227 relations: Abbas I of Persia, Abdol Hossein Sardari, Abdol-Hossein Farmanfarma, Abdolhossein Teymourtash, Absolute monarchy, Afsharid dynasty, Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar, Agha Petros, Ahmad Shah Qajar, Aleksander Reza Qoli Mirza Qajar, Aleksey Petrovich Yermolov, Ali Amini, Ali Mirza Qajar, Amanullah Jahanbani, Amanullah Mirza Qajar, Amir Kabir, Amir-Abbas Hoveyda, Anglo-Persian War, Anglo-Russian Convention, Arakel of Tabriz, Aras (river), Ardeshir Zahedi, Armenia, Armenian Genocide, Armenians, Armistice of Mudros, Arran (Caucasus), Assyrian genocide, Assyrian people, Austro-Hungarian military mission in Persia, Ayrums, Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan (Iran), Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, Azerbaijani language, Azerbaijanis, Bahmani family, Baku, Battle of Ganja (1804), Battle of Ganja (1826), Battle of Krtsanisi, Battle of Sultanabad, Black Sea, Bukhara, Cambridge University Press, Caspian Sea, Catherine the Great, Caucasian Albania, Caucasian War, Caucasus, ..., Christian, Circassian genocide, Circassians, Colonialism, Columbia University Press, Constitutional monarchy, Crimean War, Dagestan, Dar ul-Funun (Persia), David Marshall Lang, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Eastern Armenia, Encyclopædia Iranica, Erivan Khanate, Fakhr-ol-dowleh, Fars Province, Fath-Ali Khan Qajar, Fath-Ali Shah Qajar, Fereydoun Mirza Qajar, Feyzullah Mirza Qajar, Firouz Nosrat-ed-Dowleh III, France, Franz Roubaud, Ganja Khanate, Ganja, Azerbaijan, Georgia (country), Georgia within the Russian Empire, Georgians, Georgiyevsk, Gholam-Hossein Banan, Gilan Province, Gorgan, Great Britain, H. F. B. Lynch, Hamid Mirza, Heraclius II of Georgia, Herat, Hermitage Museum, History of Iran, History of the Caucasus, Hossein Khan Sardar, Imperial Russian Army, Indiana University Press, International Institute of Social History, International Museum for Family History, Iraj Eskandari, Iraj Mirza, Iran, Iran Teymourtash, Iran–Russia relations, Iranian Armenia (1502–1828), Iranian Constitutional Revolution, Iranian qiran, Isfahan, Islamic Consultative Assembly, Ivan Gudovich, John Malcolm, John Murray (publisher), Karabakh, Karabakh Khanate, Karim Khan Zand, Kashan, Kerman, Khanates of the Caucasus, Khorasan Province, Kingdom of Imereti, Kingdom of Kakheti, Kingdom of Kartli, Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti, Kura (Caspian Sea), Kurds, Laks (Caucasus), Lezgins, List of monarchs of Persia, List of Prime Ministers of Iran, List of Russian rulers, List of Shia Islamic dynasties, Lobat Vala, London, Lotf Ali Khan, Mahmoud Mirza, Maryam Farman Farmaian, Mashhad, Mazandaran Province, Michael Axworthy, Military of the Ottoman Empire, Mirza Kuchik Khan, Mirza Nasrullah Khan, Mirza Reza Kermani, Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar, Mohammad Hasan Khan Qajar, Mohammad Hassan Mirza, Mohammad Hassan Mirza II, Mohammad Mosaddegh, Mohammad Shah Qajar, Mohtaram Eskandari, Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar, Mugan plain, Nader Jahanbani, Nader Shah, Name of Iran, Naqadeh, Naser al-Din Shah Qajar, Oghuz Turks, Ottoman Empire, Parviz Kambin, Paul I of Russia, Persian Cossack Brigade, Persian Expedition of 1796, Persian Gulf, Persian language, Persian people, Peter the Great, Prime Minister of Iran, Protectorate, Qajar art, Qajars (tribe), Qarapapaqs, Qizilbash, Rasht, Rey, Iran, Reza Shah, Ronald Grigor Suny, Russian Caucasus Army (World War I), Russian Empire, Russian Revolution, Russo-Persian War (1804–13), Russo-Persian War (1826–1828), Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774), Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878), Sabar Mirza Farman Farmaian, Sadegh Hedayat, Safavid dynasty, Salām-e Shāh, Samarkand, Sanremo, Sarah Shahi, Sattareh Farmanfarmaian, Shah, Shahrnush Parsipur, Shahverdi Sultan, Shaki, Azerbaijan, Shiraz, Shirvan, Shusha, Siege, Solomon II of Imereti, Storming of Lankaran, Sultan Husayn, Tabriz, Tahmasp II, Talysh people, Tbilisi, Tehran, Teimuraz II of Kakheti, The Cambridge History of Iran, Timur, Touraj Atabaki, Transcaucasia, Treaty of Akhal, Treaty of Georgievsk, Treaty of Gulistan, Treaty of Paris (1857), Treaty of Turkmenchay, Tudeh Party of Iran, Turkic peoples, Turkmenistan, Ultimatum, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Uzbekistan, Valerian Zubov, Vali (governor), West Azerbaijan Province, William Morgan Shuster, World War I, Zand dynasty, 1921 Persian coup d'état. Expand index (177 more) » « Shrink index
Shāh Abbās the Great or Shāh Abbās I of Persia (شاه عباس بزرگ; 27 January 157119 January 1629) was the 5th Safavid Shah (king) of Iran, and is generally considered the strongest ruler of the Safavid dynasty.
