54 relations: Adrenaline, Alanine racemase, Aldimine, Amino acid, Amino sugar, Ammonia, Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, Canaline, Coenzyme Q10, Cofactor (biochemistry), Colitose, Deamination, Decarboxylation, Desosamine, Dopamine, Dunathan stereoelectronic hypothesis, Enzyme, Enzyme promiscuity, Erythrose 4-phosphate, GABA aminotransferase, Gabaculine, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Glucagon, Glutamic acid, Glutamine, Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, Glycogen, Glycogen phosphorylase, Glycogenolysis, Heme, Imine, International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, L-DOPA, Molybdenum cofactor, Ornithine aminotransferase, Ornithine decarboxylase, Perosamine, Phosphate, Propylamine, Pyridine, Pyridoxal, Pyridoxal kinase, Pyridoxine 5'-phosphate synthase, Pyruvic acid, Racemization, S-Adenosyl methionine, Schiff base, Serine dehydratase, Transaminase, ..., Transamination, Vigabatrin, Vitamin B6, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase. Expand index (4 more) » « Shrink index
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
In enzymology, an alanine racemase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, L-alanine, and one product, D-alanine.
In organic chemistry, an aldimine is an imine that is an analog of an aldehyde.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
In organic chemistry, an amino sugar (or more technically a 2-amino-2-deoxysugar) is a sugar molecule in which a hydroxyl group has been replaced with an amine group.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC or AAAD), also known as DOPA decarboxylase (DDC), tryptophan decarboxylase, and 5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase, is a lyase enzyme.
L-Canaline (IUPAC name 2-amino-4-(aminooxy)butyric acid)) is a non-proteinogenic amino acid. The compound is found in legumes that contain canavanine, from which it is produced by the action of arginase. The most common-used source for this amino acid is the jack bean, Canavalia ensiformis. L-Canaline is the only naturally occurring amino acid known that has an O-alkyl hydroxylamine functionality in the side chain. This amino acid is structurally related to ornithine (it is the 5-oxa derivative) and is a potent insecticide. Tobacco hornworm larvae fed a diet containing 2.5 mM canaline showed massive developmental aberrations, and most larvae so treated died at the pupal stage. It also exhibits potent neurotoxic effects in the moth. Its toxicity stems primarily from the fact that it readily forms oximes with keto acids and aldehydes, especially the pyridoxal phosphate cofactor of many vitamin B6-dependent enzymes. It inhibits ornithine aminotransferase at concentrations as low as 10 nM. L-Canaline is a substrate for ornithine aminotransferase resulting in the synthesis of L-ureidohomoserine (the corresponding analog of L-citrulline). In turn, the latter forms L-canavaninosuccinic acid in a reaction mediated by argininosuccinic acid synthetase. L-Canavaninosuccinic acid is cleaved to form L-canavanine by argininosuccinic acid synthetase. By these sequential reactions, the canaline-urea cycle (analogous to the ornithine-urea cycle) is formed. Every time a canavanine molecule runs through the canaline-urea cycle, the two terminal nitrogen atoms are released as urea. Urea is an important by-product of this reaction sequence because it makes ammonicial ammonia (urease-mediated) that is available to support intermediary nitrogen metabolism. L-Canaline can be reductively cleaved to L-homoserine, a non-protein amino acid of great importance in the formation of a host of essential amino acids. In this way, the third nitrogen atom of canavanine enters into the reactions of nitrogen metabolism of the plant. As homoserine, its carbon skeleton also finds an important use.
Coenzyme Q10, also known as ubiquinone, ubidecarenone, coenzyme Q, and abbreviated at times to CoQ10, CoQ, or Q10 is a coenzyme that is ubiquitous in animals and most bacteria (hence the name ubiquinone).
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
Colitose (or GDP-colitose) is a mannose-derived 3,6-dideoxysugar produced by certain bacteria.
Deamination is the removal of an amine group from a protein molecule.
Decarboxylation is a chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group and releases carbon dioxide (CO2).
