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Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky

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Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Often "Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky" in English. [1]

246 relations: A Life for the Tsar, Académie des Beaux-Arts, Adele aus der Ohe, Adolphe Adam, Adoption of the Gregorian calendar, Aleksey Apukhtin, Alexander Borodin, Alexander Glazunov, Alexander II of Russia, Alexander III of Russia, Alexander Nevsky Lavra, Alexander Ostrovsky, Alexander Serov, Alexandre Benois, Allan Kozinn, Anatoly Lyadov, Anthony Holden, Anton Rubinstein, Antonín Dvořák, Antonina Miliukova, Antonina W. Bouis, Arnold Pomerans, Battle of Poltava, Bayreuth, Belyayev circle, Boarding school, Bolshoi Theatre, Bolshoi Theatre, Saint Petersburg, Capriccio Italien, Carmen, Carnegie Hall, Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, César Cui, Celesta, Cello, Cherevichki, Cherkasy Oblast, Cholera, Christmas Eve (Gogol), Christmas Eve (opera), Civil service, Classical music, Claude Debussy, Coppélia, Cossacks, Counterpoint, Cultural history, Cylinder Audio Archive, Daniel Zhitomirsky, Das Rheingold, ..., David Brown (musicologist), Désirée Artôt, Death of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Delirium tremens, Depression (mood), Der Ring des Nibelungen, Doctor of Music, Eduard Hanslick, Eduard Nápravník, Eugène Scribe, Eugene Onegin (opera), Exoticism, Exposition Universelle (1878), Felix Mendelssohn, Francesca da Rimini (Tchaikovsky), Franz Lachner, Franz Liszt, French people, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Georges Bizet, Gerald Abraham, Germany, Giacomo Meyerbeer, Giselle, Glazov, Glossophobia, Gull, Hamlet (Tchaikovsky), Hans Keller, Hans von Bülow, Harmony, Harold C. Schonberg, Hector Berlioz, Henry Litolff, Herman Laroche, Hermann Kretzschmar, Homophobia, Homosexuality, House of Romanov, Igor Stravinsky, Imperial School of Jurisprudence, Intelligentsia, Italian opera, Ivan Vsevolozhsky, Jascha Heifetz, Joachim Raff, Johann Sebastian Bach, Johann Strauss II, Johannes Brahms, Joseph Horowitz, Journalist, Jules Massenet, Kamianka, Cherkasy Oblast, Key (music), Kharkiv, Kiev, Léo Delibes, Léon Bakst, Lent, Leon Botstein, Leonid Sabaneyev, Leopold Auer, Library of Congress, Libretto, Literaturnoye Kafe (Saint Petersburg), Ludwig van Beethoven, Manfred Symphony, Marche slave, Mariinsky Theatre, Marius Petipa, Mark Antokolsky, Max Erdmannsdörfer, Melody, Metre (music), Michael Steinberg (music critic), Mikhail Glinka, Mily Balakirev, Modest Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Modest Mussorgsky, Modulation (music), Moscow Conservatory, Music criticism, Music journalism, Music theory, Musical form, Musical nationalism, Mykola Lysenko, Nadezhda von Meck, Nathan Milstein, National Opera of Ukraine, Nationalism, Neoclassicism (music), New York Symphony Orchestra, Nikolai Gogol, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Nikolai Rubinstein, Nikolai Zaremba, Octatonic scale, Odessa, Ogg, Orchestra, Orchestral Suite No. 3 (Tchaikovsky), Orchestration, Orchestrion, Order of Saint Vladimir, P. Jurgenson, Paris, Pastiche, Patronage, Pavlovsk Park, Peter the Great, Petro Tchaikovsky National Music Academy of Ukraine, Piano Concerto No. 1 (Tchaikovsky), Piano Trio (Tchaikovsky), Pitch (music), Polemic, Polonaise, Princess Charlotte of Württemberg, Pump organ, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Repetition (music), Rhythm, Richard Taruskin, Richard Wagner, Robert Schumann, Roland John Wiley, Romantic music, Romeo and Juliet (Tchaikovsky), Russian Empire, Russian Museum, Russian Musical Society, Russian nobility, Russian ruble, Russian Symphony Concerts, Russians, Saint Petersburg Conservatory, Salon music, Sequence (music), Serenade for Strings (Tchaikovsky), Sergei Diaghilev, Sergei Taneyev, Sonata form, Sound bite, Soviet Union, Stanley Sadie, Subject (music), Suicide, Swan Lake, Sylvia (ballet), Symphony, Symphony No. 1 (Tchaikovsky), Symphony No. 2 (Tchaikovsky), Symphony No. 3 (Tchaikovsky), Symphony No. 4 (Tchaikovsky), Symphony No. 5 (Tchaikovsky), Symphony No. 6 (Tchaikovsky), Taras Bulba (opera), The Demon (opera), The Five (composers), The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, The New York Times, The Nutcracker, The Oprichnik, The Queen of Spades (opera), The Rite of Spring, The Sleeping Beauty (ballet), The Storm (Tchaikovsky), The Voyevoda (opera), Thomas Edison, Tikhvin Cemetery, Trostianets, Tsar, Udmurtia, Ukraine, Ukrainian language, Ukrainians, Undina (Tchaikovsky), University of California, Santa Barbara, University of Cambridge, Vakula the Smith, Variations on a Rococo Theme, Vasily Safonov, Violin Concerto (Tchaikovsky), Vladimir Davydov, Vladimir Medinsky, Vladimir Stasov, Votkinsk, Vyatka Governorate, Waltz (music), Whole tone scale, Wilhelm Fitzenhagen, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Writer's block, Yelizaveta Lavrovskaya, 1812 Overture, 20th-century music. Expand index (196 more) »

A Life for the Tsar

A Life for the Tsar (italic, Zhizn' za tsarya), is a "patriotic-heroic tragic opera" in four acts with an epilogue by Mikhail Glinka.