Abdol Hossein Sardari (عبدالحسین سرداری; 1914 in Tehran – 1981 in Nottingham) was an Iranian diplomat of Iranian Azerbaijani ancestry He is known as the "Schindler of Iran" and was the uncle of Amir Abbas and Fereydoun Hoveyda.
Prince Abdol-Hossein Farman Farma (1857–1939) was one of the most prominent Qajar princes, and one of the most influential politicians of his time in Persia.
Abdolhossein Teymūrtāsh (عبدالحسین تیمورتاش; 1883–1933) was an influential Iranian statesman who served as the first Minister of Court of the Pahlavi Dynasty from 1925 to 1932, and is credited with playing a crucial role in laying the foundations of modern Iran in the 20th century.
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
The Afsharid dynasty (افشاریان) were members of an Iranian dynasty that originated from the Turkic Afshar tribe in Iran's north-eastern province of Khorasan, ruling Persia in the mid-eighteenth century.
Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar (translit; 14 March 1742 – 17 June 1797), also known by his regnal name of Agha Mohammad Shah (آقا محمد شاه), was the founder of the Qajar dynasty of Iran, ruling from 1789 to 1797 as king (shah).
Petros Elia of Baz (ܐܝܠܝܐ ܦܹܛܪܘܼܣ) (April 1880 – 2 February 1932), better known as Agha Petros, was an Assyrian military leader during World War I.
Ahmad Shāh Qājār (احمد شاه قاجار; 21 January 1898 – 21 February 1930) was Shah of Persia (Iran) from 16 July 1909 to 15 December 1925, and the last ruling member of the Qajar dynasty.
Aleksander Petrovich Reza Qoli Mirza Qajar (Александр Петрович Риза-Кули Мирза Каджар; الکساندر پتروویچ رضا قلی میرزا قاجار; May 25, 1869 -?) - was a prince of Persia's Qajar dynasty, an Imperial Russian military leader and the commander of Yekaterinburg (1918), having the rank of Colonel (Polkovnik).
Aleksey Petrovich Yermolov (p; &ndash) was a Russian Imperial general of the 19th century who commanded Russian troops in the Caucasian War.
Ali Amini (12 September 1905 – 12 December 1992) was an Iranian politician and writer who was the Prime Minister of Iran from 6 May 1961 to 19 July 1962.
Prince Soltan Ali Mirza Kadjar (Qajar) (November 16, 1929 – May 27, 2011) was an Iranian Prince of Qajar Dynasty and the son of Soltan Majid Mirza Qajar (1907–1975) and Homadokht Kian (Shayesteh Khanoum) (1912–1992) and the grandson of Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar.
Lieutenant-General Amanollah Jahanbani (سپهبد امانالله جهانبانى; 1895 – February 1, 1974) was a member of the Qajar dynasty Royal Ark Retrieved 25 November 2013 and a senior general of Reza Shah Pahlavi.
Amanullah Mirza Qajar (Аманулла Мирза Каджар; امان الله میرزا قاجار; b. 1857 - d. 1937), was a prince of Persia's Qajar dynasty and an Imperial Russian and Azerbaijani military commander, having the rank of Major General.
