69 relations: American Civil War, American Revolutionary War, Analogy, Attrition warfare, Battle of Asculum, Battle of Avarayr, Battle of Bunker Hill, Battle of Chancellorsville, Battle of Chosin Reservoir, Battle of Gettysburg, Battle of Guilford Court House, Battle of Heraclea, Battle of Malplaquet, Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands, Battle of Vukovar, Beauharnais v. Illinois, Cadmean victory, Cassandra (metaphor), Charles James Fox, Civil code, Claude Louis Hector de Villars, Court-martial, Croatian National Guard, Croatian War of Independence, Defamation, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Dissenting opinion, Encyclopædia Iranica, Epirus (ancient state), Guadalcanal Campaign, Guilt (law), Hugo Black, Justice, Korean War, Louis-Pierre Anquetil, Moral Man and Immoral Society, Murder, Nvarsak Treaty, Orosius, Ottoman–Habsburg wars, Parallel Lives, Parthian shot, Plaintiff, Plutarch, Pyrrhic War, Pyrrhus of Epirus, Reinhold Niebuhr, Robert E. Lee, Roman Empire, Roman Republic, ..., Siege, Siege of Boston, Siege of Szigetvár, Solomon Islands campaign, Spite house, Stonewall Jackson, Strategic victory, Suicide attack, Supreme Court of the United States, Tactical victory, Theology, Trial, Vardan Mamikonian, War of the Spanish Succession, Whigs (British political party), Winner's curse, World War II, Yugoslav People's Army, Zugzwang. Expand index (19 more) » « Shrink index
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
Analogy (from Greek ἀναλογία, analogia, "proportion", from ana- "upon, according to" + logos "ratio") is a cognitive process of transferring information or meaning from a particular subject (the analog, or source) to another (the target), or a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process.
Attrition warfare is a military strategy consisting of belligerent attempts to win a war by wearing down the enemy to the point of collapse through continuous losses in personnel and materiel.
The Battle of Asculum took place in 279 BC between the Roman Republic under the command of the consuls Publius Decius Mus and Publius Sulpicius Saverrio and the forces of king Pyrrhus of Epirus.
The Battle of Avarayr (Ավարայրի ճակատամարտ Avarayri čakatamart) was fought on 26 May 451 AD on the Avarayr Plain in Vaspurakan between the Armenian Army under Vardan Mamikonian and Sassanid Persia.
The Battle of Bunker Hill was fought on June 17, 1775, during the Siege of Boston in the early stages of the American Revolutionary War.
The Battle of Chancellorsville was a major battle of the American Civil War (1861–1865), and the principal engagement of the Chancellorsville Campaign.
The Battle of Chosin Reservoir, also known as the Chosin Reservoir Campaign or the Battle of Jhangjin Lake (장진호 전투; hanja: 長津湖戰鬪; rr: Jangjin ho jeontu), was a decisive battle in the Korean War.
The Battle of Gettysburg (with an sound) was fought July 1–3, 1863, in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, by Union and Confederate forces during the American Civil War.
The Battle of Guilford Court House was a battle fought on March 15, 1781, at a site which is now in Greensboro, the county seat of Guilford County, North Carolina, during the American Revolutionary War.
The Battle of Heraclea took place in 280 BC between the Romans under the command of consul Publius Valerius Laevinus, and the combined forces of Greeks from Epirus, Tarentum, Thurii, Metapontum, and Heraclea under the command of Pyrrhus king of Epirus.
The Battle of Malplaquet was a battle of the War of the Spanish Succession, fought on 11 September 1709, which opposed the Bourbons of France and Spain against an alliance whose major members were the Habsburg Monarchy, the United Provinces, Great Britain and the Kingdom of Prussia.
The Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands, fought during 25–27 October 1942, sometimes referred to as the Battle of Santa Cruz or in Japan as the (Minamitaiheiyō kaisen), was the fourth carrier battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II.
The Battle of Vukovar was an 87-day siege of Vukovar in eastern Croatia by the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA), supported by various paramilitary forces from Serbia, between August and November 1991.
Beauharnais v. Illinois,, was a case that came before the United States Supreme Court in 1952.
A Cadmean victory (translit) is a reference to a victory involving one's own ruin,Liddell, Henry George (Compiler), Scott, Robert (Compiler), Jones, Henry Stuart (Editor), McKenzie, Roderick.
The Cassandra metaphor (variously labelled the Cassandra syndrome, complex, phenomenon, predicament, dilemma, or curse) occurs when valid warnings or concerns are dismissed or disbelieved.
Charles James Fox (24 January 1749 – 13 September 1806), styled The Honourable from 1762, was a prominent British Whig statesman whose parliamentary career spanned 38 years of the late 18th and early 19th centuries and who was the arch-rival of William Pitt the Younger.
A civil code is a systematic collection of laws designed to deal with the core areas of private law such as for dealing with business and negligence lawsuits and practices.
Claude Louis Hector de Villars, Prince de Martigues, Marquis then Duc de Villars, Vicomte de Melun (8 May 1653 – 17 June 1734) was a general of Louis XIV of France, one of only six Marshals who have been promoted to Marshal General of France.
A court-martial or court martial (plural courts-martial or courts martial, as "martial" is a postpositive adjective) is a military court or a trial conducted in such a court.
The Croatian National Guard (Zbor narodne garde – ZNG) was an armed force established by Croatia in April and May 1991 during the Croatian War of Independence.
The Croatian War of Independence was fought from 1991 to 1995 between Croat forces loyal to the government of Croatia—which had declared independence from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY)—and the Serb-controlled Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) and local Serb forces, with the JNA ending its combat operations in Croatia by 1992.
