72 relations: Acetaldehyde, Acetic acid, Acetoacetic acid, Acetyl chloride, Acetyl cyanide, Acetyl-CoA, Adenosine diphosphate, Adenosine triphosphate, Alanine, Alanine transaminase, Amino acid, Anaerobic organism, Anaplerotic reactions, Biochemistry, Bleach, Carbohydrate, Carboxylic acid, Carp, Cell (biology), Cellular respiration, Chemical compound, Citric acid cycle, Coenzyme A, Cofactor (biochemistry), Conjugate acid, Enzyme, Ethanol, Ethanol fermentation, Fatty acid, Fermentation, Fritz Albert Lipmann, Gluconeogenesis, Glucose, Glutamic acid, Glyceraldehyde, Glycolysis, Glyoxylic acid, Hans Adolf Krebs, In vitro, In vivo, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Keto acid, Ketone, Lactate dehydrogenase, Lactic acid, Lactic acid fermentation, Metabolic pathway, Methylglyoxal, Miscibility, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, ..., Nobel Prize, Oxalic acid, Oxaloacetic acid, Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, Phosphoenolpyruvic acid, Potassium bisulfate, Potassium cyanide, Potassium permanganate, Propionaldehyde, Propionic acid, Propylene glycol, Pyruvate carboxylase, Pyruvate decarboxylase, Pyruvate decarboxylation, Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, Pyruvate kinase, Pyruvate scale, Redox, Royal Society of Chemistry, Sodium pyruvate, Tartaric acid, Théophile-Jules Pelouze. Expand index (22 more) » « Shrink index
Acetaldehyde (systematic name ethanal) is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH3CHO, sometimes abbreviated by chemists as MeCHO (Me.
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
Acetoacetic acid (also diacetic acid) is the organic compound with the formula CH3COCH2COOH.
Acetyl chloride, CH3COCl is an acid chloride derived from acetic acid.
−24 cm3 --> Acetyl cyanide is a chemical compound that contains both a nitrile and a carbonyl functional group.
Acetyl-CoA (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is essential to the flow of energy in living cells.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Alanine (symbol Ala or A) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Alanine transaminase (ALT) is a transaminase enzyme.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth.
Anaplerotic reactions (from the Greek.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Bleach is the generic name for any chemical product which is used industrially and domestically to whiten clothes, lighten hair color and remove stains.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
Carp are various species of oily freshwater fish from the family Cyprinidae, a very large group of fish native to Europe and Asia.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Coenzyme A (CoA,SCoA,CoASH) is a coenzyme, notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids, and the oxidation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle.
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
A conjugate acid, within the Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, is a species formed by the reception of a proton (H+) by a base—in other words, it is a base with a hydrogen ion added to it.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Ethanol fermentation, also called alcoholic fermentation, is a biological process which converts sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose into cellular energy, producing ethanol and carbon dioxide as by-products.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.
Fritz Albert Lipmann (June 12, 1899 – July 24, 1986) was a German-American biochemist and a co-discoverer in 1945 of coenzyme A. For this, together with other research on coenzyme A, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1953 (shared with Hans Adolf Krebs).
Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glyceraldehyde (glyceral) is a triose monosaccharide with chemical formula C3H6O3.
Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.
Glyoxylic acid or oxoacetic acid is an organic compound.
Sir Hans Adolf Krebs (25 August 1900 – 22 November 1981) was a German-born British physician and biochemist.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius (20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848), named by himself and contemporary society as Jacob Berzelius, was a Swedish chemist.
Keto acids or ketoacids (also called oxo acids or oxoacids) are organic compounds that contain a carboxylic acid group and a ketone group.
In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH or LD) is an enzyme found in nearly all living cells (animals, plants, and prokaryotes).
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
Lactic acid fermentation is a metabolic process by which glucose and other six-carbon sugars (also, disaccharides of six-carbon sugars, e.g. sucrose or lactose) are converted into cellular energy and the metabolite lactate, which is lactic acid in solution.
In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.
Methylglyoxal, also called pyruvaldehyde or 2-oxopropanal, is the organic compound with the formula CH3C(O)CHO.
Miscibility is the property of substances to mix in all proportions (that is, to fully dissolve in each other at any concentration), forming a homogeneous solution.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
Oxalic acid is an organic compound with the formula C2H2O4.
Oxaloacetic acid (also known as oxalacetic acid) is a crystalline organic compound with the chemical formula HO2CC(O)CH2CO2H.
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is an enzyme in the lyase family used in the metabolic pathway of gluconeogenesis.
Phosphoenolpyruvate (2-phosphoenolpyruvate, PEP) as the ester derived from the enol of pyruvate and phosphate.
Potassium bisulfate, or in most varieties of English other than US English, Potassium bisulphate, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula KHSO4 and is the potassium acid salt of sulfuric acid.
Potassium cyanide is a compound with the formula KCN.
Potassium permanganate is an inorganic chemical compound and medication.
Propionaldehyde or propanal is the organic compound with the formula CH3CH2CHO.
Propionic acid (from the Greek words protos, meaning "first", and pion, meaning "fat"; also known as propanoic acid) is a naturally occurring carboxylic acid with chemical formula C2H5COOH.
Propylene glycol (IUPAC name: propane-1,2-diol) is a synthetic organic compound with the chemical formula C3H8O2.
Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) encoded by the gene PC is an enzyme of the ligase class that catalyzes (depending on the species) the physiologically irreversible carboxylation of pyruvate to form oxaloacetate (OAA).
Pyruvate decarboxylase is a homotetrameric enzyme that catalyses the decarboxylation of pyruvic acid to acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes, and in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of eukaryotes.
Pyruvate decarboxylation or pyruvate oxidation is the conversion of pyruvate into acetyl-CoA (activated acetate) by the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase.
Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a complex of three enzymes that converts pyruvate into acetyl-CoA by a process called pyruvate decarboxylation.
X-ray Crystallography Derived --> Pyruvate kinase is the enzyme that catalyzes the final step of glycolysis.
The pyruvate scale measures pungency in onions and garlic with units of µmol/gfw (micromoles per gram fresh weight).
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".
Sodium pyruvate is commonly added to cell culture media as an additional source of energy, but may also have protective effects against hydrogen peroxide.
Tartaric acid is a white crystalline organic acid that occurs naturally in many fruits, most notably in grapes, but also in bananas, tamarinds and citrus.
Théophile-Jules Pelouze (also known as Jules Pelouze, Théophile Pelouze, Theo Pelouze, or T. J. Pelouze,; 26 February 1807 – 31 May 1867) was a French chemist.
2-oxopropanoic acid, Acetylformic acid, CH3COCOOH, Pyroracemic acid, Pyruate, Pyruvate, Pyruvate metabolism, Pyruvate metabolism, inborn errors, Pyruvates, Pyruvic Acid, Pyruvis acid, Α-ketopropionic acid.