88 relations: Acid dissociation constant, Adenine, Adolf Pinner, Aldehyde, Alkylation, Alloxan, Ames Research Center, Amide, Amidine, Amine, Amine oxide, ANRORC mechanism, Aromatic sulfonation, Aromaticity, Azo coupling, Barbiturate, Barbituric acid, Base (chemistry), Base pair, Biginelli reaction, Carbonyl group, Chemische Berichte, Chlorine, Complementarity (molecular biology), Condensation, Cosmic dust, Cytosine, Diazine, Dimroth rearrangement, DNA, Electrophile, Electrophilic aromatic substitution, Ethyl acetoacetate, Formamide, Guanidine, Guanine, Halogen, Heterocyclic compound, Hydrogen bond, Hydroxy group, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Journal of the Chemical Society, Life, Lone pair, Malonic acid, Meteorite, Methylation, NASA, Nitration, Nitrile, ..., Nitrogen, Nitrosation, Nucleic acid, Nucleobase, Nucleophile, Nucleophilic aromatic substitution, Organic compound, Outer space, Phosphoryl chloride, Photodissociation, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Protonation, Purine, Pyrazine, Pyridazine, Pyridine, Pyrimidine metabolism, Pyrimidone, Red giant, Resonance (chemistry), RNA, Royal Society of Chemistry, Siegmund Gabriel, Simple aromatic ring, Tautomer, Thiamine, Thiourea, Thymine, Transition (genetics), Transversion, Trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride, Ultraviolet, Universe, Uracil, Urea, Uric acid, Zidovudine, Zinc. Expand index (38 more) » « Shrink index
An acid dissociation constant, Ka, (also known as acidity constant, or acid-ionization constant) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution.
Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).
Adolf Pinner (August 31, 1842 – May 21, 1909) was a German chemist.
An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.
Alkylation is the transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another.
Alloxan, sometimes referred to as alloxan hydrate, refers to the organic compound with the formula OC(N(H)CO)2C(OH)2.
Ames Research Center (ARC), also known as NASA Ames, is a major NASA research center at Moffett Federal Airfield in California's Silicon Valley.
An amide (or or), also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR′2 (R and R′ refer to H or organic groups).
Amidines are a class of oxoacid derivatives.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
An amine oxide, also known as amine-N-oxide and N-oxide, is a chemical compound that contains the functional group R3N+−O−, an N−O coordinate covalent bond with three additional hydrogen and/or hydrocarbon side chains attached to N. Sometimes it is written as R3N→O or, wrongly, as R3N.
The ANRORC mechanism in organic chemistry describes a special type of substitution reaction.
Aromatic sulfonation is an organic reaction in which a hydrogen atom on an arene is replaced by a sulfonic acid functional group in an electrophilic aromatic substitution.
In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.
An azo coupling is an organic reaction between a diazonium compound and another aromatic compound that produces an azo compound.
A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.
Barbituric acid or malonylurea or 6-hydroxyuracil is an organic compound based on a pyrimidine heterocyclic skeleton.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
The Biginelli reaction is a multiple-component chemical reaction that creates 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones 4 from ethyl acetoacetate 1, an aryl aldehyde (such as benzaldehyde 2), and urea 3.
In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.
Chemische Berichte (usually abbreviated as Ber. or Chem. Ber.) was a German-language scientific journal of all disciplines of chemistry founded in 1868.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
In molecular biology, complementarity describes a relationship between two structures each following the lock-and-key principle.
Condensation is the change of the physical state of matter from gas phase into liquid phase, and is the reverse of vapourisation.
Cosmic dust, also called extraterrestrial dust or space dust, is dust which exists in outer space, as well as all over planet Earth.
Cytosine (C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
Diazines are a group of organic compounds having the molecular formula C4H4N2.
The Dimroth rearrangement is a rearrangement reaction taking place with certain 1,2,3-triazoles where endocyclic and exocyclic nitrogen atoms switch place.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
In organic chemistry, an electrophile is a reagent attracted to electrons.
