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The pupil is a hole located in the center of the iris of the eye that allows light to strike the retina. [1]

80 relations: Adie syndrome, Anisocoria, Aperture, Argyll Robertson pupil, Atropine, Australia, Batoidea, Brainstem, Cat, Cat senses, Catfish, Ciliary ganglion, Cocaine, Cornea, Crepuscular animal, Crocodile, Cuttlefish, Diel vertical migration, Dilated fundus examination, Diurnality, Dog, Edinger–Westphal nucleus, Elk, Entrance pupil, Etymology, Eurasian lynx, Even-toed ungulate, Evolution, Eye, Eye contact, Felidae, Flying frog, Fox, Gecko, Goat, Gray wolf, Hippopotamus, Hippus, Horner's syndrome, Horse, Human eye, Iris (anatomy), Iris sphincter muscle, Lysergic acid diethylamide, Marcus Gunn pupil, MDMA, Melanopsin, Mescaline, Miosis, Mongoose, ..., Mydriasis, Nocturnality, Octopus, Oculomotor nerve, Opioid, Parasympathetic nervous system, Plural, Psilocybin mushroom, Pupillary light reflex, Pupillary response, Red deer, Red fox, Reindeer, Retina, Retinal ganglion cell, Sclera, Sheep, Siberian tiger, Smooth muscle tissue, Snake, Substituted amphetamine, Symptom, Synechia (eye), Tarsier, Tissue (biology), Toad, Tropicamide, Ungulate, Viperidae, Visual system. Expand index (30 more) »

Adie syndrome

Adie syndrome is a neurological disorder characterized by a tonically dilated pupil that reacts slowly to light but shows a more definite response to accommodation (i.e., light-near dissociation).

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Anisocoria

Anisocoria is a condition characterized by an unequal size of the eyes' pupils.

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Aperture

In optics, an aperture is a hole or an opening through which light travels.

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Argyll Robertson pupil

Argyll Robertson pupils (AR pupils or, colloquially, "prostitute's pupils") are bilateral small pupils that reduce in size on a near object (i.e., they accommodate), but do not constrict when exposed to bright light (i.e., they do not react to light).

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Atropine

Atropine is a medication to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisonings as well as some types of slow heart rate and to decrease saliva production during surgery.

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Australia

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Batoidea

Batoidea is a superorder of cartilaginous fish commonly known as rays.

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Brainstem

The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.

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Cat

The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus) is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal.

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Cat senses

Cat senses are adaptations that allow cats to be highly efficient predators.

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Catfish

Catfish (or catfishes; order Siluriformes or Nematognathi) are a diverse group of ray-finned fish.

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Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Ciliary ganglion

The ciliary ganglion is a parasympathetic ganglion located just behind the eye in the posterior orbit.

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Cocaine

Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.

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Cornea

The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.

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Crepuscular animal

Crepuscular animals are those that are active primarily during twilight (that is, the periods of dawn and dusk).

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Crocodile

Crocodiles (subfamily Crocodylinae) or true crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia.

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Cuttlefish

Cuttlefish or cuttles are marine animals of the order Sepiida. They belong to the class Cephalopoda, which also includes squid, octopuses, and nautiluses. Cuttlefish have a unique internal shell, the cuttlebone. Despite their name, cuttlefish are not fish but molluscs. Cuttlefish have large, W-shaped pupils, eight arms, and two tentacles furnished with denticulated suckers, with which they secure their prey. They generally range in size from, with the largest species, Sepia apama, reaching in mantle length and over in mass. Cuttlefish eat small molluscs, crabs, shrimp, fish, octopus, worms, and other cuttlefish. Their predators include dolphins, sharks, fish, seals, seabirds, and other cuttlefish. The average life expectancy of a cuttlefish is about one to two years. Recent studies indicate cuttlefish are among the most intelligent invertebrates. (television program) NOVA, PBS, April 3, 2007. Cuttlefish also have one of the largest brain-to-body size ratios of all invertebrates. The 'cuttle' in 'cuttlefish' comes from the Old English name for the species, cudele, which may be cognate with the Old Norse koddi ('cushion') and the Middle Low German Kudel ('rag'). The Greco-Roman world valued the cuttlefish as a source of the unique brown pigment the creature releases from its siphon when it is alarmed. The word for it in both Greek and Latin, sepia, now refers to the reddish-brown color sepia in English.