Desosamine is a 3-(dimethylamino)-3,4,6-trideoxyhexose found in certain macrolide antibiotics such as the commonly prescribed erythromycin.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Dunathan stereoelectronic hypothesis is a concept in chemistry to explain the stereospecefic cleavage of bonds using pyridoxal phosphate.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Enzyme promiscuity is the ability of an enzyme to catalyse a fortuitous side reaction in addition to its main reaction.
Erythrose 4-phosphate is a phosphate of the simple sugar erythrose.
GABA aminotransferase may refer to.
Gabaculine is a naturally occurring neurotoxin first isolated from the bacteria Streptomyces toyacaensis, which acts as a potent and irreversible GABA transaminase inhibitor, and also a GABA reuptake inhibitor.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
Glucagon is a peptide hormone, produced by alpha cells of the pancreas.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glutamine (symbol Gln or Q) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, also known as triose phosphate or 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde and abbreviated as G3P, GA3P, GADP, GAP, TP, GALP or PGAL, is the metabolite that occurs as an intermediate in several central pathways of all organisms.
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.
Glycogen phosphorylase is one of the phosphorylase enzymes.
Glycogenolysis is the breakdown of glycogen (n) to glucose-6-phosphate and glycogen (n-1).
Heme or haem is a coordination complex "consisting of an iron ion coordinated to a porphyrin acting as a tetradentate ligand, and to one or two axial ligands." The definition is loose, and many depictions omit the axial ligands.
An imine is a functional group or chemical compound containing a carbon–nitrogen double bond.
The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB) is an international non-governmental organisation concerned with biochemistry and molecular biology.
The Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, established in 2005 by the American Chemical Society.
L-DOPA, also known as levodopa or L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine is an amino acid that is made and used as part of the normal biology of humans, as well as some animals and plants.
Molybdenum cofactor has two meanings, which are sometimes used interchangeably.
Ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) is an enzyme which is encoded in human by the OAT gene located on chromosome 10.
The enzyme ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) catalyzes the decarboxylation of ornithine (a product of the urea cycle) to form putrescine.
Perosamine (or GDP-perosamine) is a mannose-derived 4-aminodeoxysugar produced by some bacteria.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Propylamine, also known as n-propylamine, is an amine with the chemical formula C2H5CH2NH2 (also written as C3H7NH2 and C3H9N).
Pyridine is a basic heterocyclic organic compound with the chemical formula C5H5N.
Pyridoxal is one form of vitamin B6.
In enzymology, a pyridoxal kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and pyridoxal, whereas its two products are ADP and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate.
In enzymology, a pyridoxine 5'-phosphate synthase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate and 3-amino-2-oxopropyl phosphate, whereas its 3 products are pyridoxine 5'-phosphate, phosphate, and H2O.
Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group.
In chemistry, racemization is the conversion of an enantiomerically pure mixture (one where only one enantiomer is present) into a mixture where more than one of the enantiomers are present.
S-Adenosyl methionineSAM-e, SAMe, SAM, S-Adenosyl-L-methionine, AdoMet, ademetionine is a common cosubstrate involved in methyl group transfers, transsulfuration, and aminopropylation.
A Schiff base (named after Hugo Schiff) is a compound with the general structure R2C.
Serine dehydratase or L-serine ammonia lyase (SDH) is in the β-family of pyridoxal phosphate-dependent (PLP) enzymes.
Transaminases or aminotransferases are enzymes that catalyze a transamination reaction between an amino acid and an α-keto acid.
Transamination, a chemical reaction that transfers an amino group to a ketoacid to form new amino acids.
Vigabatrin, brand name Sabril, is an antiepileptic drug that inhibits the breakdown of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by acting as a suicide inhibitor of the enzyme GABA transaminase (GABA-T).
Vitamin B6 refers to a group of chemically similar compounds which can be interconverted in biological systems.
Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACC synthase, ACS) is an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), a precursor for ethylene, from S-Adenosyl methionine (AdoMet, SAM), an intermediate in the Yang cycle and activated methyl cycle and a useful molecule for methyl transfer.
ATC code A11HA06, ATCvet code QA11HA06, Biosechs, C8H10NO6P, Hairoxal, Hiadelon, Himitan, P5P, P5p, Pidopidon, Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, Pyridoxal 5-phosphate, Pyridoxal Phosphate, Pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, Pyridoxal-phosphate, Vitazechs.