In computer programming, ?: is a ternary operator that is part of the syntax for basic conditional expressions in several programming languages.
Abaqus FEA (formerly ABAQUS) is a software suite for finite element analysis and computer-aided engineering, originally released in 1978.
ABC is an imperative general-purpose programming language and programming environment developed at CWI, Netherlands by Leo Geurts, Lambert Meertens, and Steven Pemberton.
An academic conference or symposium is a conference for researchers (not necessarily academics) to present and discuss their work.
Alex Martelli (born October 5, 1955) is an Italian computer engineer and Fellow of the Python Software Foundation.
Algebra (from Arabic "al-jabr", literally meaning "reunion of broken parts") is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and analysis.
ALGOL 68 (short for Algorithmic Language 1968) is an imperative computer programming language that was conceived as a successor to the ALGOL 60 programming language, designed with the goal of a much wider scope of application and more rigorously defined syntax and semantics.
Algorithmic trading is a method of executing a large order (too large to fill all at once) using automated pre-programmed trading instructions accounting for variables such as time, price, and volume to send small slices of the order (child orders) out to the market over time.
Amazon.com, Inc., doing business as Amazon, is an American electronic commerce and cloud computing company based in Seattle, Washington that was founded by Jeff Bezos on July 5, 1994.
AmigaOS 4 (abbreviated as OS4 or AOS4) is a line of Amiga operating systems which runs on PowerPC microprocessors.
Amoeba is a distributed operating system developed by Andrew S. Tanenbaum and others at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Anaconda is the installer for Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Oracle Linux, Scientific Linux, CentOS, Qubes OS and Fedora.
In computer programming, an anonymous function (function literal, lambda abstraction, or lambda expression) is a function definition that is not bound to an identifier.
ANSI C, ISO C and Standard C refer to the successive standards for the C programming language published by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
Apache Groovy is a Java-syntax-compatible object-oriented programming language for the Java platform.
The Apache HTTP Server, colloquially called Apache, is a free and open-source cross-platform web server, released under the terms of Apache License 2.0.
An aphorism (from Greek ἀφορισμός: aphorismos, denoting "delimitation", "distinction", and "definition") is a concise, terse, laconic, and/or memorable expression of a general truth or principle.
In computer science, arbitrary-precision arithmetic, also called bignum arithmetic, multiple-precision arithmetic, or sometimes infinite-precision arithmetic, indicates that calculations are performed on numbers whose digits of precision are limited only by the available memory of the host system.
ArcGIS is a geographic information system (GIS) for working with maps and geographic information.
In computer science, an array data structure, or simply an array, is a data structure consisting of a collection of elements (values or variables), each identified by at least one array index or key.
In computer programming, array slicing is an operation that extracts a subset of elements from an array and packages them as another array, possibly in a different dimension from the original.
Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.
In computing, aspect-oriented programming (AOP) is a programming paradigm that aims to increase modularity by allowing the separation of cross-cutting concerns.
In computer programming, an assertion is a statement that a predicate (Boolean-valued function, i.e. a true–false expression) is always true at that point in code execution.
In computer science, an associative array, map, symbol table, or dictionary is an abstract data type composed of a collection of (key, value) pairs, such that each possible key appears at most once in the collection.
Astropy is a collection of software packages written in the Python programming language and designed for use in astronomy.
Autodesk 3ds Max, formerly 3D Studio and 3D Studio Max, is a professional 3D computer graphics program for making 3D animations, models, games and images.
Autodesk Maya, commonly shortened to Maya, is a 3D computer graphics application that runs on Windows, macOS and Linux, originally developed by Alias Systems Corporation (formerly Alias|Wavefront) and currently owned and developed by Autodesk, Inc. It is used to create interactive 3D applications, including video games, animated film, TV series, or visual effects.
MotionBuilder is a professional 3D character animation software produced by Autodesk.
Autodesk Softimage, or simply Softimage is a discontinued 3D computer graphics application, for producing 3D computer graphics, 3D modeling, and computer animation.
Backporting is the action of taking parts from a newer version of a software system or software component and porting them to an older version of the same software.
Backward compatibility is a property of a system, product, or technology that allows for interoperability with an older legacy system, or with input designed for such a system, especially in telecommunications and computing.
Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL) is a title given to a small number of open-source software development leaders, typically project founders who retain the final say in disputes or arguments within the community.
The Biopython Project is an open-source collection of non-commercial Python tools for computational biology and bioinformatics, created by an international association of developers.
Blender is a professional, free and open-source 3D computer graphics software toolset used for creating animated films, visual effects, art, 3D printed models, interactive 3D applications and video games.
In computer programming, a block or code block is a lexical structure of source code which is grouped together.