Electrophilic aromatic substitution is an organic reaction in which an atom that is attached to an aromatic system (usually hydrogen) is replaced by an electrophile.
The organic compound ethyl acetoacetate (EAA) is the ethyl ester of acetoacetic acid.
Formamide, also known as methanamide, is an amide derived from formic acid.
Guanidine is the compound with the formula HNC(NH2)2.
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
A heterocyclic compound or ring structure is a cyclic compound that has atoms of at least two different elements as members of its ring(s).
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
The Journal of the American Chemical Society (also known as JACS) is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1879 by the American Chemical Society.
The Journal of the Chemical Society was a scientific journal established by the Chemical Society in 1849 as the Quarterly Journal of the Chemical Society.
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
In chemistry, a lone pair refers to a pair of valence electrons that are not shared with another atomIUPAC Gold Book definition: and is sometimes called a non-bonding pair.
Malonic acid (IUPAC systematic name: propanedioic acid) is a dicarboxylic acid with structure CH2(COOH)2.
A meteorite is a solid piece of debris from an object, such as a comet, asteroid, or meteoroid, that originates in outer space and survives its passage through the atmosphere to reach the surface of a planet or moon.
In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
Nitration is a general class of chemical process for the introduction of a nitro group into an organic chemical compound.
A nitrile is any organic compound that has a −C≡N functional group.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nitrosation is a process of converting organic compounds into nitroso derivatives, i.e. compounds containing the R-NO functionality.
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
Nucleobases, also known as nitrogenous bases or often simply bases, are nitrogen-containing biological compounds that form nucleosides, which in turn are components of nucleotides, with all of these monomers constituting the basic building blocks of nucleic acids.
Nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.
Aromatic nucleophilic substitution A nucleophilic aromatic substitution is a substitution reaction in organic chemistry in which the nucleophile displaces a good leaving group, such as a halide, on an aromatic ring.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
Phosphoryl chloride (commonly called phosphorus oxychloride) is a colourless liquid with the formula 3.
Photodissociation, photolysis, or photodecomposition is a chemical reaction in which a chemical compound is broken down by photons.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).
In chemistry, protonation is the addition of a proton (H+) to an atom, molecule, or ion, forming the conjugate acid.
A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
Pyrazine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound with the chemical formula C4H4N2.
Pyridazine is a heterocyclic organic compound with the molecular formula (CH)4N2.
Pyridine is a basic heterocyclic organic compound with the chemical formula C5H5N.
Pyrimidine biosynthesis occurs both in the body and through organic synthesis.
Pyrimidone is the name given to either of two heterocyclic compounds with the formula C4H4N2O: 2-pyrimidone and 4-pyrimidone.
A red giant is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass (roughly 0.3–8 solar masses) in a late phase of stellar evolution.
In chemistry, resonance or mesomerism is a way of describing delocalized electrons within certain molecules or polyatomic ions where the bonding cannot be expressed by one single Lewis structure.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".
Siegmund Gabriel (7 November 1851 – 22 March 1924) was a German chemist.
Simple aromatic rings, also known as simple arenes or simple aromatics, are aromatic organic compounds that consist only of a conjugated planar ring system.
Tautomers are constitutional isomers of organic compounds that readily interconvert.
Thiamine, also known as thiamin or vitamin B1, is a vitamin found in food, and manufactured as a dietary supplement and medication.
Thiourea is an organosulfur compound with the formula SC(NH2)2.
---> Thymine (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.
In genetics, a transition is a point mutation that changes a purine nucleotide to another purine (A ↔ G) or a pyrimidine nucleotide to another pyrimidine (C ↔ T).
Transversion, in molecular biology, refers to the substitution of a (two ring) purine for a (one ring) pyrimidine or vice versa, in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
Triflic anhydride is the chemical compound with the formula (CF3SO2)2O.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
Uracil (U) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.
Zidovudine (ZDV), also known as azidothymidine (AZT), is an antiretroviral medication used to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.