110 relations: Activated carbon, Adsorption, Aluminium oxide, Amazon basin, Anaerobic digestion, Analytical chemistry, Arsine, Artificial heart valve, Bamboo, Benzene, Biochar, Biomass, Boiling point, Carbon, Carbon black, Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, Carbonization, Catagenesis (geology), Char, Charcoal, Charring, Chartered Institution of Wastes Management, Chemical composition, Chemical decomposition, Chemical industry, Coal, Coating, Coke (fuel), Combustion, Condensation, Cotton, Cracking (chemistry), Decaborane, Destructive distillation, Dextrin, Diborane, Diesel fuel, Dry distillation, Electric light, Electric motor, Ethylene, Ethylene glycol, Flash vacuum pyrolysis, Fossil fuel, Fruit anatomy, Gallium arsenide, Gas chromatography, Gasification, Greek language, Hydrocarbon, ..., Hydrogen cyanide, Hydrolysis, Hydrous pyrolysis, Indigenous peoples in Brazil, Inorganic chemistry, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Joseph Swan, Karrick process, Kerogen, Lignocellulosic biomass, Lysis, Mass spectrometry, Mechanical biological treatment, Metallurgy, Metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy, Miscanthus giganteus, Molten salt, Morpheme, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NNFCC, Nutshell, Organic chemistry, Organic compound, Organic matter, Organic synthesis, Oxygen, Panicum virgatum, Peach, Pentaborane, Phosphorus, Plastic, Plastics extrusion, Polyacrylonitrile, Polymer, Pyridine, Pyrolysis–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, Pyrolytic carbon, Pyrolytic coating, Radiocarbon dating, Rayon, Sand, Spinneret (polymers), Static mixer, Steelmaking, Sulfuric acid, Superheated water, Syngas, Terra preta, Thermal, Thermal decomposition, Thermal depolymerization, Thomas Edison, Torrefaction, Trimethylgallium, Ultrasonic nozzle, Vacuum, Vinyl chloride, Volatile organic compound, Wood gas, Xylem. Expand index (60 more) » « Shrink index
Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions.
Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions or molecules from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid to a surface.
Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.
The Amazon basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries.
Anaerobic digestion is a collection of processes by which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen.
Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter.
Arsine is an inorganic compound with the formula AsH3.
An artificial heart valve is a device implanted in the heart of a patient with valvular heart disease.
The bamboos are evergreen perennial flowering plants in the subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family Poaceae.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
Biochar is charcoal used as a soil amendment.
Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon black (subtypes are acetylene black, channel black, furnace black, lamp black and thermal black) is a material produced by the incomplete combustion of heavy petroleum products such as FCC tar, coal tar, ethylene cracking tar, with the addition of a small amount of vegetable oil.
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, carbon fiber reinforced plastic or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic (CFRP, CRP, CFRTP or often simply carbon fiber, carbon composite or even carbon), is an extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers.
Carbonization (or carbonisation) is the conversion of an organic substance into carbon or a carbon-containing residue through pyrolysis or destructive distillation.
Catagenesis is a term used in petroleum geology to describe the cracking process which results in the conversion of organic kerogens into hydrocarbons.
Char is the solid material that remains after light gases (e.g. coal gas) and tar have been driven out or released from a carbonaceous material during the initial stage of combustion, which is known as carbonization, charring, devolatilization or pyrolysis.
Charcoal is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.
Charring is a chemical process of incomplete combustion of certain solids when subjected to high heat.
The Chartered Institution of Wastes Management (CIWM) is a professional body for the waste management industry in the United Kingdom and other countries.
Chemical composition refers to the identity and relative number of the chemical elements that make up any particular compound.
Chemical decomposition, analysis or breakdown is the separation of a single chemical compound into its two or more elemental parts or to simpler compounds.
The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
A coating is a covering that is applied to the surface of an object, usually referred to as the substrate.
Coke is a fuel with a high carbon content and few impurities, usually made from coal.
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
Condensation is the change of the physical state of matter from gas phase into liquid phase, and is the reverse of vapourisation.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
In petrochemistry, petroleum geology and organic chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules such as kerogens or long-chain hydrocarbons are broken down into simpler molecules such as light hydrocarbons, by the breaking of carbon-carbon bonds in the precursors.
Decaborane, also called decaborane(14), is the borane with the chemical formula B10H14.
Destructive distillation is the chemical process of the decomposition of unprocessed material by heating it to a high temperature; the term generally applies to processing of organic material in the absence of air or in the presence of limited amounts of oxygen or other reagents, catalysts, or solvents, such as steam or phenols.
Dextrins are a group of low-molecular-weight carbohydrates produced by the hydrolysis of starch or glycogen.
Diborane is the chemical compound consisting of boron and hydrogen with the formula B2H6.
Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.
Dry distillation is the heating of solid materials to produce gaseous products (which may condense into liquids or solids).
An electric light is a device that produces visible light from electric current.
An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula or H2C.
Ethylene glycol (IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2OH)2.
Flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) is a technique in organic synthesis.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
Fruit anatomy is the plant anatomy of the internal structure of fruit.
Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is a compound of the elements gallium and arsenic.
Gas chromatography (GC) is a common type of chromatography used in analytical chemistry for separating and analyzing compounds that can be vaporized without decomposition.
