40 relations: Acetyl-CoA, Acetylation, Active site, Adenosine monophosphate, Adenosine triphosphate, Anti-mitochondrial antibody, Autoimmunity, Bacteria, Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex, Cellular respiration, Citric acid cycle, Decarboxylation, Dichloroacetic acid, Dihydrolipoyl transacetylase, Enol, Enzyme, Escherichia coli, Glycolysis, Insulin, Lipoic acid, Metabolic pathway, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, Non-celiac gluten sensitivity, Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, Phosphoenolpyruvic acid, Phosphorylation, Primary biliary cholangitis, Pyruvate decarboxylation, Pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) alpha 1, Pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) alpha 2, Pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) beta, Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase, Pyruvic acid, Thiamine pyrophosphate, Transglutaminase, Ylide, 1,3-dipole.
Acetyl-CoA (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Acetylation (or in IUPAC nomenclature ethanoylation) describes a reaction that introduces an acetyl functional group into a chemical compound.
In biology, the active site is the region of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction.
Adenosine monophosphate (AMP), also known as 5'-adenylic acid, is a nucleotide.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are autoantibodies, consisting of immunoglobulins formed against mitochondria, primarily the mitochondria in cells of the liver.
Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
The branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC or BCKDH complex) is a multi-subunit complex of enzymes that is found on the mitochondrial inner membrane.
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Decarboxylation is a chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group and releases carbon dioxide (CO2).
Dichloroacetic acid (DCA), sometimes called bichloroacetic acid (BCA), is the chemical compound with formula.
Dihydrolipoyl transacetylase (or dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase) is an enzyme component of the multienzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.
Enols, or more formally, alkenols, are a type of reactive structure or intermediate in organic chemistry that is represented as an alkene (olefin) with a hydroxyl group attached to one end of the alkene double bond.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
Lipoic acid (LA), also known as α-lipoic acid and alpha lipoic acid (ALA) and thioctic acid is an organosulfur compound derived from caprylic acid (octanoic acid).
In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells.
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or gluten sensitivity is defined as "a clinical entity induced by the ingestion of gluten leading to intestinal and/or extraintestinal symptoms that improve once the gluten-containing foodstuff is removed from the diet, and celiac disease and wheat allergy have been excluded".
The oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDC) or α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex is an enzyme complex, most commonly known for its role in the citric acid cycle.
Phosphoenolpyruvate (2-phosphoenolpyruvate, PEP) as the ester derived from the enol of pyruvate and phosphate.
In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), previously known as primary biliary cirrhosis, is an autoimmune disease of the liver.
Pyruvate decarboxylation or pyruvate oxidation is the conversion of pyruvate into acetyl-CoA (activated acetate) by the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase.
Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit alpha, somatic form, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDHA1 gene.The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial matrix multienzyme complex that provides the primary link between glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle by catalyzing the irreversible conversion of pyruvate into acetyl-CoA.
Pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) alpha 2, also known as pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit alpha, testis-specific form, mitochondrial or PDHE1-A type II, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDHA2 gene.
Pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) beta, also known as pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit beta, mitochondrial or PDHE1-B is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDHB gene.
Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a complex of three enzymes that converts pyruvate into acetyl-CoA by a process called pyruvate decarboxylation.
Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency (also known as pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency or PDCD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders associated with abnormal mitochondrial metabolism.
Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (also pyruvate dehydrogenase complex kinase, PDC kinase, or PDK) is a kinase enzyme which acts to inactivate the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase by phosphorylating it using ATP.
pyruvate dehyrogenase phosphatase catalytic subunit 1 (PDPC 1), also known as protein phosphatase 2C, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDP1 gene.
Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group.
Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP or ThPP), or thiamine diphosphate (ThDP), or cocarboxylase is a thiamine (vitamin B1) derivative which is produced by the enzyme thiamine diphosphokinase.
A transglutaminase is an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of an isopeptide bond between a free amine group (e.g., protein- or peptide-bound lysine) and the acyl group at the end of the side chain of protein- or peptide-bound glutamine.
A ylide or ylid is a neutral dipolar molecule containing a formally negatively charged atom (usually a carbanion) directly attached to a heteroatom with a formal positive charge (usually nitrogen, phosphorus or sulfur), and in which both atoms have full octets of electrons.
In organic chemistry, a 1,3-dipolar compound or 1,3-dipole is a dipolar compound with delocalized electrons and a separation of charge over three atoms.