Boo is an object-oriented, statically typed, general-purpose programming language that seeks to make use of the Common Language Infrastructure's support for Unicode, internationalization, and web applications, while using a Python-inspired syntax and a special focus on language and compiler extensibility.
In computer science, the Boolean data type is a data type that has one of two possible values (usually denoted true and false), intended to represent the two truth values of logic and Boolean algebra.
Bottle is a WSGI micro web-framework for the Python programming language.
A bug tracking system or defect tracking system is a software application that keeps track of reported software bugs in software development projects.
Buildbot is a software development continuous integration tool which automates the compile or test cycle required to validate changes to the project code base.
The byte is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bits, representing a binary number.
Bytecode, also termed portable code or p-code, is a form of instruction set designed for efficient execution by a software interpreter.
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
C# (/si: ʃɑːrp/) is a multi-paradigm programming language encompassing strong typing, imperative, declarative, functional, generic, object-oriented (class-based), and component-oriented programming disciplines.
C++ ("see plus plus") is a general-purpose programming language.
C99 (previously known as C9X) is an informal name for ISO/IEC 9899:1999, a past version of the C programming language standard.
Calculus (from Latin calculus, literally 'small pebble', used for counting and calculations, as on an abacus), is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations.
capella is a musical notation program or scorewriter developed by the German company Capella Software AG (formerly WHC), running on Microsoft Windows or corresponding emulators in other operating systems, like Wine on Linux and others on Apple Macintosh.
CCP hf., doing business as CCP Games, is an Icelandic video game developer based in Reykjavík.
The Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica (abbr. CWI; English: "National Research Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science") is a research center in the field of mathematics and theoretical computer science.
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.
CINEMA 4D is a 3D modeling, animation, motion graphic and rendering application developed by MAXON Computer GmbH in Germany.
CircuitPython is an open source derivative of the MicroPython programming language targeted towards the student and beginner.
In object-oriented programming, a class is an extensible program-code-template for creating objects, providing initial values for state (member variables) and implementations of behavior (member functions or methods).
CLU is a programming language created at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) by Barbara Liskov and her students between 1974 and 1975.
Cobra is a general-purpose, object-oriented programming language.
Combinatorics is an area of mathematics primarily concerned with counting, both as a means and an end in obtaining results, and certain properties of finite structures.
A command-line interface or command language interpreter (CLI), also known as command-line user interface, console user interface and character user interface (CUI), is a means of interacting with a computer program where the user (or client) issues commands to the program in the form of successive lines of text (command lines).
Common Intermediate Language (CIL), formerly called Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL), is the lowest-level human-readable programming language defined by the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) specification and is used by the.NET Framework,.NET Core, and Mono.
The Common Language Runtime (CLR), the virtual machine component of Microsoft's.NET framework, manages the execution of.NET programs.
Common Lisp (CL) is a dialect of the Lisp programming language, published in ANSI standard document ANSI INCITS 226-1994 (R2004) (formerly X3.226-1994 (R1999)).
The following tables list notable software packages that are nominal IDEs; standalone tools such as source code editors and GUI builders are not included.
Programming languages are used for controlling the behavior of a machine (often a computer).
In computer science, compile time refers to either the operations performed by a compiler (the "compile-time operations"), programming language requirements that must be met by source code for it to be successfully compiled (the "compile-time requirements"), or properties of the program that can be reasoned about during compilation.
A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form, where and are real numbers, and is a solution of the equation.
A computer file is a computer resource for recording data discretely in a computer storage device.
Computer programming is the process of building and designing an executable computer program for accomplishing a specific computing task.
In computer science, conditional statements, conditional expressions and conditional constructs are features of a programming language, which perform different computations or actions depending on whether a programmer-specified boolean condition evaluates to true or false.
In computer science and computer programming, a continuation is an abstract representation of the control state of a computer program.
In software engineering, continuous integration (CI) is the practice of merging all developer working copies to a shared mainline several times a day.
Coroutines are computer-program components that generalize subroutines for non-preemptive multitasking, by allowing multiple entry points for suspending and resuming execution at certain locations.
CPython is the reference implementation of the Python programming language.
In computer science, cycle detection or cycle finding is the algorithmic problem of finding a cycle in a sequence of iterated function values.
Cython is a superset of the Python programming language, designed to give C-like performance with code that is written mostly in Python.
D is an object-oriented, imperative, multi-paradigm system programming language created by Walter Bright of Digital Mars and released in 2001.
In software engineering, the data mapper pattern is an architectural pattern.
In computer science and computer programming, a data type or simply type is a classification of data which tells the compiler or interpreter how the programmer intends to use the data.