Gasification is a process that converts organic- or fossil fuel-based carbonaceous materials into carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), sometimes called prussic acid, is a chemical compound with the chemical formula HCN.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Hydrous pyrolysis refers to the thermal decomposition which takes place when organic compounds are heated to high temperatures in the presence of water.
Indigenous peoples in Brazil (povos indígenas no Brasil), or Indigenous Brazilians (indígenas brasileiros), comprise a large number of distinct ethnic groups who have inhabited what is now the country of Brazil since prior to the European contact around 1500.
Inorganic chemistry deals with the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
Sir Joseph Wilson Swan FRS (31 October 1828 – 27 May 1914) was an English physicist, chemist, and inventor.
The Karrick process is a low-temperature carbonization (LTC) and pyrolysis process of carbonaceous materials.
Kerogen is a solid organic matter in sedimentary rocks.
Lignocellulose refers to plant dry matter (biomass), so called lignocellulosic biomass.
Lysis (Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") refers to the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic (that is, "lytic") mechanisms that compromise its integrity.
Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.
A mechanical biological treatment system is a type of waste processing facility that combines a sorting facility with a form of biological treatment such as composting or anaerobic digestion.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
Metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE), also known as organometallic vapour phase epitaxy (OMVPE) or metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD), is a chemical vapour deposition method used to produce single or polycrystalline thin films.
Miscanthus × giganteus, giant miscanthus, is a large, perennial grass hybrid of Miscanthus sinensis and Miscanthus sacchariflorus.
Molten salt is salt which is solid at standard temperature and pressure (STP) but enters the liquid phase due to elevated temperature.
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), located in Golden, Colorado, specializes in renewable energy and energy efficiency research and development.
NNFCC is a consultancy company specialising in bioenergy, biofuels and bio-based products.
A nutshell is the outer shell of a nut.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter (NOM) refers to the large pool of carbon-based compounds found within natural and engineered, terrestrial and aquatic environments.
Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Panicum virgatum, commonly known as switchgrass, is a perennial warm season bunchgrass native to North America, where it occurs naturally from 55°N latitude in Canada southwards into the United States and Mexico.
The peach (Prunus persica) is a deciduous tree native to the region of Northwest China between the Tarim Basin and the north slopes of the Kunlun Mountains, where it was first domesticated and cultivated.
Pentaborane, also called pentaborane(9) to distinguish it from pentaborane(11) (B5H11), is an inorganic compound with the formula B5H9.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
Plastics extrusion is a high-volume manufacturing process in which raw plastic is melted and formed into a continuous profile.
Polyacrylonitrile (PAN), also known as Creslan 61, is a synthetic, semicrystalline organic polymer resin, with the linear formula (C3H3N)n.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Pyridine is a basic heterocyclic organic compound with the chemical formula C5H5N.
Pyrolysis–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry is a method of chemical analysis in which the sample is heated to decomposition to produce smaller molecules that are separated by gas chromatography and detected using mass spectrometry.
Pyrolytic carbon is a material similar to graphite, but with some covalent bonding between its graphene sheets as a result of imperfections in its production.
Pyrolytic coating is a thin film coating applied at high temperatures and sprayed onto the glass surface during the float glass process.
Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.
Rayon is a manufactured fiber made from regenerated cellulose fiber.
Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.
A spinneret is a device used to extrude a polymer solution or polymer melt to form fibers.
A static mixer is a precision engineered device for the continuous mixing of fluid materials, without moving components.
Steelmaking is the process for producing steel from iron ore and scrap.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Superheated water is liquid water under pressure at temperatures between the usual boiling point, and the critical temperature,.
Syngas, or synthesis gas, is a fuel gas mixture consisting primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and very often some carbon dioxide.
Terra preta (locally, literally "black soil" in Portuguese) is a type of very dark, fertile artificial (anthropogenic) soil found in the Amazon Basin.
A thermal column (or thermal) is a column of rising air in the lower altitudes of Earth's atmosphere, a form of atmospheric updraft.
Thermal decomposition, or thermolysis, is a chemical decomposition caused by heat.
Thermal depolymerization (TDP) is a depolymerization process using hydrous pyrolysis for the reduction of complex organic materials (usually waste products of various sorts, often biomass and plastic) into light crude oil.
Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman, who has been described as America's greatest inventor.
Torrefaction of biomass, e.g., wood or grain, is a mild form of pyrolysis at temperatures typically between 200 and 320 °C.
Trimethylgallium, Ga(CH3)3, often abbreviated to TMG or TMGa, is the preferred metalorganic source of gallium for metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) of gallium-containing compound semiconductors, such as GaAs, GaN, GaP, GaSb, InGaAs, InGaN, AlGaInP, InGaP and AlInGaNP.
Ultrasonic nozzles are a type of spray nozzle that uses high frequency vibration produced by piezoelectric transducers acting upon the nozzle tip that will create capillary waves in a liquid film.
Vacuum is space devoid of matter.
Vinyl chloride is an organochloride with the formula H2C.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature.
Wood gas is a syngas fuel which can be used as a fuel for furnaces, stoves and vehicles in place of gasoline, diesel or other fuels.
Xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue in vascular plants, phloem being the other.
BioOil, Flash vacuum thermolysis, Pylorize, Pyrolisis, Pyrolitic, Pyrolitic decomposition, Pyrolytic, Pyrolytic decomposition, Pyrolyzation, Pyrolyze, Pyrolyzed, Vacuum pyrolysis, Waste tyres pyrolysis.