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Académie des Beaux-Arts

The Académie des Beaux-Arts (Academy of Fine Arts) is a French learned society.

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Adele aus der Ohe

Adele (Adelheit Johanne Auguste Hermine) aus der Ohe (11 February 18618 December 1937) was a German concert pianist and composer.

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Adolphe Adam

Adolphe Charles Adam (24 July 1803 – 3 May 1856) was a French composer and music critic.

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Adoption of the Gregorian calendar

The adoption of the Gregorian Calendar was an event in the modern history of most nations and societies, marking a change from their traditional (or old style) dating system to the modern (or new style) dating system that is widely used around the world today.

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Aleksey Apukhtin

Aleksey Nikolayevich Apukhtin (a) (–) was a Russian poet, writer and critic.

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Alexander Borodin

Alexander Porfiryevich Borodin (a; 12 November 183327 February 1887) was a Russian Romantic composer of Georgian-Russian origin, as well as a doctor and chemist.

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Alexander Glazunov

Alexander Konstantinovich Glazunov (10 August 1865 – 21 March 1936) was a Russian composer, music teacher, and conductor of the late Russian Romantic period.

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Alexander II of Russia

Alexander II (p; 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881) was the Emperor of Russia from the 2nd March 1855 until his assassination on 13 March 1881.

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Alexander III of Russia

Alexander III (r; 1845 1894) was the Emperor of Russia, King of Poland, and Grand Duke of Finland from until his death on.

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Alexander Nevsky Lavra

Saint Alexander Nevsky Lavra or Saint Alexander Nevsky Monastery was founded by Peter I of Russia in 1710 at the eastern end of the Nevsky Prospekt in Saint Petersburg supposing that that was the site of the Neva Battle in 1240 when Alexander Nevsky, a prince, defeated the Swedes; however, the battle actually took place about away from that site.

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Alexander Ostrovsky

Alexander Nikolayevich Ostrovsky (Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Остро́вский;, Moscow, Russian Empire, Shchelykovo, Kostroma Governorate, Russian Empire) was a Russian playwright, generally considered the greatest representative of the Russian realistic period.

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Alexander Serov

Alexander Nikolayevich Serov (Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Серо́в, Saint Petersburg, – Saint Petersburg) was a Russian composer and music critic.

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Alexandre Benois

Alexandre Nikolayevich Benois (Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Бенуа́, also spelled Alexander Benois;,Salmina-Haskell, Larissa. Russian Paintings and Drawings in the Ashmolean Museum. pp. 15, 23-24. Published by Ashmolean Museum, 1989 Saint Petersburg9 February 1960, Paris) was a Russian artist, art critic, historian, preservationist, and founding member of Mir iskusstva (World of Art), an art movement and magazine.

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Allan Kozinn

Allan Kozinn (born July 28, 1954) is an American journalist, music critic, and teacher.

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Anatoly Lyadov

Anatoly Konstantinovich Lyadov or Liadov (Анато́лий Константи́нович Ля́дов) was a Russian composer, teacher and conductor.

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Anthony Holden

Anthony Holden (born 22 May 1947) is an English writer, broadcaster and critic, particularly known as a biographer of artists including Shakespeare, Tchaikovsky, Leigh Hunt, Lorenzo da Ponte and Laurence Olivier, and of members of the British Royal family, notably Charles, Prince of Wales.

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Anton Rubinstein

Anton Grigorevich Rubinstein (r) was a Russian pianist, composer and conductor who became a pivotal figure in Russian culture when he founded the Saint Petersburg Conservatory.

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Antonín Dvořák

Antonín Leopold Dvořák (8 September 1841 – 1 May 1904) was a Czech composer.

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Antonina Miliukova

Antonina Ivanovna Miliukova (Антонина Ивановна Милюкова) was the wife, and after 1893, the widow, of Russian composer Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky.

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Antonina W. Bouis

Antonina W. Bouis is a literary translator from Russian to English.

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Arnold Pomerans

Arnold Julius Pomerans (27 April 1920 – 30 May 2005) was a German-born British translator.

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Battle of Poltava

The Battle of Poltava (Slaget vid Poltava; Полта́вская би́тва; Полта́вська би́тва) on 27 June 1709 (8 July, N.S.) was the decisive victory of Peter I of Russia, also known as "the Great," over the Swedish forces under Field Marshal Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld, in one of the battles of the Great Northern War.

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Bayreuth

Bayreuth (Bavarian: Bareid) is a medium-sized town in northern Bavaria, Germany, on the Red Main river in a valley between the Franconian Jura and the Fichtelgebirge Mountains.

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Belyayev circle

The Belyayev circle (Беляевский кружок) was a society of Russian musicians who met in Saint Petersburg, Russia between 1885 and 1908, and whose members included Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Alexander Glazunov, Vladimir Stasov, Anatoly Lyadov, Alexander Ossovsky, Witold Maliszewski, Nikolai Tcherepnin, Nikolay Sokolov, Alexander Winkler among others.

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Boarding school

A boarding school provides education for pupils who live on the premises, as opposed to a day school.

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Bolshoi Theatre

The Bolshoi Theatre (p) is a historic theatre in Moscow, Russia, originally designed by architect Joseph Bové, which holds ballet and opera performances.

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Bolshoi Theatre, Saint Petersburg

The Saint Petersburg Imperial Bolshoi Kamenny Theatre (The Big Stone Theatre of Saint Petersburg, Большой Каменный Театр) was a theatre in Saint Petersburg.

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Capriccio Italien

The Capriccio Italien, Op.

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Carmen

Carmen is an opera in four acts by French composer Georges Bizet.