Design by contract (DbC), also known as contract programming, programming by contract and design-by-contract programming, is an approach for designing software.
Django is a free and open-source web framework, written in Python, which follows the model-view-template (MVT) architectural pattern.
Dropbox is a file hosting service operated by American company Dropbox, Inc., headquartered in San Francisco, California, that offers cloud storage, file synchronization, personal cloud, and client software.
In computer programming, duck typing is an application of the duck test in type safety.
Dylan is a multi-paradigm programming language that includes support for functional and object-oriented programming, and is dynamic and reflective while providing a programming model designed to support efficient machine code generation, including fine-grained control over dynamic and static behaviors.
ECMAScript (or ES) is a trademarked scripting-language specification standardized by Ecma International in ECMA-262 and ISO/IEC 16262.
In computer programming, ellipsis notation (.. or...) is used to denote ranges, an unspecified number of arguments, or a parent directory.
"End-of-life" (EOL) is a term used with respect to a product supplied to customers, indicating that the product is in the end of its useful life (from the vendor's point of view), and a vendor stops marketing, selling, or rework sustaining it.
Erlang is a general-purpose, concurrent, functional programming language, as well as a garbage-collected runtime system.
In computing and telecommunication, an escape character is a character which invokes an alternative interpretation on subsequent characters in a character sequence.
Esri (a.k.a. Environmental Systems Research Institute) is an international supplier of geographic information system (GIS) software, web GIS and geodatabase management applications.
Exception handling is the process of responding to the occurrence, during computation, of exceptions – anomalous or exceptional conditions requiring special processing – often changing the normal flow of program execution.
An expression in a programming language is a combination of one or more constants, variables, operators, and functions that the programming language interprets (according to its particular rules of precedence and of association) and computes to produce ("to return", in a stateful environment) another value.
F# (pronounced F sharp) is a strongly typed, multi-paradigm programming language that encompasses functional, imperative, and object-oriented programming methods.
Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service company based in Menlo Park, California.
Falcon is an open source, multi-paradigm programming language.
Fedora is a Linux distribution developed by the community-supported Fedora Project and sponsored by Red Hat.
In computer science, data that has several parts, known as a record, can be divided into fields.
The finite element method (FEM), is a numerical method for solving problems of engineering and mathematical physics.
Firaxis Games, Inc. is an American video game developer based in Sparks, Maryland.
Flask is a micro web framework written in Python.
In computing, floating-point arithmetic is arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation so as to support a trade-off between range and precision.
The terms foobar, or foo and others are used as placeholder names (also referred to as metasyntactic variables) in computer programming or computer-related documentation.
FreeBSD is a free and open-source Unix-like operating system descended from Research Unix via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD).
FreeCAD is a free and open-source (under the LGPLv2+ license) general-purpose parametric 3D CAD modeler and a building information modeling (BIM) software with finite-element-method (FEM) support.
In computer science, functional programming is a programming paradigm—a style of building the structure and elements of computer programs—that treats computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions and avoids changing-state and mutable data.
In computer science, garbage collection (GC) is a form of automatic memory management.
In computer software, a general-purpose programming language is a programming language designed to be used for writing software in the widest variety of application domains (a general-purpose language).
In computer science, a generator is a special routine that can be used to control the iteration behaviour of a loop.
Genie is a modern, general-purpose high-level programming language in active development since 2008.
Gentoo Linux (pronounced) is a Linux distribution built using the Portage package management system.
GIMP (GNU Image Manipulation Program) is a free and open-source raster graphics editor used for image retouching and editing, free-form drawing, converting between different image formats, and more specialized tasks.
GitHub Inc. is a web-based hosting service for version control using Git.
The GNU Debugger (GDB) is a portable debugger that runs on many Unix-like systems and works for many programming languages, including Ada, C, C++, Objective-C, Free Pascal, Fortran, Go, Java and partially others.
Go (often referred to as Golang) is a programming language created at Google in 2009 by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson.
Godot is a 2D and 3D cross-platform compatible game engine released as open source software under the MIT license.
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.
Google App Engine (often referred to as GAE or simply App Engine) is a web framework and cloud computing platform for developing and hosting web applications in Google-managed data centers.
Gradual typing is a type system in which some variables and expressions may be given types and the correctness of the typing is checked at compile-time (which is static typing) and some expressions may be left untyped and eventual type errors are reported at run-time (which is dynamic typing).
The graphical user interface (GUI), is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.
GTK+ (formerly GIMP Toolkit) is a cross-platform widget toolkit for creating graphical user interfaces.
Guido van Rossum (born 31 January 1956) is a Dutch programmer best known as the author of the Python programming language, for which he is the "Benevolent Dictator For Life" (BDFL), which means he continues to oversee Python development, making decisions when necessary.