Mirza Taghi Khan Farahani (میرزا تقیخان فراهانی) known as Amir Kabir (امیرکبیر) (1807 – 10 January 1852), also known by the titles of Atabak and Amir-e Nezam; chief minister to Naser al-Din Shah Qajar (Shah of Persia) for the first three years of his reign and one of the most capable and innovative figures to appear in the whole Qajar period.
Amir-Abbas Hoveyda (Amīr `Abbās Hoveyda; 18 February 1919 – 7 April 1979) was an Iranian economist and politician who served as Prime Minister of Iran from 27 January 1965 to 7 August 1977.
The Anglo–Persian War lasted between November 1, 1856 and April 4, 1857, and was fought between Great Britain and Persia (which was at the time ruled by the Qajar dynasty).
The Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907 or the Convention between the United Kingdom and Russia relating to Persia, Afghanistan, and Tibet.
Arakel Davrizhetsi or Arakel of Tabriz - Առաքել Դավրիժեցի (1590s, Tabriz - 1670, Echmiadzin) was a 17th-century Armenian historian, born in Tabriz, in the Azerbaijan province of Safavid Iran.
The Aras or Araxes is a river flowing through Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran.
Ardeshir Zahedi, GCVO (اردشیر زاهدی; born 16 October 1928) is a former Iranian diplomat who served as the country's foreign minister (1966-1971) and its ambassador to the United States and the United Kingdom during the 1960s and 1970s.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Armenian Genocide (Հայոց ցեղասպանություն, Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
The Armistice of Mudros (Mondros Mütarekesi), concluded on 30 October 1918, ended the hostilities, at noon the next day, in the Middle Eastern theatre between the Ottoman Empire and the Allies of World War I. It was signed by the Ottoman Minister of Marine Affairs Rauf Bey and the British Admiral Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe, on board HMS ''Agamemnon'' in Moudros harbor on the Greek island of Lemnos.
Arran (Middle Persian form), also known as Aran, Ardhan (in Parthian), Al-Ran (in Arabic), Aghvank and Alvank (in Armenian), (რანი-Ran-i) or Caucasian Albania (in Latin), was a geographical name used in ancient and medieval times to signify the territory which lies within the triangle of land, lowland in the east and mountainous in the west, formed by the junction of Kura and Aras rivers, including the highland and lowland Karabakh, Mil plain and parts of the Mughan plain, and in the pre-Islamic times, corresponded roughly to the territory of modern-day Republic of Azerbaijan.
The Assyrian genocide (also known as Sayfo or Seyfo, "Sword"; ܩܛܠܥܡܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ or ܣܝܦܐ) refers to the mass slaughter of the Assyrian population of the Ottoman Empire and those in neighbouring Persia by Ottoman troops during the First World War, in conjunction with the Armenian and Greek genocides.
Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), or Syriacs (see terms for Syriac Christians), are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East.
The Austro-Hungarian military mission in Persia was the development of a military organization in Qajar Persia in 1879 by Austria-Hungary, which is considered as part of efforts to reform the Persian army under Naser al-Din Shah and set up a standing army in Persia.
Ayrums (Azerbaijani: Ayrımlar, in Persian often as Āyromlū) are a Turkic tribe, historically associated with the area nearby the city of Gyumri (in present-day Armenia).
Azerbaijan or Azarbaijan (آذربایجان Āzarbāijān; آذربایجان Azərbaycan), also known as Iranian Azerbaijan, is a historical region in northwestern Iran that borders Iraq, Turkey, the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan.
The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR; Azərbaycan Demokratik Respublikası), also known as Azerbaijan People's Republic (Azərbaycan Xalq Cümhuriyyəti) or Caucasus Azerbaijan in diplomatic documents, was the third democratic republic in the Turkic world and Muslim world, after the Crimean People's Republic and Idel-Ural Republic.
Azerbaijani or Azeri, also referred to as Azeri Turkic or Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijanis, who are concentrated mainly in Transcaucasia and Iranian Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan).
Azerbaijanis or Azeris (Azərbaycanlılar آذربایجانلیلار, Azərilər آذریلر), also known as Azerbaijani Turks (Azərbaycan türkləri آذربایجان تورکلری), are a Turkic ethnic group living mainly in the Iranian region of Azerbaijan and the sovereign (former Soviet) Republic of Azerbaijan.
