337 relations: Acetaldehyde, Acetoacetic acid, Acetonitrile, Acetylene, Acid, Acid dissociation constant, Acrolein, Acylation, Addition reaction, Adduct, Adsorption, Agrochemical, Alchemy, Alcohol, Aldehyde, Aleksei Chichibabin, Alkali, Alkaloid, Alkoxide, Alkylation, Althaea officinalis, Aluminium chloride, Amination, Amine, Amine oxide, Amino acid, Aminopyridine, Ammonia, Ammonium, Ammonium acetate, Aniline, Antihistamine, Antiseptic, Antoine equation, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Arene substitution pattern, Aromatic sulfonation, Aromaticity, Arsabenzene, Arthur Rudolf Hantzsch, Aryne, Aspartic acid, Ataxia, Atropa belladonna, Azine, B vitamins, Bacon, Bacteria, Bactericide, Base (chemistry), ..., Beaufort cheese, Benzene, Beta scission, Bipyridine, Black tea, Boger pyridine synthesis, Boiling point, Bond length, Borabenzene, Borane, Bromine, Cadmium fluoride, Canning, Carbon, Carbon monoxide, Carbon–oxygen bond, Carbonyl group, Carboxylic acid, Carcinogen, Cetylpyridinium chloride, Chelation, Chemical formula, Chemical industry, Chemical reaction, Chemical shift, Chichibabin pyridine synthesis, Chichibabin reaction, Chlorine, Chlorpyrifos, Chromic acid, Chromium trioxide, Chromyl chloride, Clastogen, Coal gasification, Coal tar, Cobalt, Coking, Collins reagent, Condensation reaction, Conjugate acid, Conjugated system, Coordination complex, Cornforth reagent, Crabtree's catalyst, Critical point (thermodynamics), Crystal structure, Cycloaddition, Debye, Denatured alcohol, Diamagnetism, Diazine, Dichlorocarbene, Dichloromethane, Dihydropyridine, Dimer (chemistry), Dinitrogen pentoxide, Dipicolinic acid, Dippel's oil, Diquat, DNA, Double bond, Ecotoxicity, Electric dipole moment, Electron, Electron density, Electrophile, Electrophilic aromatic substitution, Electrophilic substitution, Elias James Corey, Elimination reaction, Emil Knoevenagel, Enthalpy of fusion, Enthalpy of vaporization, Escherichia coli, Ester, Ethanol, Evonik Industries, Ferroin, Flash point, Food and Chemical Toxicology, Food and Drug Administration, Formaldehyde, Formula unit, Fractional distillation, Friedel–Crafts reaction, Fungicide, Fungus, Gas chromatography, Gasification, Genotoxicity, Germabenzene, Gingivitis, Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, Greek alphabet, Groundwater, Haloalkane, Halogenation, Hantzsch pyridine synthesis, Hantzsch–Widman nomenclature, Hückel's rule, Herbicide, Heterocyclic compound, Hexane, Hexazine, Hydrate, Hydration reaction, Hydride, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrochloride, Hydrogen, Hydrogen cyanide, Hydrogenation, Imidazole, Imine, Imperial Chemical Industries, Incineration, Inductive effect, Infrared, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Ion, Ion exchange, Iron, Isoelectronicity, Isoniazid, James Dewar, Journal of Organic Chemistry, Karl Fischer titration, Keto acid, Ketone, Knoevenagel condensation, Kröhnke pyridine synthesis, Kynurenine, Lethal dose, Lewis acids and bases, Ligand, Lithium aluminium hydride, Lone pair, Magnesium, Magnetic susceptibility, Malonic ester synthesis, Mammal, Manganese(II) fluoride, Mass spectrometry, Median lethal dose, Medication, Melting point, Mepyramine, Mercury(II) sulfate, Mesomeric effect, Metabolism, Metalation, Methine group, Methyl group, Methylamine, Methylene group, Michael reaction, Minisci reaction, Miscibility, Molar attenuation coefficient, Mole (unit), Molecular geometry, Monofloral honey, Monooxygenase, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, N-methyltransferase, Name reaction, Naphthalene, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Neurotoxin, Niacin, Nickel, Nicotine, Nitration, Nitrile, Nitrogen, Nitrogen oxide, Nitronium tetrafluoroborate, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Nucleophile, Nucleophilic aromatic substitution, Nucleophilic substitution, Nucleotide, Oil shale, Organic compound, Organic reaction, Organolithium reagent, Orthorhombic crystal system, P-Toluenesulfonic acid, Palladium(II) chloride, Paraquat, Parts-per notation, Pentazine, Phenanthroline, Phosphorine, Phosphorus, Photochemistry, Pi bond, Picoline, Picolinic acid, Picometre, Piperidine, Pivalic acid, Platinum, Poise (unit), Polyatomic ion, Polymerization, Potassium tert-butoxide, Precursor (chemistry), Primary alcohol, Protonation, Pulmonary edema, Pyrazine, Pyridazine, Pyridine N-methyltransferase, Pyridinium, Pyridinium chlorochromate, Pyridoxine, Pyridyne, Pyrimidine, Pyrithione, Pyrrole, Pyrylium salt, Quantitative analysis (chemistry), Quinoline, Raney nickel, Reagent, Red heat, Redox, Redox indicator, Refractive index, Resonance (chemistry), Riboflavin, Royal Society of Chemistry, Ruthenium, Saliva, Silabenzene, Silver, Silver nitrate, Sodium, Sodium amide, Soil organic matter, Solvent, Space group, Standard enthalpy of formation, Stannabenzene, Steric effects, Sukiyaki, Sulfapyridine, Sulfation, Sulfur, Sulfur trioxide pyridine complex, Sulfuric acid, Terpyridine, Tetrahedron (journal), Tetrahedron Letters, Tetrazine, Thallium, Thermal conductivity, Thomas Anderson (chemist), Threshold limit value, Toluidine, Tonne, Transition metal, Triazine, Tripelennamine, Triphenylphosphine, Triphenylphosphine oxide, Triple bond, Tryptophan, Tuberculosis management, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Vaginal lubrication, Vanadium(V) oxide, Viscosity, Volatile organic compound, Walter Reppe, Wavelength, Wilhelm Körner, William Ramsay, Zinc, Zincke reaction, 1,5-Cyclooctadiene, 2,2'-Bipyridine, 2,6-Lutidine, 2-Chloropyridine, 4,4'-Bipyridine, 4-Dimethylaminopyridine. Expand index (287 more) » « Shrink index
Acetaldehyde (systematic name ethanal) is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH3CHO, sometimes abbreviated by chemists as MeCHO (Me.
Acetoacetic acid (also diacetic acid) is the organic compound with the formula CH3COCH2COOH.
Acetonitrile is the chemical compound with the formula.
Acetylene (systematic name: ethyne) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H2.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
An acid dissociation constant, Ka, (also known as acidity constant, or acid-ionization constant) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution.
Acrolein (systematic name: propenal) is the simplest unsaturated aldehyde.
In chemistry, acylation (rarely, but more formally: alkanoylation) is the process of adding an acyl group to a compound.
An addition reaction, in organic chemistry, is in its simplest terms an organic reaction where two or more molecules combine to form the larger one (the adduct).
An adduct (from the Latin adductus, "drawn toward" alternatively, a contraction of "addition product") is a product of a direct addition of two or more distinct molecules, resulting in a single reaction product containing all atoms of all components.
Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions or molecules from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid to a surface.
An agrochemical or agrichemical, a contraction of agricultural chemical, is a chemical product used in agriculture.
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.
Alekséy Yevgényevich Chichibábin (Алексей Евгеньевич Чичибабин) was a Soviet/Russian organic chemist, born, Kuzemin village, current Sumy Oblast, Ukraine, died in Paris, France, 15 August 1945.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
An alkoxide is the conjugate base of an alcohol and therefore consists of an organic group bonded to a negatively charged oxygen atom.
Alkylation is the transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another.
Althaea officinalis (marsh-mallow, marsh mallow (خطمی، ختمی, ختمية الطبية، خبيز), or common marshmallow) is a perennial species indigenous to Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, which is used as a medicinal plant and ornamental plant.
Aluminium chloride (AlCl3) is the main compound of aluminium and chlorine.
Amination is the process by which an amine group is introduced into an organic molecule.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
An amine oxide, also known as amine-N-oxide and N-oxide, is a chemical compound that contains the functional group R3N+−O−, an N−O coordinate covalent bond with three additional hydrogen and/or hydrocarbon side chains attached to N. Sometimes it is written as R3N→O or, wrongly, as R3N.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Aminopyridine may refer to any of several chemical compounds.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
The ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula.