Defamation, calumny, vilification, or traducement is the communication of a false statement that, depending on the law of the country, harms the reputation of an individual, business, product, group, government, religion, or nation.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Διονύσιος Ἀλεξάνδρου Ἁλικαρνασσεύς, Dionysios Alexandrou Halikarnasseus, "Dionysios son of Alexandros of Halikarnassos"; c. 60 BCafter 7 BC) was a Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, who flourished during the reign of Caesar Augustus.
A dissenting opinion (or dissent) is an opinion in a legal case in certain legal systems written by one or more judges expressing disagreement with the majority opinion of the court which gives rise to its judgment.
Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.
Epirus (Northwest Greek: Ἄπειρος, Ápeiros; Attic: Ἤπειρος, Ḗpeiros) was an ancient Greek state, located in the geographical region of Epirus in the western Balkans. The homeland of the ancient Epirotes was bordered by the Aetolian League to the south, Thessaly and Macedonia to the east, and Illyrian tribes to the north. For a brief period (280–275 BC), the Epirote king Pyrrhus managed to make Epirus the most powerful state in the Greek world, and his armies marched against Rome during an unsuccessful campaign in Italy.
The Guadalcanal Campaign, also known as the Battle of Guadalcanal and codenamed Operation Watchtower by American forces, was a military campaign fought between 7 August 1942 and 9 February 1943 on and around the island of Guadalcanal in the Pacific theater of World War II.
In criminal law, guilt is the state of being responsible for the commission of an offense.
Hugo Lafayette Black (February 27, 1886 – September 25, 1971) was an American politician and jurist who served in the United States Senate from 1927 to 1937, and as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1937 to 1971.
Justice is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered.
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
Louis-Pierre Anquetil (21 February 1723 – 6 September 1808) was a French historian.
Moral Man and Immoral Society: A Study in Ethics and Politics is a 1932 book by Reinhold Niebuhr, an American Protestant theologian at Union Theological Seminary (UTS) in New York City.
Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought.
The Nvarsak Treaty was signed between the Armenian general Vahan Mamikonian and the representatives of the Sassanian Persian king Balash at Nvarsak in 484.
Paulus Orosius (born 375, died after 418 AD) — less often Paul Orosius in English — was a Gallaecian Chalcedonian priest, historian and theologian, a student of Augustine of Hippo.
The Ottoman–Habsburg wars were fought from the 16th through the 18th centuries between the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg (later Austrian) Empire, which was at times supported by the Holy Roman Empire, Kingdom of Hungary, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and Habsburg Spain.
Plutarch's Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans, commonly called Parallel Lives or Plutarch's Lives, is a series of biographies of famous men, arranged in tandem to illuminate their common moral virtues or failings, probably written at the beginning of the second century AD.
The Parthian shot is a light horse military tactic made famous in the West by the Parthians, an ancient Iranian people.
A plaintiff (Π in legal shorthand) is the party who initiates a lawsuit (also known as an action) before a court.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
The Pyrrhic War (280–275 BC) was a war fought by Pyrrhus, the king of Epirus.
Pyrrhus (Πύρρος, Pyrrhos; 319/318–272 BC) was a Greek general and statesman of the Hellenistic period.
Karl Paul Reinhold Niebuhr (June 21, 1892June 1, 1971) was an American theologian, ethicist, commentator on politics and public affairs, and professor at Union Theological Seminary for more than 30 years.
Robert Edward Lee (January 19, 1807 – October 12, 1870) was an American and Confederate soldier, best known as a commander of the Confederate States Army.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault.
The Siege of Boston (April 19, 1775 – March 17, 1776) was the opening phase of the American Revolutionary War.
The Siege of Szigetvár or Battle of Szigeth (pronunciation: Szigetvár ostroma, Bitka kod Sigeta; Sigetska bitka, Zigetvar Kuşatması) was a siege of the fortress of Szigetvár, Kingdom of Hungary, that blocked Suleiman's line of advance towards Vienna in 1566 AD.
The Solomon Islands campaign was a major campaign of the Pacific War of World War II.
A spite house is a building constructed or substantially modified to irritate neighbors or any party with land stakes.
Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson (January 21, 1824 – May 10, 1863) served as a Confederate general (1861–1863) during the American Civil War, and became one of the best-known Confederate commanders after General Robert E. Lee.
A strategic victory is a victory that brings long-term advantage to the victor and disturbs the enemy's ability to wage a war.
A suicide attack is any violent attack in which the attacker expects their own death as a direct result of the method used to harm, damage or destroy the target.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
A tactical victory may refer to a victory that results in the completion of a tactical objective as part of an operation or a result where the losses of the "defeated" outweigh those of the "victor" despite the victorious force having failed to meet its original objectives.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
In law, a trial is a coming together of parties to a dispute, to present information (in the form of evidence) in a tribunal, a formal setting with the authority to adjudicate claims or disputes.
Vardan Mamikonian (Վարդան Մամիկոնյան; 387–451 AD) was an Armenian military leader, a martyr and a saint of the Armenian Church.
The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700.
The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom.
The winner's curse is a phenomenon that may occur in common value auctions, wherein the winner will tend to overpay due to emotional reasons or incomplete information.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Yugoslav People's Army (Jugoslovenska narodna armija / Југословенска народна армија / Jugoslavenska narodna armija; also Yugoslav National Army), often referred-to simply by the initialism JNA, was the military of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
Zugzwang (German for "compulsion to move") is a situation found in chess and other games wherein one player is put at a disadvantage because they must make a move when they would prefer to pass and not move.