The Bahmani family, also Bahmani-Qajar is an aristocratic Persian family belonging to one of the princely families of the Qajar dynasty, the ruling house that reigned Iran 1785–1925.
Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.
The siege of Ganja and storming its citadel (Gəncə qalasının işğalı,گنجه قلعهسینین ایشغالی اشغال قلعه گنجه) was the result of a Russian offensive in the South Caucasus intended to conquer the Ganja Khanate, which contributed to the escalation of the Russo-Persian War (1804–1813).
The Battle of Ganja took place on 26 September 1826, during the Russo-Persian War of 1826-1828.
The Battle of Krtsanisi (კრწანისის ბრძოლა, k'rts'anisis brdzola) was fought between the Qajars of Iran and the Georgian armies of the Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti and Kingdom of Imereti at the place of Krtsanisi near Tbilisi, Georgia, from September 8 to September 11, 1795, as part of Qajar Emperor Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar's war in response to King Heraclius II of Georgia’s alliance with the Russian Empire.
The Battle of Sultanabad occurred on February 13, 1812, between the Russian Empire and Persian Empire.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Bukhara (Uzbek Latin: Buxoro; Uzbek Cyrillic: Бухоро) is a city in Uzbekistan.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; –), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.
Albania, usually referred to as Caucasian Albania for disambiguation with the modern state of Albania (the endonym is unknownRobert H. Hewsen. "Ethno-History and the Armenian Influence upon the Caucasian Albanians", in: Samuelian, Thomas J. (Ed.), Classical Armenian Culture. Influences and Creativity. Chicago: 1982, pp. 27-40.Bosworth, Clifford E.. Encyclopædia Iranica.), is a name for the historical region of the eastern Caucasus, that existed on the territory of present-day republic of Azerbaijan (where both of its capitals were located) and partially southern Dagestan.
The Caucasian War (Кавказская война; Kavkazskaya vojna) of 1817–1864 was an invasion of the Caucasus by the Russian Empire which resulted in Russia's annexation of the areas of the North Caucasus, and the ethnic cleansing of Circassians.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
The Circassian genocide was the Russian Empire's ethnic cleansing, killing, forced migration, and expulsion of the majority of the Circassians from their historical homeland Circassia, which roughly encompassed the major part of the North Caucasus and the northeast shore of the Black Sea.
The Circassians (Черкесы Čerkesy), also known by their endonym Adyghe (Circassian: Адыгэхэр Adygekher, Ады́ги Adýgi), are a Northwest Caucasian nation native to Circassia, many of whom were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century, especially after the Russian–Circassian War in 1864.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
The Republic of Dagestan (Респу́блика Дагеста́н), or simply Dagestan (or; Дагеста́н), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia, located in the North Caucasus region.
Dar ul-Funun (دارالفنون, meaning "Polytechnic"), established in 1851, was the first modern university and modern institution of higher learning in Iran (Persia).
David Marshall Lang (6 May 1924 – 20 March 1991), was a Professor of Caucasian Studies, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
Eastern Armenia (Արևելյան Հայաստան Arevelyan Hayastan) is a term used by Armenians to refer to the eastern parts of the Armenian Highlands, the traditional homeland of the Armenian people.
Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.
The Erivan Khanate (خانات ایروان – Xānāt-e Iravān; Երևանի խանություն – Yerevani khanut’yun; İrəvan xanlığı – ایروان خانلیغی), also known as Chokhur-e Sa'd, was a khanate (i.e. province) that was established in Afsharid Iran in the eighteenth century.
Iranian Princess Ashraf, titled Fakhr-ol-Dowleh (1883–1955), meaning pride of the state, was one of the most prominent daughters of Mozaffar al-Din Shah Qajar of the Qajar dynasty, who had a reputably strong character, to the point that she was even willing and able to confront Reza Shah for her patrimony and right.
Pars Province (استان پارس, Ostān-e Pārs) also known as Fars (Persian: فارس) or Persia in the Greek sources in historical context, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran and known as the cultural capital of the country.
Fath-Ali Khan Qajar (1686–1726), was the Qajar chieftain of the Ashaqa-bash branch.
Fath-Ali Shah Qajar (فتحعلى شاه قاجار; var. Fathalishah, Fathali Shah, Fath Ali Shah; 25 September 1772 – 23 October 1834) was the second Shah (Qajar emperor) of Iran.
Shahzada Freydoun Mirza Qajar (فریدون میرزا قاجار; 22 January 1922 – 24 September 1975) was a member of the Qajar dynasty.