Ammonium acetate, also known as spirit of Mindererus in aqueous solution, is a chemical compound with the formula NH4CH3CO2.
Aniline is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2.
Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.
Antiseptics (from Greek ἀντί anti, "against" and σηπτικός sēptikos, "putrefactive") are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction.
The Antoine equation is a class of semi-empirical correlations describing the relation between vapor pressure and temperature for pure components.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Society for Microbiology.
Arene substitution patterns are part of organic chemistry IUPAC nomenclature and pinpoint the position of substituents other than hydrogen in relation to each other on an aromatic hydrocarbon.
Aromatic sulfonation is an organic reaction in which a hydrogen atom on an arene is replaced by a sulfonic acid functional group in an electrophilic aromatic substitution.
In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.
Arsabenzene (IUPAC name: arsinine) is an organoarsenic heterocyclic compound with the chemical formula C5H5As.
Arthur Rudolf Hantzsch (7 March 1857 – 14 March 1935) was a German chemist.
Arynes or benzynes are highly reactive species derived from an aromatic ring by removal of two ortho substituents.
Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D; salts known as aspartates), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Ataxia is a neurological sign consisting of lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements that includes gait abnormality.
Atropa belladonna, commonly known as belladonna or deadly nightshade, is a perennial herbaceous plant in the nightshade family Solanaceae, which includes tomatoes, potatoes, and aubergine.
Azines are a functional class of organic compounds with the connectivity RR'C.
B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism.
Bacon is a type of salt-cured pork.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
A bactericide or bacteriocide, sometimes abbreviated Bcidal, is a substance that kills bacteria.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
Beaufort is a firm, raw cow's milk cheese associated with the gruyère family.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
Beta scission is an important reaction in the chemistry of thermal cracking of hydrocarbons and the formation of free radicals.
Bipyridines also known as bipyridyls, dipyridyls, and dipyridines, are a family of chemical compounds with the formula (C5H4N)2, consisting of two pyridyl (C5H4N) rings.
Black tea is a type of tea that is more oxidized than oolong, green, and white teas.
The Boger pyridine synthesis is a cycloaddition approach to the formation of pyridines named after its inventor Dale L. Boger, who first reported it in 1981.
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.
In molecular geometry, bond length or bond distance is the average distance between nuclei of two bonded atoms in a molecule.
A borabenzene is a heteroaromatic compound that has a boron atom instead of the carbon atom of a benzene molecule.
Borane (systematically named trihydridoboron), also called borine, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula.
Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.
Cadmium fluoride (CdF2) is a mostly water-insoluble source of cadmium used in oxygen-sensitive applications, such as the production of metallic alloys.
Canning is a method of preserving food in which the food contents are processed and sealed in an airtight container.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
A carbon–oxygen bond is a polar covalent bond between carbon and oxygen.
In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
Cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) is a cationic quaternary ammonium compound used in some types of mouthwashes, toothpastes, lozenges, throat sprays, breath sprays, and nasal sprays.
Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the chemical shift is the resonant frequency of a nucleus relative to a standard in a magnetic field.
The Chichibabin pyridine synthesis is a method for synthesizing pyridine rings.
The Chichibabin reaction (pronounced ' (chē')-chē-bā-bēn) is a method for producing 2-aminopyridine derivatives by the reaction of pyridine with sodium amide.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chlorpyrifos (CPS), sold under many brandnames, is an organophosphate pesticide used to kill a number of pests including insects and worms.
The term chromic acid is usually used for a mixture made by adding concentrated sulfuric acid to a dichromate, which may contain a variety of compounds, including solid chromium trioxide.
Chromium trioxide is an inorganic compound with the formula CrO3.
Chromyl chloride is a chemical compound with the formula CrO2Cl2.
A clastogen is a mutagenic agent giving rise to or inducing disruption or breakages of chromosomes, leading to sections of the chromosome being deleted, added, or rearranged.
Coal gasification is the process of producing syngas–a mixture consisting primarily of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and water vapour (H2O)–from coal and water, air and/or oxygen.
Coal tar is a thick dark liquid which is a by-product of the production of coke and coal gas from coal.
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
Coking is the deposition of carbon-rich solids.
Collins reagent is the complex of chromium(VI) oxide with pyridine in dichloromethane.