The hacker culture is a subculture of individuals who enjoy the intellectual challenge of creatively overcoming limitations of software systems to achieve novel and clever outcomes.
Haskell is a standardized, general-purpose compiled purely functional programming language, with non-strict semantics and strong static typing.
In computing, a here document (here-document, here-text, heredoc, hereis, here-string or here-script) is a file literal or input stream literal: it is a section of a source code file that is treated as if it were a separate file.
In computer science, a high-level programming language is a programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer.
The programming language Python was conceived in the late 1980s, and its implementation was started in December 1989 by Guido van Rossum at CWI in the Netherlands as a successor to ABC capable of exception handling and interfacing with the Amoeba operating system.
Houdini is a 3D animation software developed by Side Effects Software Inc (SESI) based in Toronto.
Hygienic macros are macros whose expansion is guaranteed not to cause the accidental capture of identifiers.
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, and hypermedia information systems.
Icon is a very high-level programming language featuring goal-directed execution and many facilities for managing strings and textual patterns.
IDLE (short for integrated development environment, From: Guido van Rossum, Date: Fri, 8 Jan 1999 17:35:25 GMT or integrated development and learning environment) is an integrated development environment for Python, which has been bundled with the default implementation of the language since 1.5.2b1.
In object-oriented and functional programming, an immutable object (unchangeable object) is an object whose state cannot be modified after it is created.
In computer science, imperative programming is a programming paradigm that uses statements that change a program's state.
Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) is an American motion picture visual effects company that was founded in May 1975 by George Lucas.
Information security, sometimes shortened to InfoSec, is the practice of preventing unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, inspection, recording or destruction of information.
Inkscape is a free and open-source vector graphics editor; it can be used to create or edit vector graphics such as illustrations, diagrams, line arts, charts, logos and complex paintings.
Instagram is a photo and video-sharing social networking service owned by Facebook, Inc. It was created by Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger, and launched in October 2010 exclusively on iOS.
In computer science, an integer is a datum of integral data type, a data type that represents some range of mathematical integers.
An integrated development environment (IDE) is a software application that provides comprehensive facilities to computer programmers for software development.
An interpreted language is a type of programming language for which most of its implementations execute instructions directly and freely, without previously compiling a program into machine-language instructions.
In mathematics, a (real) interval is a set of real numbers with the property that any number that lies between two numbers in the set is also included in the set.
IPython (Interactive Python) is a command shell for interactive computing in multiple programming languages, originally developed for the Python programming language, that offers introspection, rich media, shell syntax, tab completion, and history.
IronPython is an implementation of the Python programming language targeting the.NET Framework and Mono.
ITA Software is a travel industry software division of Google, formerly an independent company, in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
In computer programming, an iterator is an object that enables a programmer to traverse a container, particularly lists.
Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
Java is a set of computer software and specifications developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems, which was later acquired by the Oracle Corporation, that provides a system for developing application software and deploying it in a cross-platform computing environment.
Java bytecode is the instruction set of the Java virtual machine (JVM).
A Java virtual machine (JVM) is a virtual machine that enables a computer to run Java programs as well as programs written in other languages and compiled to Java bytecode.
Julia is a high-level dynamic programming language designed to address the needs of high-performance numerical analysis and computational science, without the typical need of separate compilation to be fast, while also being effective for general-purpose programming, web use or as a specification language.
In computing, just-in-time (JIT) compilation, (also dynamic translation or run-time compilation), is a way of executing computer code that involves compilation during execution of a program – at run time – rather than prior to execution.
Jython is an implementation of the Python programming language designed to run on the Java platform.
In computing, a binding from a programming language to a library or operating system service is an application programming interface (API) providing glue code to use that library or service in a given programming language.
Late binding, or dynamic binding, is a computer programming mechanism in which the method being called upon an object or the function being called with arguments is looked up by name at runtime.
In programming language theory, lazy evaluation, or call-by-need is an evaluation strategy which delays the evaluation of an expression until its value is needed (non-strict evaluation) and which also avoids repeated evaluations (sharing).
LibreOffice is a free and open source office suite, a project of The Document Foundation.
LightWave 3D is a 3D computer graphics software developed by NewTek.
A Linux distribution (often abbreviated as distro) is an operating system made from a software collection, which is based upon the Linux kernel and, often, a package management system.
Lisp (historically, LISP) is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive, fully parenthesized prefix notation.
In computer science, a list or sequence is an abstract data type that represents a countable number of ordered values, where the same value may occur more than once.
A list comprehension is a syntactic construct available in some programming languages for creating a list based on existing lists.
