106 relations: Abiogenesis, Adenine, Adenosine, Adenosine monophosphate, Adenosine receptor, Adenosine triphosphate, Amine, Anchovy, Aromaticity, Asparagus, Bean, Beef, Beer, Bovril, Brain, Bran, Caffeine, Cancer, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Cauliflower, Cereal germ, Chemist, Coenzyme A, Complementarity (molecular biology), Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, Cytosine, Dairy product, Deoxyadenosine, Deoxyguanosine, Deoxyribonucleotide, DNA, Edible mushroom, Enzyme, Enzyme activator, Enzyme inhibitor, Formamide, Formic acid, Game (hunting), Germany, Gout, Gravy, Guanine, Guanosine, Guanosine monophosphate, Guanosine triphosphate, Hermann Emil Fischer, Herring, Heterocyclic compound, Hydrogen bond, Hydrogen cyanide, ..., Hydrogen iodide, Hydrolysis, Hypoxanthine, Imidazole, In vivo, Inosine triphosphate, Isoguanine, Kidney, Kidney stone disease, Lentil, Liver, Mackerel, Meat, Meat extract, Metabolic pathway, Metabolism, Neurotransmitter, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, Nitrogenous base, Nucleobase, Nucleoside, Nucleoside triphosphate, Nucleotide, Oatmeal, Organic compound, Organic synthesis, Oxo (food), Pea, Phosphonium, Phosphorus pentachloride, Pork, Poultry, Purine metabolism, Purinergic receptor, Pyrimidine, Ribonucleotide, Ribose, RNA, Sardine, Scallop, Seafood, Simple aromatic ring, Spinach, Sweetbread, Tautomer, Theobromine, Thymine, Transition (genetics), Transversion, Uracil, Uric acid, Wilhelm Traube, Xanthine, Xanthosine triphosphate, Yeast, Zinc. Expand index (56 more) » « Shrink index
Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life,Compare: Also occasionally called biopoiesis.
Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).
Adenosine is both a chemical found in many living systems and a medication.
Adenosine monophosphate (AMP), also known as 5'-adenylic acid, is a nucleotide.
The adenosine receptors (or P1 receptors) are a class of purinergic G protein-coupled receptors with adenosine as endogenous ligand.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
An anchovy is a small, common forage fish of the family Engraulidae.
In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.
Asparagus, or garden asparagus, folk name sparrow grass, scientific name Asparagus officinalis, is a spring vegetable, a flowering perennial plant species in the genus Asparagus.
A bean is a seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal food.
Beef is the culinary name for meat from cattle, particularly skeletal muscle.
Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.
Bovril is the trademarked name of a thick and salty meat extract paste similar to a yeast extract, developed in the 1870s by John Lawson Johnston.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Bran, also known as miller's bran, is the hard outer layers of cereal grain.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Carl Wilhelm Scheele (9 December 1742 – 21 May 1786) was a Swedish Pomeranian and German pharmaceutical chemist.
Cauliflower is one of several vegetables in the species Brassica oleracea in the genus Brassica, which is in the family Brassicaceae.
The germ of a cereal is the reproductive part that germinates to grow into a plant; it is the embryo of the seed.
A chemist (from Greek chēm (ía) alchemy; replacing chymist from Medieval Latin alchimista) is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry.
Coenzyme A (CoA,SCoA,CoASH) is a coenzyme, notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids, and the oxidation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle.
In molecular biology, complementarity describes a relationship between two structures each following the lock-and-key principle.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.
Cytosine (C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
Dairy products, milk products or lacticinia are a type of food produced from or containing the milk of mammals, primarily cattle, water buffaloes, goats, sheep, camels, and humans.
Deoxyadenosine (symbol dA or dAdo) is a deoxyribonucleoside.
Deoxyguanosine is composed of the purine nucleobase guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of deoxyribose.
A deoxyribonucleotide is the monomer, or single unit, of DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Edible mushrooms are the fleshy and edible fruit bodies of several species of macrofungi (fungi which bear fruiting structures that are large enough to be seen with the naked eye).
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Enzyme activators are molecules that bind to enzymes and increase their activity.
4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.
Formamide, also known as methanamide, is an amide derived from formic acid.
Formic acid, systematically named methanoic acid, is the simplest carboxylic acid.
Game or quarry is any animal hunted for sport or for food.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint.
Gravy is a sauce often made from the juices of meats that run naturally during cooking and thickened with wheat flour or cornstarch for added texture.
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
Guanosine is a purine nucleoside comprising guanine attached to a ribose (ribofuranose) ring via a β-N9-glycosidic bond.