A condensation reaction is a class of an organic addition reaction that proceeds in a step-wise fashion to produce the addition product, usually in equilibrium, and a water molecule (hence named condensation).
A conjugate acid, within the Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, is a species formed by the reception of a proton (H+) by a base—in other words, it is a base with a hydrogen ion added to it.
In chemistry, a conjugated system is a system of connected p-orbitals with delocalized electrons in molecules which are conventionally represented as having alternating single and multiple bonds, which in general may lower the overall energy of the molecule and increase stability.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
The Cornforth reagent or pyridinium dichromate (PDC) is a pyridinium salt of dichromate with the chemical formula 2.
Crabtree's catalyst is an organoiridium compound with the formula PF6.
In thermodynamics, a critical point (or critical state) is the end point of a phase equilibrium curve.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
A cycloaddition is a pericyclic chemical reaction, in which "two or more unsaturated molecules (or parts of the same molecule) combine with the formation of a cyclic adduct in which there is a net reduction of the bond multiplicity." The resulting reaction is a cyclization reaction.
The debye (symbol: D) is a CGS unit (a non-SI metric unit) of electric dipole momentElectric dipole moment is defined as charge times displacement: |- |height.
Denatured alcohol, also called methylated spirit (methylated spirits in Australia and New Zealand) or denatured rectified spirit, is ethanol that has additives to make it poisonous, bad tasting, foul smelling or nauseating, to discourage recreational consumption.
Diamagnetic materials are repelled by a magnetic field; an applied magnetic field creates an induced magnetic field in them in the opposite direction, causing a repulsive force.
Diazines are a group of organic compounds having the molecular formula C4H4N2.
Dichlorocarbene is the reactive intermediate with chemical formula CCl2.
Methylene dichloride (DCM, or methylene chloride, or dichloromethane) is a geminal organic compound with the formula CH2Cl2.
Dihydropyridine is a molecule based upon pyridine, and the parent of a class of molecules that have been semi-saturated with two substituents replacing one double bond.
A dimer (di-, "two" + -mer, "parts") is an oligomer consisting of two monomers joined by bonds that can be either strong or weak, covalent or intermolecular.
Dinitrogen pentoxide is the chemical compound with the formula N2O5.
Dipicolinic acid (pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid or PDC and DPA) is a chemical compound which composes 5% to 15% of the dry weight of bacterial spores.
Dippel's oil (sometimes known as bone oil) is a nitrogenous by-product of the destructive distillation of bones.
Diquat is a contact herbicide that produces desiccation and defoliation most often available as the dibromide, diquat dibromide.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.
Ecotoxicity, the subject of study of the field of ecotoxicology (a portmanteau of ecology and toxicology), refers to the potential for biological, chemical or physical stressors to affect ecosystems.
The electric dipole moment is a measure of the separation of positive and negative electrical charges within a system, that is, a measure of the system's overall polarity.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
Electron density is the measure of the probability of an electron being present at a specific location.
In organic chemistry, an electrophile is a reagent attracted to electrons.
Electrophilic aromatic substitution is an organic reaction in which an atom that is attached to an aromatic system (usually hydrogen) is replaced by an electrophile.
Electrophilic substitution reactions are chemical reactions in which an electrophile displaces a functional group in a compound, which is typically, but not always, a hydrogen atom.
Elias James "E.J." Corey (born July 12, 1928) is an American organic chemist.
An elimination reaction is a type of organic reaction in which two substituents are removed from a molecule in either a one or two-step mechanism.
Heinrich Emil Albert Knoevenagel (18 June 1865 – 11 August 1921) was the German chemist who established the Knoevenagel condensation reaction.
The enthalpy of fusion of a substance, also known as (latent) heat of fusion, is the change in its enthalpy resulting from providing energy, typically heat, to a specific quantity of the substance to change its state from a solid to a liquid, at constant pressure.
The enthalpy of vaporization, (symbol ∆Hvap) also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation, is the amount of energy (enthalpy) that must be added to a liquid substance, to transform a quantity of that substance into a gas.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Evonik Industries AG is an industrial corporation headquartered in Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, the largest specialty chemicals company in the world, owned by RAG Foundation.
Ferroin is the chemical compound with the formula SO4, where o-phen is an abbreviation for 1,10-phenanthroline, a bidentate ligand.
The flash point of a volatile material is the lowest temperature at which vapours of the material will ignite, when given an ignition source.