The aim of this list of programming languages is to include all notable programming languages in existence, both those in current use and historical ones, in alphabetical order, except for dialects of BASIC, esoteric programming languages, and markup languages.
This is a list of notable programming languages, grouped by type.
The LLVM compiler infrastructure project is a "collection of modular and reusable compiler and toolchain technologies" used to develop compiler front ends and back ends.
In computer science, a lock or mutex (from mutual exclusion) is a synchronization mechanism for enforcing limits on access to a resource in an environment where there are many threads of execution.
Logic programming is a type of programming paradigm which is largely based on formal logic.
macOS (previously and later) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.
Mathematical software is software used to model, analyze or calculate numeric, symbolic or geometric data.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
Matplotlib is a plotting library for the Python programming language and its numerical mathematics extension NumPy.
In mathematics, matrix multiplication or matrix product is a binary operation that produces a matrix from two matrices with entries in a field, or, more generally, in a ring or even a semiring.
Memory management is a form of resource management applied to computer memory.
Mercurial is a distributed revision-control tool for software developers.
In object-oriented programming, a metaclass is a class whose instances are classes.
In computer science, a metaobject is an object that manipulates, creates, describes, or implements objects (including itself).
Metaprogramming is a programming technique in which computer programs have the ability to treat programs as their data.
A metasyntactic variable is a specific word or set of words identified as a placeholder in computer science and specifically computer programming.
A method in object-oriented programming (OOP) is a procedure associated with a message and an object.
A microcontroller (MCU for microcontroller unit, or UC for μ-controller) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit.
MicroPython is a software implementation of the Python 3 programming language, written in C, that is optimized to run on a microcontroller.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
Microthreads are functions that may run in parallel to gain increased performance in microprocessors.
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) is an Internet standard that extends the format of email to support.
mod_wsgi is an Apache HTTP Server module by Graham Dumpleton that provides a WSGI compliant interface for hosting Python based web applications under Apache.
Modo (stylized as MODO, originally modo) is a polygon and subdivision surface modeling, sculpting, 3D painting, animation and rendering package developed by Luxology, LLC, which is now merged with and known as Foundry.
Modula-3 is a programming language conceived as a successor to an upgraded version of Modula-2 known as Modula-2+.
Modular programming is a software design technique that emphasizes separating the functionality of a programme into independent, interchangeable modules, such that each contains everything necessary to execute only one aspect of the desired functionality.
Monty Python (also collectively known as The Pythons) were a British surreal comedy group who created their sketch comedy show Monty Python's Flying Circus, which first aired on the BBC in 1969.
Monty Python’s Flying Circus (known during the final series as just Monty Python) is a British sketch comedy series created by the comedy group Monty Python and broadcast by the BBC from 1969 to 1974.
Music notation or musical notation is any system used to visually represent aurally perceived music played with instruments or sung by the human voice through the use of written, printed, or otherwise-produced symbols.
In programming languages, name resolution refers to the resolution of the tokens within program expressions to the intended program components.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
Natural language processing (NLP) is an area of computer science and artificial intelligence concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural) languages, in particular how to program computers to process and analyze large amounts of natural language data.
A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.
NetBSD is a free and open source Unix-like operating system that descends from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Research Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Nim (formerly named Nimrod) is an imperative, multi-paradigm, compiled programming language designed and developed by Andreas Rumpf.
Nokia is a Finnish multinational telecommunications, information technology, and consumer electronics company, founded in 1865.
In computer science, a NOP, no-op, or NOOP (pronounced "no op"; short for no operation) is an assembly language instruction, programming language statement, or computer protocol command that does nothing.
Nuitka is a source to source compiler which compiles Python code to C/C++ executables, or C/C++ source code.
NUKE is a node-based digital compositing application developed by The Foundry, and used for television and film post-production.
Numba is an open-source NumPy-aware optimizing compiler for Python sponsored by Anaconda, Inc and a grant from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.
Number theory, or in older usage arithmetic, is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers.
Numerical analysis is the study of algorithms that use numerical approximation (as opposed to general symbolic manipulations) for the problems of mathematical analysis (as distinguished from discrete mathematics).
NumPy (pronounced or sometimes) is a library for the Python programming language, adding support for large, multi-dimensional arrays and matrices, along with a large collection of high-level mathematical functions to operate on these arrays.
O'Reilly Media (formerly O'Reilly & Associates) is an American media company established by Tim O'Reilly that publishes books and Web sites and produces conferences on computer technology topics.
In computer science, an object can be a variable, a data structure, a function, or a method, and as such, is a value in memory referenced by an identifier.
In object-oriented programming, object copying is creating a copy of an existing object, a unit of data in object-oriented programming.