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Diel vertical migration

Diel vertical migration (DVM), also known as diurnal vertical migration, is a pattern of movement used by some organisms, such as copepods, living in the ocean and in lakes.

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Dilated fundus examination

Dilated fundus examination or dilated-pupil fundus examination (DFE) is a diagnostic procedure that employs the use of mydriatic eye drops (such as tropicamide) to dilate or enlarge the pupil in order to obtain a better view of the fundus of the eye.

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Diurnality

Diurnality is a form of plant or animal behavior characterized by activity during the day, with a period of sleeping, or other inactivity, at night.

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Dog

The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris when considered a subspecies of the gray wolf or Canis familiaris when considered a distinct species) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore.

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Edinger–Westphal nucleus

The Edinger–Westphal nucleus (accessory oculomotor nucleus) is the parasympathetic pre-ganglionic nucleus that innervates the iris sphincter muscle and the ciliary muscle.

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Elk

The elk or wapiti (Cervus canadensis) is one of the largest species within the deer family, Cervidae, in the world, and one of the largest land mammals in North America and Eastern Asia.

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Entrance pupil

In an optical system, the entrance pupil is the optical image of the physical aperture stop, as 'seen' through the front of the lens system.

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Etymology

EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".

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Eurasian lynx

The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is a medium-sized wild cat native to Siberia, Central, Eastern, and Southern Asia, Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.

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Even-toed ungulate

The even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla) are ungulates (hoofed animals) whose weight is borne equally by the third and fourth toes.

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Evolution

Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Eye

Eyes are organs of the visual system.

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Eye contact

Eye contact occurs when two people look at each other's eyes at the same time.

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Felidae

The biological family Felidae is a lineage of carnivorans colloquially referred to as cats.

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Flying frog

A flying frog (also called a gliding frog) is a frog that has the ability to achieve gliding flight.

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Fox

Foxes are small-to-medium-sized, omnivorous mammals belonging to several genera of the family Canidae.

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Gecko

Geckos are lizards belonging to the infraorder Gekkota, found in warm climates throughout the world.

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Goat

The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.

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Gray wolf

The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).

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Hippopotamus

The common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), or hippo, is a large, mostly herbivorous, semiaquatic mammal native to sub-Saharan Africa, and one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae, the other being the pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis or Hexaprotodon liberiensis).

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Hippus

Hippus, also known as pupillary athetosis, is spasmodic, rhythmic, but regular dilating and contracting pupillary movements between the sphincter and dilator muscles.

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Horner's syndrome

Horner's syndrome is a combination of symptoms that arises when a group of nerves known as the sympathetic trunk is damaged.

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Horse

The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.

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Human eye

The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.

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Iris (anatomy)

In humans and most mammals and birds, the iris (plural: irides or irises) is a thin, circular structure in the eye, responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupil and thus the amount of light reaching the retina.

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Iris sphincter muscle

The iris sphincter muscle (pupillary sphincter, pupillary constrictor, circular muscle of iris, circular fibers) is a muscle in the part of the eye called the iris.

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Lysergic acid diethylamide

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known as acid, is a psychedelic drug known for its psychological effects, which may include altered awareness of one's surroundings, perceptions, and feelings as well as sensations and images that seem real though they are not.

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Marcus Gunn pupil

Relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) or Marcus Gunn pupil is a medical sign observed during the swinging-flashlight test whereupon the patient's pupils constrict less (therefore appearing to dilate) when a bright light is swung from the unaffected eye to the affected eye.

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MDMA

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (E), is a psychoactive drug used primarily as a recreational drug.

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Melanopsin

Melanopsin is a type of photopigment belonging to a larger family of light-sensitive retinal proteins called opsins and encoded by the gene Opn4.

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Mescaline

Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a naturally occurring psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class, known for its hallucinogenic effects comparable to those of LSD and psilocybin.