Guanosine monophosphate (GMP), also known as 5'-guanidylic acid or guanylic acid (conjugate base guanylate), is a nucleotide that is used as a monomer in RNA.
Guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP) is a purine nucleoside triphosphate.
Hermann Emil Louis Fischer FRS FRSE FCS (9 October 1852 – 15 July 1919) was a German chemist and 1902 recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Herring are forage fish, mostly belonging to the family Clupeidae.
A heterocyclic compound or ring structure is a cyclic compound that has atoms of at least two different elements as members of its ring(s).
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), sometimes called prussic acid, is a chemical compound with the chemical formula HCN.
Hydrogen iodide is a diatomic molecule and hydrogen halide.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Hypoxanthine is a naturally occurring purine derivative.
Imidazole is an organic compound with the formula C3N2H4.
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
Inosine triphosphate (ITP) is an intermediate in the purine metabolism pathway, seen in the synthesis of ATP and GTP.
Isoguanine or 2-hydroxyadenine is a purine base that is an isomer of guanine.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Kidney stone disease, also known as urolithiasis, is when a solid piece of material (kidney stone) occurs in the urinary tract.
The lentil (Lens culinaris or Lens esculenta) is an edible pulse.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Mackerel is a common name applied to a number of different species of pelagic fish, mostly, but not exclusively, from the family Scombridae.
Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food.
Meat extract is highly concentrated meat stock, usually made from beef.
In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells.
A nitrogenous base, or nitrogen-containing base, is an organic molecule with a nitrogen atom that has the chemical properties of a base.
Nucleobases, also known as nitrogenous bases or often simply bases, are nitrogen-containing biological compounds that form nucleosides, which in turn are components of nucleotides, with all of these monomers constituting the basic building blocks of nucleic acids.
Nucleosides are glycosylamines that can be thought of as nucleotides without a phosphate group.
A nucleoside triphosphate is a molecule containing a nitrogenous base bound to a 5-carbon sugar (either ribose or deoxyribose), with three phosphate groups bound to the sugar.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
Oatmeal is made of hulled oat grains – groats – that have either been milled (ground), steel-cut, or rolled.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds.
Oxo is a brand of food products, including stock cubes, herbs and spices, dried gravy, and yeast extract.
The pea is most commonly the small spherical seed or the seed-pod of the pod fruit Pisum sativum.
The phosphonium (more obscurely: phosphinium) cation describes polyatomic cations with the chemical formula.
Phosphorus pentachloride is the chemical compound with the formula PCl5.
Pork is the culinary name for meat from a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).
Poultry are domesticated birds kept by humans for their eggs, their meat or their feathers.
Purine metabolism refers to the metabolic pathways to synthesize and break down purines that are present in many organisms.
Purinergic receptors, also known as purinoceptors, are a family of plasma membrane molecules that are found in almost all mammalian tissues.
Pyrimidine is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound similar to pyridine.
In biochemistry, a ribonucleotide or ribotide is a nucleotide containing ribose as its pentose component.
Ribose is a carbohydrate with the formula C5H10O5; specifically, it is a pentose monosaccharide (simple sugar) with linear form H−(C.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
"Sardine" and "pilchard" are common names used to refer to various small, oily fish in the herring family Clupeidae.
Scallop is a common name that is primarily applied to any one of numerous species of saltwater clams or marine bivalve mollusks in the taxonomic family Pectinidae, the scallops.
Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans.
Simple aromatic rings, also known as simple arenes or simple aromatics, are aromatic organic compounds that consist only of a conjugated planar ring system.
Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is an edible flowering plant in the family Amaranthaceae native to central and western Asia.
Sweetbread is a culinary name for the thymus (also called throat, gullet, or neck sweetbread) or the pancreas (also called heart, stomach, or belly sweetbread), especially of calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d'agneau), and, less commonly, of beef and pork.
Tautomers are constitutional isomers of organic compounds that readily interconvert.
Theobromine, formerly known as xantheose, is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant, with the chemical formula C7H8N4O2.
---> Thymine (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.
In genetics, a transition is a point mutation that changes a purine nucleotide to another purine (A ↔ G) or a pyrimidine nucleotide to another pyrimidine (C ↔ T).
Transversion, in molecular biology, refers to the substitution of a (two ring) purine for a (one ring) pyrimidine or vice versa, in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
Uracil (U) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).
Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.
Wilhelm Traube (10 January 1866 – 28 September 1942) was a German chemist.
Xanthine (or; archaically xanthic acid) (3,7-dihydropurine-2,6-dione), is a purine base found in most human body tissues and fluids and in other organisms.
Xanthosine 5'-triphosphate (XTP) is a nucleotide that is not produced by - and has no known function in - living cells.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.