An object language is a language which is the "object" of study in various fields including logic, linguistics, mathematics, and theoretical computer science.
Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects", which may contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods. A feature of objects is that an object's procedures can access and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are associated (objects have a notion of "this" or "self").
Objective-C is a general-purpose, object-oriented programming language that adds Smalltalk-style messaging to the C programming language.
A computer programming language is said to adhere to the off-side rule if blocks in that language are expressed by their indentation.
One Laptop per Child (OLPC) is a non-profit initiative established with the goal of transforming education for children around the world; this goal was to be achieved by creating and distributing educational devices for the developing world, and by creating software and content for those devices.
The open-source model is a decentralized software-development model that encourages open collaboration.
OpenBSD is a free and open-source Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Research Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
Oracle Corporation is an American multinational computer technology corporation, headquartered in Redwood Shores, California.
A package manager or package management system is a collection of software tools that automate the process of installing, upgrading, configuring, and removing computer programs for a computer's operating system in a consistent manner.
PaintShop Pro (PSP) is a raster and vector graphics editor for Microsoft Windows.
Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, which Niklaus Wirth designed in 1968–69 and published in 1970, as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring. It is named in honor of the French mathematician, philosopher and physicist Blaise Pascal. Pascal was developed on the pattern of the ALGOL 60 language. Wirth had already developed several improvements to this language as part of the ALGOL X proposals, but these were not accepted and Pascal was developed separately and released in 1970. A derivative known as Object Pascal designed for object-oriented programming was developed in 1985; this was used by Apple Computer and Borland in the late 1980s and later developed into Delphi on the Microsoft Windows platform. Extensions to the Pascal concepts led to the Pascal-like languages Modula-2 and Oberon.
Perl is a family of two high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages, Perl 5 and Perl 6.
pip is a package management system used to install and manage software packages written in Python.
In computer science, a pointer is a programming language object that stores the memory address of another value located in computer memory.
Portage is a package management system originally created for and used by Gentoo Linux and also by Chrome OS, Sabayon, and Funtoo Linux among others.
In software engineering, porting is the process of adapting software for the purpose of achieving some form of execution in a computing environment that is different from the one that a given program (meant for such execution) was originally designed for (e.g. different CPU, operating system, or third party library).
Prettyprint (or pretty-print) is the application of any of various stylistic formatting conventions to text files, such as source code, markup, and similar kinds of content.
Printf format string refers to a control parameter used by a class of functions in the input/output libraries of C and many other programming languages.
Procedural programming is a programming paradigm, derived from structured programming, based upon the concept of the procedure call.
In computer science, program optimization or software optimization is the process of modifying a software system to make some aspect of it work more efficiently or use fewer resources.
A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.
Programming paradigms are a way to classify programming languages based on their features.
A pseudorandom number generator (PRNG), also known as a deterministic random bit generator (DRBG), is an algorithm for generating a sequence of numbers whose properties approximate the properties of sequences of random numbers.
Psyco is a specializing just-in-time compiler for Python originally developed by Armin Rigo and further maintained and developed by Christian Tismer.
Pygame is a cross-platform set of Python modules designed for writing video games.
PyGTK is a set of Python wrappers for the GTK+ graphical user interface library.
Pyjs (formerly Pyjamas before May 2012), is a rich Internet application framework for developing client-side web and desktop applications in Python.
PyLadies is an international mentorship group which focuses on helping more women become active participants in the Python open-source community.
Pylons Project is an open source organization that develops a set of web application technologies written in Python.
PyPy is an alternative implementation of the Python programming language which often runs faster than the standard implementation of Python, CPython.
PyQt is a Python binding of the cross-platform GUI toolkit Qt, implemented as a Python plug-in.
Pyrex is a programming language developed to aid in creating Python modules.
Python is an interpreted high-level programming language for general-purpose programming.
The Python Conference (PyCon) is an annual convention for the discussion and promotion of the Python programming language.
The Python for S60 also called PyS60 (Unix name), was Nokia’s port of the general Python programming language to its S60 software platform, originally based on Python 2.2.2 from 2002.
The Python Package Index, abbreviated as PyPI and also known as the Cheese Shop (a reference to the Monty Python's Flying Circus sketch Cheese Shop), is the official third-party software repository for Python.
The Python Software Foundation (PSF) is a nonprofit organization devoted to the Python programming language, launched on March 6, 2001.
The Python Software Foundation License (PSFL) is a BSD-style, permissive free software license which is compatible with the GNU General Public License (GPL).
PythonAnywhere is an online integrated development environment (IDE) and web hosting service based on the Python programming language.