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Carnegie Hall

Carnegie Hall (but more commonly) is a concert venue in Midtown Manhattan in New York City, United States, located at 881 Seventh Avenue, occupying the east side of Seventh Avenue between West 56th Street and West 57th Street, two blocks south of Central Park.

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Cathedral of Christ the Saviour

The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour (Храм Христа Спасителя, Khram Khrista Spasitelya) is a Russian Orthodox cathedral in Moscow, Russia, on the northern bank of the Moskva River, a few hundred metres southwest of the Kremlin.

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César Cui

César Antonovich Cui (Це́зарь Анто́нович Кюи́; 13 March 1918) was a Russian composer and music critic of French, Polish and Lithuanian descent.

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Celesta

The celesta or celeste is a struck idiophone operated by a keyboard.

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Cello

The cello (plural cellos or celli) or violoncello is a string instrument.

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Cherevichki

Cherevichki (Черевички, Cherevichki, Čerevički, The Slippers; alternative renderings are The Little Shoes, The Tsarina's Slippers, The Empress's Slippers, The Golden Slippers, The Little Slippers, Les caprices d'Oxane, and Gli stivaletti) is a comic-fantastic opera in 4 acts, 8 scenes, by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky.

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Cherkasy Oblast

Cherkasy Oblast (Черкаська область, translit. Cherkas’ka oblast’,; also referred to as Черкащина, Cherkashchyna) is an oblast (province) of central Ukraine located along the Dnieper River.

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Cholera

Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.

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Christmas Eve (Gogol)

"Christmas Eve" (Ночь пе́ред Рождество́м, Noch pered Rozhdestvom, which literally translates as "The Night Before Christmas") is the first story in the second volume of the collection Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka by Nikolai Gogol.

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Christmas Eve (opera)

Christmas Eve (Ночь перед Рождеством, Noch' pered Rozhdestvom), is an opera in four acts with music and libretto by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov.

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Civil service

The civil service is independent of government and composed mainly of career bureaucrats hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leadership.

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Classical music

Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.

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Claude Debussy

Achille-Claude Debussy (22 August 1862 – 25 March 1918) was a French composer.

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Coppélia

Coppélia (sometimes subtitled: The Girl With The Enamel Eyes) is a comic ballet originally choreographed by Arthur Saint-Léon to the music of Léo Delibes, with libretto by Charles-Louis-Étienne Nuitter.

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Cossacks

Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.

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Counterpoint

In music, counterpoint is the relationship between voices that are harmonically interdependent (polyphony) yet independent in rhythm and contour.

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Cultural history

Cultural history combines the approaches of anthropology and history to look at popular cultural traditions and cultural interpretations of historical experience.

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Cylinder Audio Archive

The Cylinder Audio Archive is a free digital collection maintained by the University of California, Santa Barbara Library with streaming and downloadable versions of over 10,000 phonograph cylinders manufactured between 1893 and the mid-1920s.

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Daniel Zhitomirsky

Daniel Vladimirovich Zhitomirsky (22 Dec 1906 – 27 June 1992) was a Russian musicologist and music critic who specialized in the music of German composer Robert Schumann and the aesthetics of German Romanticism.

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Das Rheingold

Das Rheingold (The Rhinegold), WWV 86A, is the first of the four music dramas that constitute Richard Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen, or in English, 'The Ring of the Nibelung'.

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David Brown (musicologist)

David Clifford Brown (born Gravesend, 8 July 1929, died 20 June 2014)Peter Le Huray 1980 was an English musicologist, most noteworthy for his major study of Tchaikovsky’s life and works.

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Désirée Artôt

Désirée Artôt (11 June 1835 – 3 April 1907) was a Belgian soprano (initially a mezzo-soprano), who was famed in German and Italian opera and sang mainly in Germany.

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Death of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky

On,Russia was still using old style dates in the 19th century, and information sources used in the article sometimes report dates as old style rather than new style.

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Delirium tremens

Delirium tremens (DTs) is a rapid onset of confusion usually caused by withdrawal from alcohol.

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Depression (mood)

Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.

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Der Ring des Nibelungen

(The Ring of the Nibelung), WWV 86, is a cycle of four German-language epic music dramas composed by Richard Wagner.

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Doctor of Music

The Doctor of Music degree (D.Mus., D.M., Mus.D. or occasionally Mus.Doc.) is a higher doctorate awarded on the basis of a substantial portfolio of compositions and/or scholarly publications on music.

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Eduard Hanslick

Eduard Hanslick (11 September 18256 August 1904) was a German Bohemian music critic.

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Eduard Nápravník

Eduard Francevič Nápravník (Russian: Эдуа́рд Фра́нцевич Напра́вник; 24 August 1839 – 10 November 1916) was a Czech conductor and composer.

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Eugène Scribe

Augustin Eugène Scribe (24 December 179120 February 1861) was a French dramatist and librettist.

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Eugene Onegin (opera)

Eugene Onegin (italic, Yevgény Onégin), Op.

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Exoticism

Exoticism (from 'exotic') is a trend in European art and design, influenced by some ethnic groups or civilizations from the late 19th-century.

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Exposition Universelle (1878)

The third Paris World's Fair, called an Exposition Universelle in French, was held from 1 May through to 10 November 1878.

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Felix Mendelssohn

Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy (3 February 1809 4 November 1847), born and widely known as Felix Mendelssohn, was a German composer, pianist, organist and conductor of the early romantic period.

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Francesca da Rimini (Tchaikovsky)

Francesca da Rimini: Symphonic Fantasy after Dante, Op. 32, is a symphonic poem by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky.

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Franz Lachner

Franz Paul Lachner (2 April 1803 – 20 January 1890) was a German composer and conductor.