Food and Chemical Toxicology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering aspects of food safety, chemical safety, and other aspects of consumer product safety.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
A formula unit in chemistry is the empirical formula of any ionic or covalent network solid compound used as an independent entity for stoichiometric calculations.
Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions.
The Friedel–Crafts reactions are a set of reactions developed by Charles Friedel and James Crafts in 1877 to attach substituents to an aromatic ring.
Fungicides are biocidal chemical compounds or biological organisms used to kill parasitic fungi or their spores.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Gas chromatography (GC) is a common type of chromatography used in analytical chemistry for separating and analyzing compounds that can be vaporized without decomposition.
Gasification is a process that converts organic- or fossil fuel-based carbonaceous materials into carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide.
In genetics, genotoxicity describes the property of chemical agents that damages the genetic information within a cell causing mutations, which may lead to cancer.
Germabenzene (C5H6Ge) is the parent representative of a group of chemical compounds containing in their molecular structure a benzene ring with a carbon atom replaced by a germanium atom.
Gingivitis is a non-destructive disease that occurs around the teeth.
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, also known as triose phosphate or 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde and abbreviated as G3P, GA3P, GADP, GAP, TP, GALP or PGAL, is the metabolite that occurs as an intermediate in several central pathways of all organisms.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
The haloalkanes (also known as halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides) are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens.
Halogenation is a chemical reaction that involves the addition of one or more halogens to a compound or material.
The Hantzsch pyridine synthesis or Hantzsch dihydropyridine synthesis is a multi-component organic reaction between an aldehyde such as formaldehyde, 2 equivalents of a β-keto ester such as ethyl acetoacetate and a nitrogen donor such as ammonium acetate or ammonia.
Hantzsch–Widman nomenclature, also called the extended Hantzsch–Widman system, is a type of systematic chemical nomenclature used for naming heterocyclic parent hydrides having no more than ten ring members.
In organic chemistry, Hückel's rule estimates whether a planar ring molecule will have aromatic properties.
Herbicides, also commonly known as weedkillers, are chemical substances used to control unwanted plants.
A heterocyclic compound or ring structure is a cyclic compound that has atoms of at least two different elements as members of its ring(s).
Hexane is an alkane of six carbon atoms, with the chemical formula C6H14.
Hexazine (also known as hexaazabenzene) is a hypothetical allotrope of nitrogen composed of 6 nitrogen atoms arranged in a ring-like structure analogous to that of benzene.
In chemistry, a hydrate is a substance that contains water or its constituent elements.
In chemistry, a hydration reaction is a chemical reaction in which a substance combines with water.
In chemistry, a hydride is the anion of hydrogen, H−, or, more commonly, it is a compound in which one or more hydrogen centres have nucleophilic, reducing, or basic properties.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
In chemistry, a hydrochloride is an acid salt resulting, or regarded as resulting, from the reaction of hydrochloric acid with an organic base (e.g. an amine).
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), sometimes called prussic acid, is a chemical compound with the chemical formula HCN.
Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.
Imidazole is an organic compound with the formula C3N2H4.
An imine is a functional group or chemical compound containing a carbon–nitrogen double bond.
Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) was a British chemical company and was, for much of its history, the largest manufacturer in Britain.
Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials.
In chemistry and physics, the inductive effect is an experimentally observed effect of the transmission of charge through a chain of atoms in a molecule, resulting in a permanent dipole in a bond.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ion exchange is an exchange of ions between two electrolytes or between an electrolyte solution and a complex.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Isoelectronicity is the phenomenon of two or more chemical species (atoms, molecules, radicals, ions etc.) differing in the atoms that comprise them but having the same number of valence electrons and the same structure (that is, the same number of atoms with the same connectivity).
Isoniazid, also known as isonicotinylhydrazide (INH), is an antibiotic used for the treatment of tuberculosis.
Sir James Dewar FRS FRSE (20 September 1842 – 27 March 1923) was a Scottish chemist and physicist.
The Journal of Organic Chemistry, colloquially known as JOC or J Org, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal for original contributions of fundamental research in all branches of theory and practice in organic and bioorganic chemistry.
Karl Fischer titration is a classic titration method in analytical chemistry that uses coulometric or volumetric titration to determine trace amounts of water in a sample.
Keto acids or ketoacids (also called oxo acids or oxoacids) are organic compounds that contain a carboxylic acid group and a ketone group.