Feyzullah Mirza Qajar (Фейзулла Мирза Каджар; فیض الله میرزا قاجار; Feyzulla Mirzə Qacar) also Fazullah-Mirza Qajar (Фазулла-Мирза-Каджар; فضل الله میرزا قاجار) (b. December 15, 1872 - d. 1920) - was a prince of Persia's Qajar dynasty and an Imperial Russian and Azerbaijani military commander, having the rank of Major-General.
Prince Firouz Nosrat-ed-Dowleh III, (c. 1889 – April 1937) GCMG (1919) was the eldest son of Prince Abdol-Hossein Farmanfarma and Princess Ezzat-ed-Dowleh Qajar.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Franz Alekseyevich Roubaud (Франц Алексеевич Рубо) was a Russian painter who created some of the largest and best known panoramic paintings.
The Ganja Khanate (خانات گنجه — Khānāt-e Ganjeh, Gəncə xanlığı, Ҝәнҹә ханлығы, گنجه خنليغى) was a semi-independent Caucasian khanate that was established in Afsharid Iran and existed in the territory of what is modern-day Azerbaijan between 1747-1805.
Ganja (Gəncə) is Azerbaijan's second largest city, with a population of around 331,400.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The country of Georgia became part of the Russian Empire in the 19th century.
The Georgians or Kartvelians (tr) are a nation and Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia.
Georgiyevsk (Гео́ргиевск) is a historical town in Stavropol Krai, Russia, located in the North Caucasus on submontane tableland on the right bank of the Podkumok River (a tributary of the Kuma River), southeast of Stavropol.
Gholām-Hossein Banān (غلامحسين بنان; May 5, 1911 in Tehran – February 27, 1986 in Gholhak, Tehran) was an Iranian musician and singer.
Gilan Province (اُستان گیلان, Ostān-e Gīlān, also Latinized as Guilan) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Gorgan (گرگان; formerly Astrabad or Astarabad (استرآباد)) is the capital city of Golestan Province, Iran.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
Henry Finnis Blosse Lynch, MA, FRGS (18 April 1862 – 24 November 1913) was a British traveller, businessman, and Liberal Member of Parliament.
Prince Sultan Hamid Mirza Qajar (23 April 1918 – 5 May 1988) was the head and heir presumptive of the Qajar dynasty, the former ruling dynasty of Iran, and the son of the last Qajar Crown Prince of Iran.
Heraclius II (ერეკლე II), also known as Erekle II and The Little Kakhetian (პატარა კახი) (7 November 1720 or 7 October 1721 – 11 January 1798), was a Georgian monarch of the Bagrationi dynasty, reigning as the king of Kakheti from 1744 to 1762, and of Kartli and Kakheti from 1762 until 1798.
Herat (هرات,Harât,Herât; هرات; Ἀλεξάνδρεια ἡ ἐν Ἀρίοις, Alexándreia hē en Aríois; Alexandria Ariorum) is the third-largest city of Afghanistan.
The State Hermitage Museum (p) is a museum of art and culture in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
The history of Iran, commonly also known as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.
The history of the Caucasus region may be divided into the history of the Northern Caucasus (Ciscaucasia), historically in the sphere of influence of Scythia and of Southern Russia (Eastern Europe), and that of the Southern Caucasus (Transcaucasia; Caucasian Albania, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan) in the sphere of influence of Persia, Anatolia and for a very brief time Assyria.
Hossein Qoli Khan Sardar Qajar (حسین قلی خان سردار قاجار), better simply known as Hossein Khan Sardar (حسین خان سردار) was an Iranian statesman in Qajar Iran, who was the last governor of the Erivan Khanate from 1807 to 1828.
The Imperial Russian Army (Ру́сская импера́торская а́рмия) was the land armed force of the Russian Empire, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917.
Indiana University Press, also known as IU Press, is an academic publisher founded in 1950 at Indiana University that specializes in the humanities and social sciences.
The International Institute of Social History (IISG) is one of the largest archives for labour, left and social history in the world.
The Internationaal Museum voor Familiegeschiedenis (known in English as the International Museum for Family History, or in short "The Family Museum") is a museum located in the former Ursuline convent in Eijsden, Netherlands.
Iraj Eskandari (ایرج اسکندری; 1907–1985) was an Iranian communist politician.