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Franz Liszt

Franz Liszt (Liszt Ferencz, in modern usage Liszt Ferenc;Liszt's Hungarian passport spelt his given name as "Ferencz". An orthographic reform of the Hungarian language in 1922 (which was 36 years after Liszt's death) changed the letter "cz" to simply "c" in all words except surnames; this has led to Liszt's given name being rendered in modern Hungarian usage as "Ferenc". From 1859 to 1867 he was officially Franz Ritter von Liszt; he was created a Ritter (knight) by Emperor Francis Joseph I in 1859, but never used this title of nobility in public. The title was necessary to marry the Princess Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein without her losing her privileges, but after the marriage fell through, Liszt transferred the title to his uncle Eduard in 1867. Eduard's son was Franz von Liszt. 22 October 181131 July 1886) was a prolific 19th-century Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist, conductor, music teacher, arranger, organist, philanthropist, author, nationalist and a Franciscan tertiary during the Romantic era.

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French people

The French (Français) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France.

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Fyodor Dostoevsky

Fyodor Mikhailovich DostoevskyHis name has been variously transcribed into English, his first name sometimes being rendered as Theodore or Fedor.

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Georges Bizet

Georges Bizet (25 October 18383 June 1875), registered at birth as Alexandre César Léopold Bizet, was a French composer of the romantic era.

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Gerald Abraham

Gerald Ernest Heal Abraham, CBE, FBA (9 March 1904 – 18 March 1988) was an English-Jewish musicologist; he was President of the Royal Musical Association, 1970–74.

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Giacomo Meyerbeer

Giacomo Meyerbeer (born Jacob Liebmann Beer; 5 September 1791 – 2 May 1864) was a German opera composer of Jewish birth who has been described as perhaps the most successful stage composer of the nineteenth century.

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Giselle

Giselle (French: Giselle, ou les Wilis) is a romantic ballet in two acts.

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Glazov

Glazov (p; Глаз, Glaz) is a town in the Udmurt Republic, Russia, located along the Trans-Siberian Railway, on the Cheptsa River.

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Glossophobia

Glossophobia or speech anxiety is the fear of public speaking.

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Gull

Gulls or seagulls are seabirds of the family Laridae in the suborder Lari.

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Hamlet (Tchaikovsky)

Shakespeare's Hamlet was the inspiration for two works by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky: the overture-fantasia Hamlet, Op.

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Hans Keller

Hans (Heinrich) Keller (11 March 19196 November 1985) was an Austrian-born British musician and writer who made significant contributions to musicology and music criticism, as well as being a commentator on such disparate fields as psychoanalysis and football.

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Hans von Bülow

Baron Hans Guido von Bülow (January 8, 1830February 12, 1894) was a German conductor, virtuoso pianist, and composer of the Romantic era.

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Harmony

In music, harmony considers the process by which the composition of individual sounds, or superpositions of sounds, is analysed by hearing.

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Harold C. Schonberg

Harold Charles Schonberg (November 29, 1915 – July 26, 2003) was an American music critic and journalist, most notably for The New York Times.

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Hector Berlioz

Louis-Hector Berlioz; 11 December 1803 – 8 March 1869) was a French Romantic composer, best known for his compositions Symphonie fantastique, Harold en Italie, Roméo et Juliette, Grande messe des morts (Requiem), L'Enfance du Christ, Benvenuto Cellini, La Damnation de Faust, and Les Troyens. Berlioz made significant contributions to the modern orchestra with his Treatise on Instrumentation. He specified huge orchestral forces for some of his works, and conducted several concerts with more than 1,000 musicians. He also composed around 50 compositions for voice, accompanied by piano or orchestra. His influence was critical for the further development of Romanticism, especially in composers like Richard Wagner, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Franz Liszt, Richard Strauss, and Gustav Mahler.

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Henry Litolff

Henry Charles Litolff (7 August 1818 – 5 August 1891) was a piano virtuoso, composer of Romantic music, and music publisher.

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Herman Laroche

Herman Augustovich Laroche (German Avgustovich Larosh; also German Avgustovič Laroš; 25 May 1845 in Saint Petersburg – 18 October 1904) was a Russian critic of classical music and composer who was renowned throughout Moscow.

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Hermann Kretzschmar

August Ferdinand Hermann Kretzschmar (19 January 1848 – 10 May 1924) was a German musicologist and writer, and is considered a founder of interpretation in musical study.

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Homophobia

Homophobia encompasses a range of negative attitudes and feelings toward homosexuality or people who are identified or perceived as being lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT).

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Homosexuality

Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.

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House of Romanov

The House of Romanov (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. also Romanoff; Рома́новы, Románovy) was the second dynasty to rule Russia, after the House of Rurik, reigning from 1613 until the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II on March 15, 1917, as a result of the February Revolution.

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Igor Stravinsky

Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (ˈiɡərʲ ˈfʲɵdərəvʲɪtɕ strɐˈvʲinskʲɪj; 6 April 1971) was a Russian-born composer, pianist, and conductor.

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Imperial School of Jurisprudence

The Imperial School of Jurisprudence (Russian: Императорское училище правоведения) was, along with the Page Corps, the most prestigious school for boys in Saint Petersburg, the capital of the Russian Empire.

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Intelligentsia

The intelligentsia (/ɪnˌtelɪˈdʒentsiə/) (intelligentia, inteligencja, p) is a status class of educated people engaged in the complex mental labours that critique, guide, and lead in shaping the culture and politics of their society.

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Italian opera

Italian opera is both the art of opera in Italy and opera in the Italian language.

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Ivan Vsevolozhsky

Ivan Alexandrovich Vsevolozhsky (Иван Александрович Всеволожской; 1835–1909) was the Director of the Imperial Theatres in Russia from 1881–98 and director of the Hermitage from 1899 to his death in 1909.