In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.
The Knoevenagel condensation reaction is an organic reaction named after Emil Knoevenagel.
The Kröhnke pyridine synthesis is reaction in organic synthesis between α-pyridinium methyl ketone salts and α, β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds used to generate highly functionalized pyridines.
L-Kynurenine is a metabolite of the amino acid L-tryptophan used in the production of niacin.
In toxicology, the lethal dose (LD) is an indication of the lethal toxicity of a given substance or type of radiation.
A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
Lithium aluminium hydride, commonly abbreviated to LAH, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula LiAlH4.
In chemistry, a lone pair refers to a pair of valence electrons that are not shared with another atomIUPAC Gold Book definition: and is sometimes called a non-bonding pair.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
In electromagnetism, the magnetic susceptibility (Latin: susceptibilis, "receptive"; denoted) is one measure of the magnetic properties of a material.
The malonic ester synthesis is a chemical reaction where diethyl malonate or another ester of malonic acid is alkylated at the carbon alpha (directly adjacent) to both carbonyl groups, and then converted to a substituted acetic acid.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Manganese(II) fluoride is the chemical compound composed of manganese and fluoride with the formula MnF2.
Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.
In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt50 is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin, radiation, or pathogen.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Mepyramine, also known as pyrilamine, is a first generation antihistamine, targeting the H1 receptor.
Mercury(II) sulfate, commonly called mercuric sulfate, is the chemical compound HgSO4.
The mesomeric effect in chemistry is a property of substituents or functional groups in a chemical compound.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Metalation (Alt. Spelling: Metallation) is a chemical reaction which involves the bonding of a metal atom to what is typically an organic molecule to form a new compound.
In chemistry, methine is a trivalent functional group.
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.
Methylamine is an organic compound with a formula of CH3NH2.
In organic chemistry, a methylene group is any part of a molecule that consists of two hydrogen atoms bound to a carbon atom, which is connected to the remainder of the molecule by a double bond.
The Michael reaction or Michael addition is the nucleophilic addition of a carbanion or another nucleophile to an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound.
The Minisci reaction is a named reaction in organic chemistry.
Miscibility is the property of substances to mix in all proportions (that is, to fully dissolve in each other at any concentration), forming a homogeneous solution.
The molar attenuation coefficient is a measurement of how strongly a chemical species attenuates light at a given wavelength.
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.
Molecular geometry is the three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms that constitute a molecule.
Monofloral honey is a type of honey which has a distinctive flavor or other attribute due to its being predominantly from the nectar of one plant species.
Monooxygenases are enzymes that incorporate one hydroxyl group into substrates in many metabolic pathways.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a species of pathogenic bacteria in the family Mycobacteriaceae and the causative agent of tuberculosis.
N-methyltransferase may refer to.
A name reaction is a chemical reaction named after its discoverers or developers.
Naphthalene is an organic compound with formula.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
Neurotoxins are toxins that are poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity).
Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
Nitration is a general class of chemical process for the introduction of a nitro group into an organic chemical compound.
A nitrile is any organic compound that has a −C≡N functional group.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nitrogen oxide may refer to a binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or a mixture of such compounds.
Nitronium tetrafluoroborate is an inorganic compound with formula NO2BF4.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.
Nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.
Aromatic nucleophilic substitution A nucleophilic aromatic substitution is a substitution reaction in organic chemistry in which the nucleophile displaces a good leaving group, such as a halide, on an aromatic ring.
In organic and inorganic chemistry, nucleophilic substitution is a fundamental class of reactions in which an electron rich nucleophile selectively bonds with or attacks the positive or partially positive charge of an atom or a group of atoms to replace a leaving group; the positive or partially positive atom is referred to as an electrophile.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) from which liquid hydrocarbons, called shale oil (not to be confused with tight oil—crude oil occurring naturally in shales), can be produced.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds.
Organolithium reagents are organometallic compounds that contain carbon – lithium bonds.
In crystallography, the orthorhombic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
p-Toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA or pTsOH) or tosylic acid (TsOH) is an organic compound with the formula CH3C6H4SO3H.
Palladium(II) chloride, also known as palladium dichloride and palladous chloride, are the chemical compounds with the formula PdCl2.