Qt ("cute") is a cross-platform application framework and widget toolkit for creating classic and embedded graphical user interfaces, and applications that run on various software and hardware platforms with little or no change in the underlying codebase, while still being a native application with native capabilities and speed.
The Raspberry Pi is a series of small single-board computers developed in the United Kingdom by the Raspberry Pi Foundation to promote the teaching of basic computer science in schools and in developing countries.
A Read–Eval–Print Loop (REPL), also known as an interactive toplevel or language shell, is a simple, interactive computer programming environment that takes single user inputs (i.e. single expressions), evaluates them, and returns the result to the user; a program written in a REPL environment is executed piecewise.
Red Hat Linux, assembled by the company Red Hat, was a widely used Linux distribution until its discontinuation in 2004.
Reddit (stylized in its logo as reddit) is an American social news aggregation, web content rating, and discussion website.
In computer science, reference counting is a technique of storing the number of references, pointers, or handles to a resource such as an object, block of memory, disk space or other resource.
In the software development process, a reference implementation (or, less frequently, sample implementation or model implementation) is the standard from which all other implementations and corresponding customizations are derived.
In computer science, reflection is the ability of a computer program to examine, introspect, and modify its own structure and behavior at runtime.
A regular expression, regex or regexp (sometimes called a rational expression) is, in theoretical computer science and formal language theory, a sequence of characters that define a search pattern.
A relational database is a digital database based on the relational model of data, as proposed by E. F. Codd in 1970.
Resource acquisition is initialization (RAII)Bjarne Stroustrup Accessed on 2013-01-02.
Ring is a dynamic and general-purpose programming language.
Rounding a numerical value means replacing it by another value that is approximately equal but has a shorter, simpler, or more explicit representation; for example, replacing $ with $, or the fraction 312/937 with 1/3, or the expression with.
Roundup is an open-source issue or bug tracking system featuring a command-line, web and e-mail interface.
Ruby is a dynamic, interpreted, reflective, object-oriented, general-purpose programming language.
In computer science, run-time algorithm specialization is a methodology for creating efficient algorithms for costly computation tasks of certain kinds.
The S60 Platform (formerly Series 60 User Interface) was a software platform for smartphones that runs on the Symbian operating system.
SageMath (previously Sage or SAGE, "System for Algebra and Geometry Experimentation") is a computer algebra system with features covering many aspects of mathematics, including algebra, combinatorics, graph theory, numerical analysis, number theory, calculus and statistics.
Scheme is a programming language that supports multiple paradigms, including functional programming and imperative programming, and is one of the two main dialects of Lisp.
SciPy (pronounced /ˈsaɪpaɪ'/ "Sigh Pie") is a free and open-source Python library used for scientific computing and technical computing.
A scorewriter, or music notation program is software used with a computer for creating, editing and printing sheet music.
Scribus is a desktop publishing (DTP) application, released under the GNU General Public License as free software.
A scripting or script language is a programming language that supports scripts: programs written for a special run-time environment that automate the execution of tasks that could alternatively be executed one-by-one by a human operator.
Self-hosting is the use of a computer program as part of the toolchain or operating system that produces new versions of that same program—for example, a that can compile its own source code.
In computer science, a set is an abstract data type that can store unique values, without any particular order.
SETL (SET Language) is a very high-level programming language based on the mathematical theory of sets.
Shed Skin is a Python to C++ programming language compiler.
Simple DirectMedia Layer (SDL) is a cross-platform software development library designed to provide a hardware abstraction layer for computer multimedia hardware components.
A single-board computer (SBC) is a complete computer built on a single circuit board, with microprocessor(s), memory, input/output (I/O) and other features required of a functional computer.
A software release life cycle is the sum of the stages of development and maturity for a piece of computer software: ranging from its initial development to its eventual release, and including updated versions of the released version to help improve software or fix software bugs still present in the software.
A source-to-source compiler, transcompiler or transpiler is a type of compiler that takes the source code of a program written in one programming language as its input and produces the equivalent source code in another programming language.
“Spam” is a Monty Python sketch, first televised in 1970 and written by Terry Jones and Michael Palin.
Spotify Technology SA is a Swedish entertainment company founded by Daniel Ek and Martin Lorentzon.
SQLAlchemy is an open source SQL toolkit and object-relational mapper (ORM) for the Python programming language released under the MIT License.
Stack Overflow is a privately held website, the flagship site of the Stack Exchange Network, created in 2008 by Jeff Atwood and Joel Spolsky.
Stackless Python, or Stackless, is a Python programming language interpreter, so named because it avoids depending on the C call stack for its own stack.
A standard library in computer programming is the library made available across implementations of a programming language.