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Jascha Heifetz

Jascha Heifetz (10 December 1987) was a Russian-American violinist.

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Joachim Raff

Joseph Joachim Raff (27 May 182224 or 25 June 1882) was a German-Swiss composer, teacher and pianist.

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Johann Sebastian Bach

Johann Sebastian Bach (28 July 1750) was a composer and musician of the Baroque period, born in the Duchy of Saxe-Eisenach.

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Johann Strauss II

Johann Strauss II (October 25, 1825 – June 3, 1899), also known as Johann Strauss Jr., the Younger, the Son (Sohn), Johann Baptist Strauss, son of Johann Strauss I, was an Austrian composer of light music, particularly dance music and operettas.

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Johannes Brahms

Johannes Brahms (7 May 1833 – 3 April 1897) was a German composer and pianist of the Romantic period.

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Joseph Horowitz

Joseph Horowitz (born 1948 in New York City) is an American cultural historian whose seven books mainly deal with the institutional history of classical music in the United States.

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Journalist

A journalist is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information to the public.

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Jules Massenet

Jules Émile Frédéric Massenet (12 May 184213 August 1912) was a French composer of the Romantic era best known for his operas, of which he wrote more than thirty.

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Kamianka, Cherkasy Oblast

Kamianka (Кам'янка,; Камeнка) is a city in Cherkasy Oblast (province) of Ukraine.

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Key (music)

In music theory, the key of a piece is the group of pitches, or scale, that forms the basis of a music composition in classical, Western art, and Western pop music.

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Kharkiv

Kharkiv (Ха́рків), also known as Kharkov (Ха́рьков) from Russian, is the second-largest city in Ukraine.

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Kiev

Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.

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Léo Delibes

Clément Philibert Léo Delibes (21 February 1836 – 16 January 1891) was a French composer of the Romantic era (1815–1910), who specialised in ballets, operas, and other works for the stage.

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Léon Bakst

Léon Bakst (Леон (Лев) Николаевич Бакст, Leon (Lev) Nikolaevich Bakst) – born as Leyb-Khaim Izrailevich (later Samoylovich) Rosenberg, Лейб-Хаим Израилевич (Самойлович) Розенберг (27 January (8 February) 1866 – 28 December 1924) was a Russian painter and scene and costume designer.

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Lent

Lent (Latin: Quadragesima: Fortieth) is a solemn religious observance in the Christian liturgical calendar that begins on Ash Wednesday and ends approximately six weeks later, before Easter Sunday.

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Leon Botstein

Leon Botstein (born December 14, 1946 in Zürich, Switzerland) is a Jewish-American conductor and scholar, and the President of Bard College.

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Leonid Sabaneyev

Leonid Leonidovich Sabaneyev or Sabaneyeff or Sabaneev (Леони́д Леони́дович Сабане́ев) (3 May 1968) was a Russian musicologist, music critic, composer and scientist.

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Leopold Auer

Leopold von Auer ('Auer Lipót'; June 7, 1845July 15, 1930) was a Hungarian violinist, academic, conductor and composer, best known as an outstanding violin teacher.

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Library of Congress

The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.

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Libretto

A libretto is the text used in, or intended for, an extended musical work such as an opera, operetta, masque, oratorio, cantata or musical.

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Literaturnoye Kafe (Saint Petersburg)

Literaturnoye Kafe, or Literary Cafe, is a historically significant restaurant on Nevsky Prospect in Saint Petersburg, Russia, that was frequented by famous writers of Russian literature, including Alexander Pushkin and Fyodor Dostoyevsky, and their friends in the nineteenth century.

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Ludwig van Beethoven

Ludwig van Beethoven (baptised 17 December 1770Beethoven was baptised on 17 December. His date of birth was often given as 16 December and his family and associates celebrated his birthday on that date, and most scholars accept that he was born on 16 December; however there is no documentary record of his birth.26 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist.

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Manfred Symphony

The Manfred Symphony in B minor, Op.

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Marche slave

The Marche slave in B-flat minor, Op. 31 (published as Slavonic March) or Serbo-Russian March (Словенски марш / Српско-руски марш, Slovenski marsh / Srpsko-ruski marsh, Славя́нский марш / Сербско-русский марш, Slavyanskiy marsh / Serbsko-russkiy marsh) or Slavic March is an orchestral tone poem by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky published in October 1876.

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Mariinsky Theatre

The Mariinsky Theatre (Мариинский театр, Mariinskiy Teatr, also spelled Maryinsky or Mariyinsky) is a historic theatre of opera and ballet in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Marius Petipa

Marius Ivanovich Petipa (Russian: Ма́риус Ива́нович Петипа́), born Victor Marius Alphonse Petipa (11 March 1818) was a French and Russian ballet dancer, pedagogue and choreographer.

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Mark Antokolsky

Mark Matveyevich Antokolsky (Марк Матве́евич Антоко́льский in Russian; 2 November 184014 July 1902) was a Litvak sculptor.

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Max Erdmannsdörfer

Max Erdmannsdörfer (14 June 184814 February 1905) (sometimes seen as Max von Erdmannsdörfer) was a German conductor, pianist and composer.

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Melody

A melody (from Greek μελῳδία, melōidía, "singing, chanting"), also tune, voice, or line, is a linear succession of musical tones that the listener perceives as a single entity.

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Metre (music)

In music, metre (Am. meter) refers to the regularly recurring patterns and accents such as bars and beats.

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Michael Steinberg (music critic)

Carl Michael Alfred Steinberg (4 October 1928 – 26 July 2009) was an American music critic, musicologist, and writer best known, according to San Francisco Chronicle music critic Joshua Kosman, for "the illuminating, witty and often deeply personal notes he wrote for the San Francisco Symphony's program booklets, beginning in 1979." He contributed several entries to the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, wrote articles for music journals and magazine, notes for CDs, and published a number of books on music, both collected published annotations and new writings.