Paraquat (trivial name) or N,N′-dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium dichloride (systematic name) is an organic compound with the chemical formula Cl2.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
Pentazine is a hypothetical compound that consists of a six-membered aromatic ring containing five nitrogen atoms with the molecular formula CHN5.
Phenanthroline (phen) is a heterocyclic organic compound.
Phosphorine (IUPAC name: phosphinine) is a heavier element analog of pyridine, containing a phosphorus atom instead of an aza- moiety.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Photochemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the chemical effects of light.
In chemistry, pi bonds (π bonds) are covalent chemical bonds where two lobes of an orbital on one atom overlap two lobes of an orbital on another atom.
Picoline refers to three different methylpyridine isomers, all with the chemical formula C6H7N and a molar mass of 93.13 g mol−1.
Picolinic acid is an organic compound with the formula C5H4N(CO2H).
The picometre (international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: pm) or picometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to, or one trillionth of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length.
Piperidine is an organic compound with the molecular formula (CH2)5NH.
Pivalic acid is a carboxylic acid with a molecular formula of (CH3)3CCO2H.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
The poise (symbol P) is the unit of dynamic viscosity (absolute viscosity) in the centimetre–gram–second system of units.
A polyatomic ion, also known as a molecular ion, is a charged chemical species (ion) composed of two or more atoms covalently bonded or of a metal complex that can be considered to be acting as a single unit.
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
Potassium tert-butoxide is the chemical compound with the formula K+(CH3)3CO−.
In chemistry, a precursor is a compound that participates in a chemical reaction that produces another compound.
A primary alcohol is an alcohol which has the hydroxyl group connected to a primary carbon atom.
In chemistry, protonation is the addition of a proton (H+) to an atom, molecule, or ion, forming the conjugate acid.
Pulmonary edema is fluid accumulation in the tissue and air spaces of the lungs.
Pyrazine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound with the chemical formula C4H4N2.
Pyridazine is a heterocyclic organic compound with the molecular formula (CH)4N2.
In enzymology, a pyridine N-methyltransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are S-adenosyl methionine and pyridine, whereas its two products are S-adenosylhomocysteine and N-methylpyridinium.
Pyridinium refers to the cation +. It is the conjugate acid of pyridine.
Pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC) is a yellow-orange salt with the formula.
Pyridoxine, also known as vitamin B6, is a form of vitamin B6 found commonly in food and used as dietary supplement.
Pyridyne in chemistry is the pyridine analogue of benzyne.
Pyrimidine is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound similar to pyridine.
Pyrithione is the common name of an organosulfur compound with molecular formula, chosen as an abbreviation of pyridinethione, and found in the Persian shallot.
Pyrrole is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, a five-membered ring with the formula C4H4NH.
The pyrylium cation is a six-membered, unsaturated, mono-cyclic compound.
In analytical chemistry, quantitative analysis is the determination of the absolute or relative abundance (often expressed as a concentration) of one, several or all particular substance(s) present in a sample.
Quinoline is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound with the chemical formula C9H7N.
Raney nickel, also called spongy nickel, is a fine-grained solid composed mostly of nickel derived from a nickel-aluminium alloy.
A reagent is a substance or compound added to a system to cause a chemical reaction, or added to test if a reaction occurs.
The practice of using colours to determine the temperature of a piece of (usually) ferrous metal comes from blacksmithing.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
A redox indicator (also called an oxidation-reduction indicator) is an indicator which undergoes a definite color change at a specific electrode potential.
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.
In chemistry, resonance or mesomerism is a way of describing delocalized electrons within certain molecules or polyatomic ions where the bonding cannot be expressed by one single Lewis structure.
Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".
Ruthenium is a chemical element with symbol Ru and atomic number 44.
Saliva is a watery substance formed in the mouths of animals, secreted by the salivary glands.
A silabenzene is a heteroaromatic compound containing one or more silicon atoms instead of carbon atoms in benzene.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Silver nitrate is an inorganic compound with chemical formula.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium amide, commonly called sodamide, is the inorganic compound with the formula NaNH2.
Soil organic matter (SOM) is the organic matter component of soil, consisting of plant and animal residues at various stages of decomposition, cells and tissues of soil organisms, and substances synthesized by soil organisms.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
In mathematics, physics and chemistry, a space group is the symmetry group of a configuration in space, usually in three dimensions.
