80 relations: Adie syndrome, Anisocoria, Aperture, Argyll Robertson pupil, Atropine, Australia, Batoidea, Brainstem, Cat, Cat senses, Catfish, Ciliary ganglion, Cocaine, Cornea, Crepuscular animal, Crocodile, Cuttlefish, Diel vertical migration, Dilated fundus examination, Diurnality, Dog, Edinger–Westphal nucleus, Elk, Entrance pupil, Etymology, Eurasian lynx, Even-toed ungulate, Evolution, Eye, Eye contact, Felidae, Flying frog, Fox, Gecko, Goat, Gray wolf, Hippopotamus, Hippus, Horner's syndrome, Horse, Human eye, Iris (anatomy), Iris sphincter muscle, Lysergic acid diethylamide, Marcus Gunn pupil, MDMA, Melanopsin, Mescaline, Miosis, Mongoose, ..., Mydriasis, Nocturnality, Octopus, Oculomotor nerve, Opioid, Parasympathetic nervous system, Plural, Psilocybin mushroom, Pupillary light reflex, Pupillary response, Red deer, Red fox, Reindeer, Retina, Retinal ganglion cell, Sclera, Sheep, Siberian tiger, Smooth muscle tissue, Snake, Substituted amphetamine, Symptom, Synechia (eye), Tarsier, Tissue (biology), Toad, Tropicamide, Ungulate, Viperidae, Visual system. Expand index (30 more) » « Shrink index
Adie syndrome is a neurological disorder characterized by a tonically dilated pupil that reacts slowly to light but shows a more definite response to accommodation (i.e., light-near dissociation).
Anisocoria is a condition characterized by an unequal size of the eyes' pupils.
In optics, an aperture is a hole or an opening through which light travels.
Argyll Robertson pupils (AR pupils or, colloquially, "prostitute's pupils") are bilateral small pupils that reduce in size on a near object (i.e., they accommodate), but do not constrict when exposed to bright light (i.e., they do not react to light).
Atropine is a medication to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisonings as well as some types of slow heart rate and to decrease saliva production during surgery.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Batoidea is a superorder of cartilaginous fish commonly known as rays.
The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.
The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus) is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal.
Cat senses are adaptations that allow cats to be highly efficient predators.
Catfish (or catfishes; order Siluriformes or Nematognathi) are a diverse group of ray-finned fish.
The ciliary ganglion is a parasympathetic ganglion located just behind the eye in the posterior orbit.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.
Crepuscular animals are those that are active primarily during twilight (that is, the periods of dawn and dusk).
Crocodiles (subfamily Crocodylinae) or true crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia.
Cuttlefish or cuttles are marine animals of the order Sepiida. They belong to the class Cephalopoda, which also includes squid, octopuses, and nautiluses. Cuttlefish have a unique internal shell, the cuttlebone. Despite their name, cuttlefish are not fish but molluscs. Cuttlefish have large, W-shaped pupils, eight arms, and two tentacles furnished with denticulated suckers, with which they secure their prey. They generally range in size from, with the largest species, Sepia apama, reaching in mantle length and over in mass. Cuttlefish eat small molluscs, crabs, shrimp, fish, octopus, worms, and other cuttlefish. Their predators include dolphins, sharks, fish, seals, seabirds, and other cuttlefish. The average life expectancy of a cuttlefish is about one to two years. Recent studies indicate cuttlefish are among the most intelligent invertebrates. (television program) NOVA, PBS, April 3, 2007. Cuttlefish also have one of the largest brain-to-body size ratios of all invertebrates. The 'cuttle' in 'cuttlefish' comes from the Old English name for the species, cudele, which may be cognate with the Old Norse koddi ('cushion') and the Middle Low German Kudel ('rag'). The Greco-Roman world valued the cuttlefish as a source of the unique brown pigment the creature releases from its siphon when it is alarmed. The word for it in both Greek and Latin, sepia, now refers to the reddish-brown color sepia in English.
Diel vertical migration (DVM), also known as diurnal vertical migration, is a pattern of movement used by some organisms, such as copepods, living in the ocean and in lakes.
Dilated fundus examination or dilated-pupil fundus examination (DFE) is a diagnostic procedure that employs the use of mydriatic eye drops (such as tropicamide) to dilate or enlarge the pupil in order to obtain a better view of the fundus of the eye.
Diurnality is a form of plant or animal behavior characterized by activity during the day, with a period of sleeping, or other inactivity, at night.
The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris when considered a subspecies of the gray wolf or Canis familiaris when considered a distinct species) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore.
The Edinger–Westphal nucleus (accessory oculomotor nucleus) is the parasympathetic pre-ganglionic nucleus that innervates the iris sphincter muscle and the ciliary muscle.
The elk or wapiti (Cervus canadensis) is one of the largest species within the deer family, Cervidae, in the world, and one of the largest land mammals in North America and Eastern Asia.
In an optical system, the entrance pupil is the optical image of the physical aperture stop, as 'seen' through the front of the lens system.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is a medium-sized wild cat native to Siberia, Central, Eastern, and Southern Asia, Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
The even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla) are ungulates (hoofed animals) whose weight is borne equally by the third and fourth toes.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Eyes are organs of the visual system.