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Mikhail Glinka

Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (Mikhaíl Ivánovich Glínka) was the first Russian composer to gain wide recognition within his own country, and is often regarded as the fountainhead of Russian classical music.

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Mily Balakirev

Mily Alexeyevich Balakirev (Ми́лий Алексе́евич Бала́кирев,; 2 January 1837 –)Russia was still using old style dates in the 19th century, and information sources used in the article sometimes report dates as old style rather than new style.

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Modest Ilyich Tchaikovsky

Modest Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Моде́ст Ильи́ч Чайко́вский; –) was a Russian dramatist, opera librettist and translator.

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Modest Mussorgsky

Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (mɐˈdɛst pʲɪˈtrovʲɪtɕ ˈmusərkskʲɪj; –) was a Russian composer, one of the group known as "The Five".

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Modulation (music)

In music, modulation is most commonly the act or process of changing from one key (tonic, or tonal center) to another.

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Moscow Conservatory

The Moscow Conservatory, also officially Moscow State Tchaikovsky Conservatory (Московская государственная консерватория им.) is an educational music institution located in Moscow, Russia.

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Music criticism

The Oxford Companion to Music defines music criticism as 'the intellectual activity of formulating judgements on the value and degree of excellence of individual works of music, or whole groups or genres'.

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Music journalism

Music journalism (or "music criticism") is media criticism and reporting about popular music topics, including pop music, rock music, and related styles.

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Music theory

Music theory is the study of the practices and possibilities of music.

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Musical form

The term musical form (or musical architecture) refers to the overall structure or plan of a piece of music; it describes the layout of a composition as divided into sections.

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Musical nationalism

Musical nationalism refers to the use of musical ideas or motifs that are identified with a specific country, region, or ethnicity, such as folk tunes and melodies, rhythms, and harmonies inspired by them.

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Mykola Lysenko

Mykola Vitaliyovych Lysenko (Мико́ла Віта́лійович Ли́сенко, &ndash) was a Ukrainian composer, pianist, conductor and ethnomusicologist.

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Nadezhda von Meck

Nadezhda Filaretovna von Meck (Надежда Филаретовна фон Мекк; 13 January 1894) was a Russian business woman who became an influential patron of the arts, especially music.

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Nathan Milstein

Nathan Mironovich Milstein (– December 21, 1992) was a Ukrainian-born American virtuoso violinist.

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National Opera of Ukraine

The Kyiv Opera group was formally established in the summer of 1867, and is the third oldest in Ukraine, after Odessa Opera and Lviv Opera.

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Nationalism

Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.

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Neoclassicism (music)

Neoclassicism in music was a twentieth-century trend, particularly current in the interwar period, in which composers sought to return to aesthetic precepts associated with the broadly defined concept of "classicism", namely order, balance, clarity, economy, and emotional restraint.

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New York Symphony Orchestra

The New York Symphony Orchestra was founded as the New York Symphony Society in New York City by Leopold Damrosch in 1878.

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Nikolai Gogol

Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol (31 March 1809 – 4 March 1852) was a Russian speaking dramatist of Ukrainian origin.

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Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov

Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (a; Russia was using old style dates in the 19th century, and information sources used in the article sometimes report dates as old style rather than new style. Dates in the article are taken verbatim from the source and are in the same style as the source from which they come.) was a Russian composer, and a member of the group of composers known as The Five.

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Nikolai Rubinstein

Nikolai Grigoryevich Rubinstein (Никола́й Григо́рьевич Рубинште́йн; &ndash) was a Russian pianist, conductor and composer.

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Nikolai Zaremba

Nikolai or Nicolaus Ivanovich von Zaremba was a Russian musical theorist, teacher and composer.

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Octatonic scale

An octatonic scale is any eight-note musical scale.

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Odessa

Odessa (Оде́са; Оде́сса; אַדעס) is the third most populous city of Ukraine and a major tourism center, seaport and transportation hub located on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea.

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Ogg

Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation.

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Orchestra

An orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble typical of classical music, which mixes instruments from different families, including bowed string instruments such as violin, viola, cello and double bass, as well as brass, woodwinds, and percussion instruments, each grouped in sections.

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Orchestral Suite No. 3 (Tchaikovsky)

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky composed his Orchestral Suite No.

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Orchestration

Orchestration is the study or practice of writing music for an orchestra (or, more loosely, for any musical ensemble, such as a concert band) or of adapting music composed for another medium for an orchestra.

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Orchestrion

Orchestrion is a generic name for a machine that plays music and is designed to sound like an orchestra or band.

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Order of Saint Vladimir

The Order of Saint Vladimir (Орден Святого Владимира) was an Imperial Russian Order established in 1782 by Empress Catherine II (r. 1762–1796) in memory of the deeds of Saint Vladimir, the Grand Prince and the Baptizer of the Kievan Rus'.

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P. Jurgenson

P.

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Paris

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Pastiche

A pastiche is a work of visual art, literature, theatre, or music that imitates the style or character of the work of one or more other artists.

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Patronage

Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another.

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Pavlovsk Park

The Pavlovsk Park (Павловский парк) is the park surrounding the Pavlovsk Palace, an 18th-century Russian Imperial residence built by Tsar Paul I of Russia near Saint Petersburg.

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Peter the Great

Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.

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Petro Tchaikovsky National Music Academy of Ukraine

Petro Tchaikovsky National Music Academy of Ukraine (Національна музична академія України імені Петра Чайковського) or Kyiv Conservatory is a Ukrainian state institution of higher music education.

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Piano Concerto No. 1 (Tchaikovsky)

The Piano Concerto No.