Prince Iraj Mirza (ایرج میرزا, literally Prince Iraj; October 1874 – 14 March 1926) (titled Jalāl-ol-Mamālek, جلالالممالک), son of prince Gholam-Hossein Mirza, was a famous Iranian poet.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iran Teymourtāsh (ایران تیمورتاش; 1914–1991), the eldest daughter of Abdolhossein Teymourtāsh, is considered a pioneer among women activists in 20th-century Iran.
Relations between the Grand Duchy of Moscow and the Persian Empire (Iran), officially commenced in 1521, with the Safavids in power.
Iranian Armenia (1502–1828) refers to the period of Eastern Armenia during the early-modern and late-modern era when it was part of the various Iranian empires, up to 1828.
The Persian Constitutional Revolution (مشروطیت Mashrūtiyyat, or انقلاب مشروطه Enghelāb-e Mashrūteh), also known as the Constitutional Revolution of Iran, took place between 1905 and 1911.
The qiran (قران), also qerun or kran, was a currency of Iran between 1825 and 1932.
Isfahan (Esfahān), historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan, Esfahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about south of Tehran.
The Islamic Consultative Assembly (Majles-e Showrā-ye Eslāmī), also called the Iranian Parliament, the Iranian Majlis (or Majles, مجلس), is the national legislative body of Iran.
Count Ivan Vasilyevich Gudovich (Russian: Иван Васильевич Гудович; 1741–1820) was a Russian noble and military leader of Ukrainian descent.
Major-general Sir John Malcolm GCB, KLS (2 May 1769 – 30 May 1833) was a Scottish soldier, diplomat, East India Company administrator, statesman, and historian.
John Murray is a British publisher, known for the authors it has published in its history, including Jane Austen, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Lord Byron, Charles Lyell, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Herman Melville, Edward Whymper, and Charles Darwin.
Karabakh (Ղարաբաղ Gharabagh; Qarabağ) is a geographic region in present-day eastern Armenia and southwestern Azerbaijan, extending from the highlands of the Lesser Caucasus down to the lowlands between the rivers Kura and Aras.
The Karabakh Khanate (خانات قرهباغ – Xānāt e Qarebāq, Qarabağ xanlığı) was a semi-independent Turkic khanate on the territories of modern-day Armenia and Azerbaijan established in about 1748 under Iranian suzerainty in Karabakh and adjacent areas.
Mohammad Karim Khan Zand (Mohammad Karīm Khān-e Zand), better known as Karim Khan Zand (کریم خان زند), was the founder of the Zand Dynasty and the Shah of Iran, ruling from 1751 to 1779.
Kashan (کاشان, also Romanized as: Kāshān) is a city in Isfahan province, Iran.
Kerman (كرمان, also Romanized as Kermān, Kermun, and Kirman; also known as Carmania) is the capital city of Kerman Province, Iran.
The Khanates of the Caucasus, or Azerbaijani khanates or Persian khanates, or Iranian khanates, were various provinces and principalities established by Persia (Iran) on their territories in the Caucasus (modern-day Azerbaijan Republic, Armenia, Georgia and Dagestan) from the late Safavid to the Qajar dynasty.
Khorasan (استان خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan, also called Traxiane during Hellenistic and Parthian times) was a province in north eastern Iran, but historically referred to a much larger area east and north-east of the Persian Empire.
The Kingdom of Imereti (იმერეთის სამეფო) was a Georgian monarchy established in 1455 by a member of the house of Bagrationi when the Kingdom of Georgia was dissolved into rival kingdoms.
The Second Kingdom of Kakheti (კახეთის სამეფო, k'axetis samepo; also spelled Kaxet'i or Kakhetia) was a late medieval/early modern monarchy in eastern Georgia, centered at the province of Kakheti, with its capital first at Gremi and then at Telavi.
The Kingdom of Kartli (ქართლის სამეფო) was a feudal Georgian state that existed from 1466/84 to 1762, with the city of Tbilisi as its capital.
The Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti (ქართლ-კახეთის სამეფო) (1762–1801) was created in 1762 by the unification of two eastern Georgian kingdoms of Kartli and Kakheti.
The Kura (Kura; Kür; მტკვარი, Mt’k’vari; Կուր, Kur; Κῦρος, Cyrus; کوروش, Kuruš) is an east-flowing river south of the Greater Caucasus Mountains which drains the southern slopes of the Greater Caucasus east into the Caspian Sea.