The standard enthalpy of formation or standard heat of formation of a compound is the change of enthalpy during the formation of 1 mole of the substance from its constituent elements, with all substances in their standard states.
Stannabenzene (C5H6Sn) is the parent representative of a group of organotin compounds that are related to benzene with a carbon atom replaced by a tin atom.
Steric effects are nonbonding interactions that influence the shape (conformation) and reactivity of ions and molecules.
is a Japanese dish that is prepared and served in the nabemono (Japanese hot pot) style.
Sulfapyridine (INN; also known as sulphapyridine) is a sulfonamide antibacterial medication.
Sulfation or sulfurylation (not to be confused with sulfonation) in biochemistry is the enzyme-catalyzed conjugation of a sulfo group (not a sulfate or sulfuryl group) to another molecule.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sulfur trioxide pyridine complex is the compound with the formula C5H5NSO3.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Terpyridine (2,2';6',2"-terpyridine, often abbreviated to Terpy or Tpy) is a heterocyclic compound derived from pyridine.
Tetrahedron is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the field of organic chemistry.
Tetrahedron Letters is a weekly international journal for rapid publication of full original research papers in the field of organic chemistry.
Tetrazine is an unstable compound that consists of a six-membered aromatic ring containing four nitrogen atoms with the molecular formula C2H2N4.
Thallium is a chemical element with symbol Tl and atomic number 81.
Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.
Thomas Anderson (2 July 1819 – 2 November 1874) was a 19th-century Scottish chemist.
The threshold limit value (TLV) of a chemical substance is believed to be a level to which a worker can be exposed day after day for a working lifetime without adverse effects.
There are three isomers of toluidine, which are organic compounds.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
A triazine is class of nitrogen-containing heterocycles.
Tripelennamine, sold under the brand name Pyribenzamine by Novartis, is a drug that is used as an antipruritic and first-generation antihistamine.
Triphenylphosphine (IUPAC name: triphenylphosphane) is a common organophosphorus compound with the formula P(C6H5)3 - often abbreviated to PPh3 or Ph3P.
Triphenylphosphine oxide (often abbreviated TPPO) is the organophosphorus compound with the formula OP(C6H5)3, also written as Ph3PO or PPh3O (Ph.
A triple bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two atoms involving six bonding electrons instead of the usual two in a covalent single bond.
Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Tuberculosis management refers to the medical treatment of the infectious disease tuberculosis (TB).
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
Vaginal lubrication is a naturally produced fluid that lubricates a woman's vagina.
Vanadium(V) oxide (vanadia) is the inorganic compound with the formula V2O5.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature.
Walter Julius Reppe (29 July 1892 in Göringen – 26 July 1969 in Heidelberg) was a German chemist.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
Wilhelm Körner, later a.k.a. Guglielmo Körner (April 20, 1839 in Cassel – March 29, 1925 in Milan) was a German chemist.
Sir William Ramsay (2 October 1852 – 23 July 1916) was a Scottish chemist who discovered the noble gases and received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1904 "in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air" (along with his collaborator, John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, who received the Nobel Prize in Physics that same year for their discovery of argon).
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
The Zincke reaction is an organic reaction in which a pyridine is transformed into a pyridinium salt by reaction with 2,4-dinitro-chlorobenzene and a primary amine, named after Theodor Zincke.
1,5-Cyclooctadiene is the organic compound with the chemical formula C8H12.
2,2′-Bipyridine (bipy or bpy, pronounced) is an organic compound with the formula (C10H8N2).
2,6-Lutidine is a natural heterocyclic aromatic organic compound with the formula (CH3)2C5H3N.
2-Chloropyridine is an organohalide with the formula C5H4ClN.
4,4′-Bipyridine (abbreviated to 4,4′-bipy or 4,4′-bpy) is a bipyridine which is mainly used as a precursor to N,N′-dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium 2+, known as paraquat.
4-Dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) is a derivative of pyridine with the chemical formula (CH3)2NC5H4N.
Azabenzene, Bonnemann cyclization, Bönnemann cyclization, C5H5N, C5NH5, Ciamician-Dennstedt rearrangement, Ciamician–Dennstedt rearrangement, Emmert reaction, Gattermann-Skita synthesis, Gattermann–Skita synthesis, Pyridine ring, Pyridines, Pyridinium salt, Pyridyl, Toluenesulfonate formaldehyde, Tuluenesulphonamide formaldehyde, Uses of pyridines.