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Miosis

Miosis is excessive constriction of the pupil.

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Mongoose

Mongoose is the popular English name for 29 of the 34 species in the 14 genera of the family Herpestidae, which are small feliform carnivorans native to southern Eurasia and mainland Africa.

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Mydriasis

Mydriasis is the dilation of the pupil, usually having a non-physiological cause, or sometimes a physiological pupillary response.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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Nocturnality

Nocturnality is an animal behavior characterized by being active during the night and sleeping during the day.

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Octopus

The octopus (or ~) is a soft-bodied, eight-armed mollusc of the order Octopoda.

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Oculomotor nerve

The oculomotor nerve is the third cranial nerve.

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Opioid

Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.

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Parasympathetic nervous system

The parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system (a division of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)), the other being the sympathetic nervous system.

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Plural

The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.

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Psilocybin mushroom

A psilocybin mushroom is one of a polyphyletic group of fungi that contain any of various psychedelic compounds, including psilocybin, psilocin, and baeocystin.

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Pupillary light reflex

The pupillary light reflex (PLR) or photopupillary reflex is a reflex that controls the diameter of the pupil, in response to the intensity (luminance) of light that falls on the retinal ganglion cells of the retina in the back of the eye, thereby assisting in adaptation to various levels of lightness/darkness.

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Pupillary response

Pupillary response is a physiological response that varies the size of the pupil, via the optic and oculomotor cranial nerve.

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Red deer

The red deer (Cervus elaphus) is one of the largest deer species.

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Red fox

The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the largest of the true foxes and one of the most widely distributed members of the order Carnivora, being present across the entire Northern Hemisphere from the Arctic Circle to North Africa, North America and Eurasia.

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Reindeer

The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), also known as the caribou in North America, is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic, tundra, boreal and mountainous regions of northern Europe, Siberia and North America.

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Retina

The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.

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Retinal ganglion cell

A retinal ganglion cell (RGC) is a type of neuron located near the inner surface (the ganglion cell layer) of the retina of the eye.

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Sclera

The sclera, also known as the white of the eye, is the opaque, fibrous, protective, outer layer of the human eye containing mainly collagen and some elastic fiber.

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Sheep

Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.

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Siberian tiger

The Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris tigris), also called Amur tiger, is a tiger population inhabiting mainly the Sikhote Alin mountain region in southwest Primorye Province in the Russian Far East.

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Smooth muscle tissue

Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.

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Snake

Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.

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Substituted amphetamine

Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based upon the amphetamine structure; it includes all derivative compounds which are formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the amphetamine core structure with substituents.

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Symptom

A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.

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Synechia (eye)

A synechia is an eye condition where the iris adheres to either the cornea (i.e. anterior synechia) or lens (i.e. posterior synechia).

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Tarsier

Tarsiers are any haplorrhine primates of the family Tarsiidae, which is itself the lone extant family within the infraorder Tarsiiformes.

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Tissue (biology)

In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.

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Toad

Toad is a common name for certain frogs, especially of the family Bufonidae, that are characterized by dry, leathery skin, short legs, and large bumps covering the parotoid glands.

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Tropicamide

Tropicamide, sold under the brand name Mydriacyl among others, is a medication used to dilate the pupil and help with examination of the eye.

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Ungulate

Ungulates (pronounced) are any members of a diverse group of primarily large mammals that includes odd-toed ungulates such as horses and rhinoceroses, and even-toed ungulates such as cattle, pigs, giraffes, camels, deer, and hippopotami.

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Viperidae

The Viperidae (vipers) is a family of venomous snakes found in most parts of the world, excluding Antarctica, Australia, New Zealand, Madagascar, Hawaii, various other isolated islands, and north of the Arctic Circle.

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Visual system

The visual system is the part of the central nervous system which gives organisms the ability to process visual detail, as well as enabling the formation of several non-image photo response functions.

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2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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Eye pupil, Pupil (eye), Pupil disorders, Pupillae, Pupillary, Pupillary aperature, Pupillary aperture, Pupils, The pupil functions.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pupil

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