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Piano Trio (Tchaikovsky)

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's Trio in A minor, Op.

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Pitch (music)

Pitch is a perceptual property of sounds that allows their ordering on a frequency-related scale, or more commonly, pitch is the quality that makes it possible to judge sounds as "higher" and "lower" in the sense associated with musical melodies.

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Polemic

A polemic is contentious rhetoric that is intended to support a specific position by aggressive claims and undermining of the opposing position.

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Polonaise

The polonaise (polonez) is a dance of Polish origin, in 4 time.

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Princess Charlotte of Württemberg

Princess Charlotte of Württemberg (9 January 1807 – 2 February 1873) was later known as Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna, the wife of Grand Duke Michael Pavlovich of Russia.

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Pump organ

The pump organ, reed organ, harmonium, or melodeon is a type of free-reed organ that generates sound as air flows past a vibrating piece of thin metal in a frame.

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Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary

Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.

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Repetition (music)

Repetition is important in music, where sounds or sequences are often repeated.

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Rhythm

Rhythm (from Greek ῥυθμός, rhythmos, "any regular recurring motion, symmetry") generally means a "movement marked by the regulated succession of strong and weak elements, or of opposite or different conditions".

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Richard Taruskin

Richard Taruskin (born 1945, New York) is an American musicologist, music historian, and critic who has written about the theory of performance, Russian music, 15th-century music, 20th-century music, nationalism, the theory of modernism, and analysis.

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Richard Wagner

Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas (or, as some of his later works were later known, "music dramas").

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Robert Schumann

Robert Schumann (8 June 181029 July 1856) was a German composer and an influential music critic.

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Roland John Wiley

Roland John Wiley is an American musicologist, instructor and consultant whose main area of focus is on 19th-century Russian music and ballet.

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Romantic music

Romantic music is a period of Western classical music that began in the late 18th or early 19th century.

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Romeo and Juliet (Tchaikovsky)

Romeo and Juliet, TH 42, ČW 39, is an orchestral work composed by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Russian Museum

The State Russian Museum (Государственный Русский музей), formerly the Russian Museum of His Imperial Majesty Alexander III (Русский Музей Императора Александра III) is the largest depository of Russian fine art in Saint Petersburg.

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Russian Musical Society

The Russian Musical Society (RMS) (Русское музыкальное общество) was an organization founded in 1859 by the Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna (a German-born aunt of Tsar Alexander II) and her protégé, pianist and composer Anton Rubinstein, with the intent of raising the standard of music in the country and disseminating musical education.

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Russian nobility

The Russian nobility (дворянство. dvoryanstvo) arose in the 14th century.

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Russian ruble

The Russian ruble or rouble (рубль rublʹ, plural: рубли́ rubli; sign: ₽, руб; code: RUB) is the currency of the Russian Federation, the two partially recognized republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia and the two unrecognized republics of Donetsk and Luhansk.

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Russian Symphony Concerts

The Russian Symphony Concerts were a series of Russian classical music concerts hosted by timber magnate and musical philanthropist Mitrofan Belyayev in St. Petersburg as a forum for young Russian composers to have their orchestral works performed.

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Russians

Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.

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Saint Petersburg Conservatory

The N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov Saint Petersburg State Conservatory (Санкт-Петербургская государственная консерватория имени Н. А. Римского-Корсакова) is a music school in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Salon music

Salon music was a popular music genre in Europe during the 19th century.

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Sequence (music)

In music, a sequence is the restatement of a motif or longer melodic (or harmonic) passage at a higher or lower pitch in the same voice.

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Serenade for Strings (Tchaikovsky)

Tchaikovsky's Serenade for Strings in C major, Op. 48, was composed in 1880.

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Sergei Diaghilev

Sergei Pavlovich Diaghilev (sʲɪˈrɡʲej ˈpavɫovʲɪtɕ ˈdʲæɡʲɪlʲɪf; 19 August 1929), usually referred to outside Russia as Serge Diaghilev, was a Russian art critic, patron, ballet impresario and founder of the Ballets Russes, from which many famous dancers and choreographers would arise.

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Sergei Taneyev

Sergei Ivanovich Taneyev (Серге́й Ива́нович Тане́ев, Sergey Ivanovich Taneyev,; –) was a Russian composer, pianist, teacher of composition, music theorist and author.

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Sonata form

Sonata form (also sonata-allegro form or first movement form) is a musical structure consisting of three main sections: an exposition, a development, and a recapitulation.

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Sound bite

A sound bite is a short clip of speech or music extracted from a longer piece of audio, often used to promote or exemplify the full length piece.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Stanley Sadie

Stanley John Sadie, CBE (30 October 1930 – 21 March 2005) was an influential and prolific British musicologist, music critic, and editor.

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Subject (music)

In music, a subject is the material, usually a recognizable melody, upon which part or all of a composition is based.

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Suicide

Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.

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Swan Lake

Swan Lake (Лебединое озеро Lebedinoye ozero), Op. 20, is a ballet composed by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky in 1875–76.

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Sylvia (ballet)

Sylvia, originally Sylvia, ou La nymphe de Diane, is a full-length ballet in two or three acts, first choreographed by Louis Mérante to music by Léo Delibes in 1876.

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Symphony

A symphony is an extended musical composition in Western classical music, most often written by composers for orchestra.

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Symphony No. 1 (Tchaikovsky)

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky wrote his Symphony No.

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Symphony No. 2 (Tchaikovsky)

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's Symphony No.

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Symphony No. 3 (Tchaikovsky)

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's Symphony No.

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Symphony No. 4 (Tchaikovsky)

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's Symphony No.

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Symphony No. 5 (Tchaikovsky)

The Symphony No.

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Symphony No. 6 (Tchaikovsky)

The Symphony No.

