, 1972 when the Sindh Assembly passed The Sind Teaching, Promotion and Use of Sindhi Language Bill, 1972 which established Sindhi language as the sole official language of the province resulting in language violence in Sindh, Pakistan.
Bhatneri language, Eastern Panjabi language, Eastern Punjabi language, ISO 639:pa, ISO 639:pan, ISO 639:pnb, Indian Panjabi, Indian Punjabi, Panjabi language, Panjābī, Pañjābī, Punjabi (language), Punjabi Language, Punjabi languege, Shahmukhi Punjabi, Standard Pakistani Punjabi, Standard Panjabi, Standard Punjabi, شاہ مکھی پنجابی, ਪੰਜਾਬੀ.