Eye contact occurs when two people look at each other's eyes at the same time.
The biological family Felidae is a lineage of carnivorans colloquially referred to as cats.
A flying frog (also called a gliding frog) is a frog that has the ability to achieve gliding flight.
Foxes are small-to-medium-sized, omnivorous mammals belonging to several genera of the family Canidae.
Geckos are lizards belonging to the infraorder Gekkota, found in warm climates throughout the world.
The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.
The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).
The common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), or hippo, is a large, mostly herbivorous, semiaquatic mammal native to sub-Saharan Africa, and one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae, the other being the pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis or Hexaprotodon liberiensis).
Hippus, also known as pupillary athetosis, is spasmodic, rhythmic, but regular dilating and contracting pupillary movements between the sphincter and dilator muscles.
Horner's syndrome is a combination of symptoms that arises when a group of nerves known as the sympathetic trunk is damaged.
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.
In humans and most mammals and birds, the iris (plural: irides or irises) is a thin, circular structure in the eye, responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupil and thus the amount of light reaching the retina.
The iris sphincter muscle (pupillary sphincter, pupillary constrictor, circular muscle of iris, circular fibers) is a muscle in the part of the eye called the iris.
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known as acid, is a psychedelic drug known for its psychological effects, which may include altered awareness of one's surroundings, perceptions, and feelings as well as sensations and images that seem real though they are not.
Relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) or Marcus Gunn pupil is a medical sign observed during the swinging-flashlight test whereupon the patient's pupils constrict less (therefore appearing to dilate) when a bright light is swung from the unaffected eye to the affected eye.
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (E), is a psychoactive drug used primarily as a recreational drug.
Melanopsin is a type of photopigment belonging to a larger family of light-sensitive retinal proteins called opsins and encoded by the gene Opn4.
Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a naturally occurring psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class, known for its hallucinogenic effects comparable to those of LSD and psilocybin.
Miosis is excessive constriction of the pupil.
Mongoose is the popular English name for 29 of the 34 species in the 14 genera of the family Herpestidae, which are small feliform carnivorans native to southern Eurasia and mainland Africa.
Mydriasis is the dilation of the pupil, usually having a non-physiological cause, or sometimes a physiological pupillary response.
Nocturnality is an animal behavior characterized by being active during the night and sleeping during the day.
The octopus (or ~) is a soft-bodied, eight-armed mollusc of the order Octopoda.
The oculomotor nerve is the third cranial nerve.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
The parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system (a division of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)), the other being the sympathetic nervous system.
The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.
A psilocybin mushroom is one of a polyphyletic group of fungi that contain any of various psychedelic compounds, including psilocybin, psilocin, and baeocystin.
The pupillary light reflex (PLR) or photopupillary reflex is a reflex that controls the diameter of the pupil, in response to the intensity (luminance) of light that falls on the retinal ganglion cells of the retina in the back of the eye, thereby assisting in adaptation to various levels of lightness/darkness.
Pupillary response is a physiological response that varies the size of the pupil, via the optic and oculomotor cranial nerve.
The red deer (Cervus elaphus) is one of the largest deer species.
The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the largest of the true foxes and one of the most widely distributed members of the order Carnivora, being present across the entire Northern Hemisphere from the Arctic Circle to North Africa, North America and Eurasia.
The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), also known as the caribou in North America, is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic, tundra, boreal and mountainous regions of northern Europe, Siberia and North America.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
A retinal ganglion cell (RGC) is a type of neuron located near the inner surface (the ganglion cell layer) of the retina of the eye.
The sclera, also known as the white of the eye, is the opaque, fibrous, protective, outer layer of the human eye containing mainly collagen and some elastic fiber.
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.
The Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris tigris), also called Amur tiger, is a tiger population inhabiting mainly the Sikhote Alin mountain region in southwest Primorye Province in the Russian Far East.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.
Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based upon the amphetamine structure; it includes all derivative compounds which are formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the amphetamine core structure with substituents.
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
A synechia is an eye condition where the iris adheres to either the cornea (i.e. anterior synechia) or lens (i.e. posterior synechia).
Tarsiers are any haplorrhine primates of the family Tarsiidae, which is itself the lone extant family within the infraorder Tarsiiformes.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Toad is a common name for certain frogs, especially of the family Bufonidae, that are characterized by dry, leathery skin, short legs, and large bumps covering the parotoid glands.
Tropicamide, sold under the brand name Mydriacyl among others, is a medication used to dilate the pupil and help with examination of the eye.
Ungulates (pronounced) are any members of a diverse group of primarily large mammals that includes odd-toed ungulates such as horses and rhinoceroses, and even-toed ungulates such as cattle, pigs, giraffes, camels, deer, and hippopotami.
The Viperidae (vipers) is a family of venomous snakes found in most parts of the world, excluding Antarctica, Australia, New Zealand, Madagascar, Hawaii, various other isolated islands, and north of the Arctic Circle.
The visual system is the part of the central nervous system which gives organisms the ability to process visual detail, as well as enabling the formation of several non-image photo response functions.