The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).
The Laks or Laki (self-designation: Lak) are an Northeast Caucasian ethnic group native to an inland region known as Lakia within Dagestan in the North Caucasus.
Lezgins (лезгияр, lezgiyar, Russian: лезгины, lezginy; Azerbaijani: "Ləzgilər"; also called Lezgins, Lezgi, Lezgis, Lezgs, Lezgin) are a Northeast Caucasian ethnic group native predominantly to southern Dagestan and northeastern Azerbaijan and who speak the Lezgian language.
This article lists the monarchs of Persia, who ruled over the area of modern-day Iran from the establishment of the Achaemenid dynasty by Achaemenes around 705 BCE until the deposition of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1979.
This is a list of Prime Ministers of Iran from the creation of the office in 1906 during the Persian Constitutional Revolution, until 1989 when the post was abolished after the constitutional referendum.
This is a list of all reigning monarchs in the history of Russia.
The following is a list of Shia Islamic dynasties.
Lobat Vala (born 1930 in Tehran) is an Iranian poet, and campaigner for the Women Liberation and Equal Rights in Iran.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Lotf Ali Khan (لطفعلى خان زند) (c. 1769 – 1794) was the last Shah of Persia (reigned 1789–94) of the Zand dynasty.
Mahmoud Mirza (9 October 1905 – 2 July 1988) Iranian prince of Qajar Dynasty, was the son of Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar.
Maryam Firouz or Princess Maryam Farman Farmaian (1914 Kermanshah, Persia – 23 March 2008, Tehran, Iran) was a daughter of Prince Abdol Hossein Mirza Farmanfarma and Batoul Khanoum.
Mashhad (مشهد), also spelled Mashad or Meshad, is the second most populous city in Iran and the capital of Razavi Khorasan Province.
Mazandaran Province, (استان مازندران Ostān-e Māzandarān/Ostân-e Mâzandarân), is an Iranian province located along the southern coast of the Caspian Sea and in the adjacent Central Alborz mountain range, in central-northern Iran.
Michael George Andrew Axworthy (born 26 September 1962) is a British academic, author, and commentator.
The history of the military of the Ottoman Empire can be divided in five main periods.
Mīrzā Kūchak Khān (میرزا کوچی خان, میرزا كوچک خان) (common alternative spellings Kouchek, Koochek, Kuchak, Kuchek, Kouchak, Koochak, Kuçek) (1880 - December 2, 1921) was an early twentieth century revolutionary, a Gilani Nationalist and the president of the Republic Of Gilan.
Mirza Nasrullah Khan (1840 – 13 September 1907) (میرزا نصرالله خان نایینی), titled Moshir al-Dowleh, was the first Iranian Prime Minister.
Mirza Reza Kermani (in Persian: میرزارضا کرمانی), born in Kerman, Iran and died on August 10, 1896 in Tehran, was an adherent of Jamal al-Din al-Afghani and an Iranian revolutionary who assassinated the Shah of Persia Nasser-al-Din.
Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar (محمدعلی شاه قاجار) (21 June 1872 – 5 April 1925, Sanremo, Italy) was the sixth king of the Qajar Dynasty and Shah of Persia (Iran) from 8 January 1907 to 16 July 1909.
Mohammad Hasan Khan Qajar (محمدحسن خان قاجار), also spelled Muhammad and Hassan (1722–1759), chief of the Qoyunlu branch of the Qajar tribe of Turkomans in the Caspian coastlands around Astarabad, was the son of Fath Ali Khan and the father of Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar, who founded the Qajar dynasty of Iran.
Mohammad Hassan Mirza (20 November 1899, in Tabriz – 7 January 1943, in Maidenhead), was the brother of Ahmed Shah Qajar of Iran, and former Crown Prince of the Qajar dynasty.
Prince Mohammad Hasan Mirza II Qajar (also known as Mickey Kadjar) (born July 18, 1949) is the son of Hamid Mirza and a grandson of Mohammad Hassan Mirza, the last Crown Prince of Iran from the rule of the Qajar dynasty.
Mohammad Mosaddegh (محمد مصدق;; 16 June 1882 – 5 March 1967) was an Iranian politician.
Mohammad Shah Qajar (born Mohammad Mirza, محمد شاه قاجار) (5 January 1808 – 5 September 1848) was the King of Persia from the Qajar dynasty (23 October 1834 – 5 September 1848).