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Taras Bulba (opera)

Taras Bulba is an opera in four acts by the Ukrainian composer Mykola Lysenko.

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The Demon (opera)

The Demon (Демон) is an opera in three acts (six scenes) by Russian composer Anton Rubinstein.

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The Five (composers)

The Five, also known as the Mighty Handful and the New Russian School, were five prominent 19th-century Russian composers who worked together to create distinct Russian classical music.

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The New Grove Dictionary of Opera

The New Grove Dictionary of Opera is an encyclopedia of opera, considered to be one of the best general reference sources on the subject.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Nutcracker

The Nutcracker (Щелкунчик, Балет-феерия / Shchelkunchik, Balet-feyeriya; Casse-Noisette, ballet-féerie) is a two-act ballet, originally choreographed by Marius Petipa and Lev Ivanov with a score by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (op. 71).

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The Oprichnik

The Oprichnik or The Guardsman (Опричник, Oprichnik) is an opera in 4 acts, 5 scenes, by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840–1893) to his own libretto after the tragedy The Oprichniks (Опричники) by Ivan Lazhechnikov (1792–1869).

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The Queen of Spades (opera)

The Queen of Spades, Op.

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The Rite of Spring

The Rite of Spring (Le Sacre du printemps; sacred spring) is a ballet and orchestral concert work by the Russian composer Igor Stravinsky.

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The Sleeping Beauty (ballet)

The Sleeping Beauty (Спящая красавица / Spyashchaya krasavitsa) is a ballet in a prologue and three acts, first performed in 1890.

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The Storm (Tchaikovsky)

The Storm, Op.

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The Voyevoda (opera)

The Voyevoda (Воевода, The Voyevoda), Op. 3, is an opera in 3 acts and 4 scenes, by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky with a libretto written by Alexander Ostrovsky and based on his play The Voyevoda (A Dream on the Volga) (italic).

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Thomas Edison

Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman, who has been described as America's greatest inventor.

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Tikhvin Cemetery

Tikhvin Cemetery (Тихвинское кладбище) is located at the Alexander Nevsky Monastery, in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Trostianets

Trostianets (also Trostyanets; Тростянець) is a city in Sumy Oblast, Ukraine.

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Tsar

Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.

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Udmurtia

Udmurtia (p; Удмуртия), or the Udmurt Republic, is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) within the Volga Federal District.

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Ukraine

Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.

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Ukrainian language

No description.

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Ukrainians

Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.

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Undina (Tchaikovsky)

Undina (sometimes Undine or Ondine) (Ундина) is an opera in 3 acts by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky.

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University of California, Santa Barbara

The University of California, Santa Barbara (commonly referred to as UC Santa Barbara or UCSB) is a public research university and one of the 10 campuses of the University of California system.

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University of Cambridge

The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.

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Vakula the Smith

Vakula the Smith (Кузнец Вакула, Kuznets Vakula, Smith Vakula), Op.

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Variations on a Rococo Theme

The Variations on a Rococo Theme, Op.

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Vasily Safonov

Vasily Ilyich Safonov (Васи́лий Ильи́ч Сафо́нов, Vasi'lij Ilji'č Safo'nov; 6 February 185227 February 1918), also known as Wassily Safonoff, was a Russian pianist, teacher, conductor and composer.

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Violin Concerto (Tchaikovsky)

The Violin Concerto in D major, Op. 35, was written by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky in 1878, and is one of the best known violin concertos.

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Vladimir Davydov

Vladimir Davydov (–) was the second son of Lev and Alexandra Davydov, and nephew of the composer Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, who called him "Bob".

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Vladimir Medinsky

Vladimir Rostislavovich Medinsky (Владимир Ростиславович Мединский, Мединський Володимир Ростиславович) (born July 10, 1970) is a Russian political figure, publicist, and since May 2012 serves as the Minister of Culture.

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Vladimir Stasov

Vladimir Vasilievich Stasov (sometimes transliterated as Stassov; Влади́мир Васи́льевич Ста́сов; 14 January 1824, Saint Petersburg – 23 October 1906, Saint Petersburg), son of Russian architect Vasily Petrovich Stasov (1769–1848), was probably the most respected Russian critic during his lifetime.

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Votkinsk

Votkinsk (Во́ткинск; Вотка, Votka) is an industrial town in the Udmurt Republic, Russia.

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Vyatka Governorate

Vyatka Governorate (Вятская губерния) was a governorate of the Russian Empire and Russian SFSR, with its capital in city Vyatka (now known as Kirov), from 1796 to 1929.

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Waltz (music)

A waltz (German: Walzer; French: Valse, Italian: Valzer, Spanish: Vals, Polish: Walc), probably deriving from German Ländler, is dance music in triple meter, often written in 4 time.

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Whole tone scale

In music, a whole tone scale is a scale in which each note is separated from its neighbours by the interval of a whole tone.

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Wilhelm Fitzenhagen

Wilhelm Karl Friedrich Fitzenhagen (Sept. 15, 1848 – Feb. 14, 1890), was a German cellist, composer and instructor, best known today as the dedicatee of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's Variations on a Rococo Theme.

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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era.

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Writer's block

Writer's block is a condition, primarily associated with writing, in which an author loses the ability to produce new work, or experiences a creative slowdown.

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Yelizaveta Lavrovskaya

Yelizaveta Andreyevna Lavrovskaya (Елизавета Андреевна Лавровская; – February 4, 1919) was a Russian mezzo-soprano praised for her dramatic performances of operatic arias and her sensitive interpretations of lieder.

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1812 Overture

The Year 1812, festival overture in flat major, Op.

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20th-century music

During the 20th century there was a vast increase in the variety of music that people had access to.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyotr_Ilyich_Tchaikovsky

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