69 relations: Acid anhydride, Acidity regulator, Adenosine diphosphate, Adenosine monophosphate, Adenosine triphosphate, ANKH, Aqueous solution, ATP hydrolysis, ATP synthase, ATPase, Biochemistry, Blood plasma, Bone, Calcification, Calcium pyrophosphate, Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease, Catalysis, Cell (biology), Chemistry, Codex Alimentarius, Condensation reaction, Dimethylallyl pyrophosphate, Disodium pyrophosphate, DNA, E number, Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1, Emulsion, Ester, Extracellular fluid, Food additive, Geranyl pyrophosphate, High-energy phosphate, Hydrolysis, Hydroxylapatite, Inorganic pyrophosphatase, Isopentenyl pyrophosphate, Leavening agent, Mole (unit), Monocalcium phosphate, Nucleoside triphosphate, Nucleotide, Oligonucleotide, Organophosphate, Oxidative phosphorylation, Oxyanion, Philippe de Clermont, Phosphate, Phosphoric acid, Phosphoric acids and phosphates, Phosphorus, ..., Phosphorylation, Polymerase, Polymerization, Polyphosphate, Pyrophosphate, RNA, Salt (chemistry), Sequestrant, Stabiliser (food), Synovial fluid, Terpene, Terpenoid, Tetraethyl pyrophosphate, Tetrasodium pyrophosphate, Thiamine pyrophosphate, Tooth, Urine, Whipped cream, Zinc pyrophosphate. Expand index (19 more) » « Shrink index
An acid anhydride is formed when two acid structures combine with loss of a water molecule.
Acidity regulators, or pH control agents, are food additives used to change or maintain pH (acidity or basicity).
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is essential to the flow of energy in living cells.
Adenosine monophosphate (AMP), also known as 5'-adenylic acid, is a nucleotide.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Progressive ankylosis protein homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ANKH gene.
An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water.
ATP hydrolysis is the catabolic reaction process by which chemical energy that has been stored in the high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is released by splitting these bonds, for example in muscles, by producing work in the form of mechanical energy.
ATP synthase is an enzyme that creates the energy storage molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
ATPases (adenylpyrophosphatase, ATP monophosphatase, triphosphatase, SV40 T-antigen, adenosine 5'-triphosphatase, ATP hydrolase, complex V (mitochondrial electron transport), (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase, HCO3−-ATPase, adenosine triphosphatase) are a class of enzymes that catalyze the decomposition of ATP into ADP and a free phosphate ion.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
Calcification is the accumulation of calcium salts in a body tissue.
Calcium pyrophosphate (Ca2P2O7) is a chemical compound, an insoluble calcium salt containing the pyrophosphate anion.
Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease, also known as pseudogout and pyrophosphate arthropathy is a rheumatologic disorder with varied symptoms and signs arising from the resultant accumulation of crystals of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate in the connective tissues.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
The Codex Alimentarius is a collection of internationally recognized standards, codes of practice, guidelines, and other recommendations relating to foods, food production, and food safety.
A condensation reaction is a class of an organic addition reaction that proceeds in a step-wise fashion to produce the addition product, usually in equilibrium, and a water molecule (hence named condensation).
Dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP; or alternatively, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP); also isoprenyl pyrophosphate) is an isoprenoid precursor.
Disodium pyrophosphate or sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP) is an inorganic compound consisting of sodium cations and pyrophosphate anion.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
E numbers are codes for substances that are permitted to be used as food additives for use within the European Union and EFTA.
Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ENPP1 gene.
An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or unblendable).
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Extracellular fluid (ECF) denotes all body fluid outside the cells.
Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste, appearance, or other qualities.
Geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP), also known as geranyl diphosphate (GDP), is an intermediate in the HMG-CoA reductase pathway used by organisms in the biosynthesis of farnesyl pyrophosphate, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate.
High-energy phosphate can mean one of two things.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Hydroxylapatite, also called hydroxyapatite (HA), is a naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite with the formula Ca5(PO4)3(OH), but is usually written Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 to denote that the crystal unit cell comprises two entities.
Pyrophosphatase (or inorganic pyrophosphatase) is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of one molecule of pyrophosphate to two phosphate ions.
Isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP, isopentenyl diphosphate, or IDP) is an isoprenoid precursor.
A leaven, often called a leavening agent (and also known as a raising agent), is any one of a number of substances used in doughs and batters that cause a foaming action (gas bubbles) that lightens and softens the mixture.
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.
Monocalcium phosphate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(H2PO4)2 ("ACMP" or "CMP-A" for anhydrous monocalcium phosphate).
A nucleoside triphosphate is a molecule containing a nitrogenous base bound to a 5-carbon sugar (either ribose or deoxyribose), with three phosphate groups bound to the sugar.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
Oligonucleotides are short DNA or RNA molecules, oligomers, that have a wide range of applications in genetic testing, research, and forensics.
Organophosphates (also known as phosphate esters) are a class of organophosphorus compounds with the general structure O.
Oxidative phosphorylation (or OXPHOS in short) (UK, US) is the metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutrients, thereby releasing energy which is used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
An oxyanion, or oxoanion, is an ion with the generic formula (where A represents a chemical element and O represents an oxygen atom).
Philippe de Clermont (1831–1921) was a French organic chemist.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Phosphoric acid (also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid) is a mineral (inorganic) and weak acid having the chemical formula H3PO4.
There are various kinds of phosphoric acids and phosphates.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.
A polymerase is an enzyme (EC 188.8.131.52/7/19/48/49) that synthesizes long chains of polymers or nucleic acids.
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
Polyphosphates are salts or esters of polymeric oxyanions formed from tetrahedral PO4 (phosphate) structural units linked together by sharing oxygen atoms.
In chemistry, a pyrophosphate is a phosphorus oxyanion.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
A sequestrant is a food additive which improves the quality and stability of foods.
A stabiliser is an additive to food which helps to preserve its structure.
Synovial fluid, also called synovia,help 1 is a viscous, non-Newtonian fluid found in the cavities of synovial joints.
Terpenes are a large and diverse class of organic compounds, produced by a variety of plants, particularly conifers, and by some insects.
The terpenoids, sometimes called isoprenoids, are a large and diverse class of naturally occurring organic chemicals derived from terpenes.
Tetraethyl pyrophosphate, abbreviated TEPP, is an organophosphate compound, which is used as an insecticide.
Tetrasodium pyrophosphate, also called sodium pyrophosphate, tetrasodium phosphate or TSPP, is a colorless transparent crystalline chemical compound with the formula Na4P2O7.
Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP or ThPP), or thiamine diphosphate (ThDP), or cocarboxylase is a thiamine (vitamin B1) derivative which is produced by the enzyme thiamine diphosphokinase.
A tooth (plural teeth) is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates and used to break down food.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Whipped cream is cream that is whipped by a whisk or mixer until it is light and fluffy.
Zinc pyrophospate (Zn2P2O7) is an ionic inorganic chemical compound composed of Zn2+ cations and pyrophosphate anions.