Standard ML (SML; "Standard Meta Language") is a general-purpose, modular, functional programming language with compile-time type checking and type inference.
In computer programming, a statement is a syntactic unit of an imperative programming language that expresses some action to be carried out.
In computer programming, a string is traditionally a sequence of characters, either as a literal constant or as some kind of variable.
In computer programming, string interpolation (or variable interpolation, variable substitution, or variable expansion) is the process of evaluating a string literal containing one or more placeholders, yielding a result in which the placeholders are replaced with their corresponding values.
A string literal or anonymous string is a type of literal in programming for the representation of a string value within the source code of a computer program.
In computer programming, programming languages are often colloquially classified as to whether the language's type system makes it strongly typed or weakly typed (loosely typed).
Structured programming is a programming paradigm aimed at improving the clarity, quality, and development time of a computer program by making extensive use of the structured control flow constructs of selection (if/then/else) and repetition (while and for), block structures, and subroutines in contrast to using simple tests and jumps such as the go to statement, which can lead to "spaghetti code" that is potentially difficult to follow and maintain.
In computer programming, a subroutine is a sequence of program instructions that performs a specific task, packaged as a unit.
Sugar is a free and open-source desktop environment designed for interactive learning by children.
Sugar Labs is a community-run software project whose mission is to produce, distribute, and support the use of Sugar, an open source desktop environment and learning platform.
Swift is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm, compiled programming language developed by Apple Inc. for iOS, macOS, watchOS, tvOS, and Linux.
Symbian is a discontinued mobile operating system (OS) and computing platform designed for smartphones.
In computer science, syntactic sugar is syntax within a programming language that is designed to make things easier to read or to express.
Syntax highlighting is a feature of text editors that are used for programming, scripting, or markup languages, such as HTML.
In computer science, a tail call is a subroutine call performed as the final action of a procedure.
Tcl (pronounced "tickle" or tee cee ell) is a high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming language.
The Document Foundation (TDF) is a non-profit organization that promotes open-source document handling software.
There's more than one way to do it (TMTOWTDI or TIMTOWTDI, pronounced Tim Toady) is a Perl programming motto.
this, self, and Me are keywords used in some computer programming languages to refer to the object, class, or other entity of which the currently running code is a part.
TIOBE programming community index is a measure of popularity of programming languages, created and maintained by the TIOBE Company based in Eindhoven, the Netherlands.
Tornado is a scalable, non-blocking web server and web application framework written in Python.
In mathematics, a tuple is a finite ordered list (sequence) of elements.
TurboGears is a Python web application framework consisting of several WSGI components such as WebOb, SQLAlchemy, Genshi and Repoze.
Twisted is an event-driven network programming framework written in Python and licensed under the MIT License.
In programming languages, a type system is a set of rules that assigns a property called type to the various constructs of a computer program, such as variables, expressions, functions or modules.
Ubiquity is the default installer for Ubuntu and its derivatives.
Ubuntu (stylized as ubuntu) is a free and open source operating system and Linux distribution based on Debian.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
In computer programming, unit testing is a software testing method by which individual units of source code, sets of one or more computer program modules together with associated control data, usage procedures, and operating procedures, are tested to determine whether they are fit for use.
Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.
A Unix shell is a command-line interpreter or shell that provides a traditional Unix-like command line user interface.
A Unix-like (sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification.
In computer programming, a variable or scalar is a storage location (identified by a memory address) paired with an associated symbolic name (an identifier), which contains some known or unknown quantity of information referred to as a value.
In computing, a virtual machine (VM) is an emulation of a computer system.
In computing, a web application or web app is a client–server computer program which the client (including the user interface and client-side logic) runs in a web browser.
A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web.
A web framework (WF) or web application framework (WAF) is a software framework that is designed to support the development of web applications including web services, web resources, and web APIs.
The Web Server Gateway Interface (WSGI) is a simple calling convention for web servers to forward requests to web applications or frameworks written in the Python programming language.
Web2py is an open source web application framework written in the Python programming language.
In computer programming, white space is any character or series of characters that represent horizontal or vertical space in typography.
Wikipedia is a multilingual, web-based, free encyclopedia that is based on a model of openly editable content.
Yahoo! is a web services provider headquartered in Sunnyvale, California and wholly owned by Verizon Communications through Oath Inc..
is a Japanese computer scientist and software programmer best known as the chief designer of the Ruby programming language and its reference implementation, Matz's Ruby Interpreter (MRI).
The Zen of Python is a collection of 20 software principles that influences the design of Python Programming Language,—only 19 of which were written down—around June 1999 by Tim Peters.
Zero-based numbering or index origin.
Zope is a family of free and open-source web application servers written in Python, and their associated online community.
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