Mohtaram Eskandari (1895 – July 27, 1924) (محترم اسکندری) was an Iranian intellectual and a pioneer of the Iranian women's movement.
Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar, (مظفرالدین شاه قاجار, Mozaffar Ŝāh-e Qājār,; 23 March 1853 – 3 January 1907) was the fifth Qajar king of Persia (Iran), reigning from 1896 until his death in 1907.
Mugan plain (Azeri: Muğan düzü, دشت مغان) is a plain in northwestern Iran and the southern part of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
Nader Jahanbani (Nāder-e Jahānbānī; 16 April 1928 – 13 March 1979) was an Iranian general, distinguished fighter pilot of Imperial Iranian Air Force (IIAF) and the deputy chief of the IIAF under the Chief Commander Amir Hossein Rabii and Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran.
Nader Shah Afshar (نادر شاه افشار; also known as Nader Qoli Beyg نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khan تهماسپ قلی خان) (August 1688 – 19 June 1747) was one of the most powerful Iranian rulers in the history of the nation, ruling as Shah of Persia (Iran) from 1736 to 1747 when he was assassinated during a rebellion.
In the Western world, Persia (or one of its cognates) was historically the common name for Iran.
Naqadeh, also known as, "Naghday",Naghadeh, Naghdeh and Nagadeh and"Sulduz" (in Azerbaijani Turkish); also Romanized as Sulduz, Solduz and Suldoz), is a city in and the capital of Naqadeh County, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran. At the 1996 census, its population was 110,257, in 20,781 families. The city is located in the Gadar River valley, south of Lake Urmia at an elevation of above sea-level. The region's economy is based on agriculture, particularly the production of fruit, grain, and timber. The town is inhabited mainly by Iranian Azerbaijanis and Qarapapaqs, the latter of whom were resettled from the Caucasus into the newly established borders of south Azerbaijan after the loss of Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan, and Armenia to neighboring Russia following the first and second Russo-Persian Wars of the (19th century). The main religion of the area is Shia Islam, as with most of Iran.
Naser al-Din Shah Qajar (16 July 1831 – 1 May 1896) (ناصرالدین شاه قاجار), also Nassereddin Shah Qajar, was the King of Persia from 5 September 1848 to 1 May 1896 when he was assassinated.
The Oghuz, Oguz or Ghuzz Turks were a western Turkic people who spoke the Oghuz languages from the Common branch of Turkic language family.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Parviz Kambin (born 1931) is an American-Iranian medical doctor and orthopaedic surgeon.
Paul I (Па́вел I Петро́вич; Pavel Petrovich) (–) reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801.
The Persian Cossack Brigade or Iranian Cossack Brigade (Berīgād-e qazzāq) was a Cossack-style cavalry unit formed in 1879 in Persia (modern Iran).
The Persian Expedition of Catherine the Great, alongside the Persian Expedition of Peter the Great, was one of the Russo-Persian Wars of the 18th century which did not entail any lasting consequences for either belligerent.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
The Prime Minister of Iran was a political post in Iran that had existed during several different periods of time starting with the Qajar era (when the country was internationally known as Persia) until its most recent revival from 1979 to 1989 following the Iranian Revolution.
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.
Qajar art (Persian: هنر دوره قاجاریه) refers to the art, architecture, and art-forms of the Qajar dynasty of the late Persian Empire, which lasted from 1781 to 1925 in Iran (Persia).
The Qajars (also spelled Kadjars, Kajars, Kadzhars, Cadzhars, Cadjars and so on) are a Turkic Oghuz tribe who lived variously, with other tribes, in the area that is now Armenia, Azerbaijan and northwestern Iran.
The Qarapapaqs or Karapapaks (Qarapapaqlar, Tərəkəmələr; Karapapaklar) are a Turkic sub-ethnic group of Azerbaijanis who mainly live in Azerbaijan, Iran, Georgia, and in the northeast of Turkey near the border with Georgia and Armenia, primarily in the provinces of Ardahan (around Lake Çıldır), Kars and Ağri.
Qizilbash or Kizilbash, (Kızılbaş - Red Head, sometimes also Qezelbash or Qazilbash, قزلباش) is the label given to a wide variety of Shi'i militant groups that flourished in Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan, also known as Iranian Azerbaijan), Anatolia and Kurdistan from the late 15th century onwards, some of which contributed to the foundation of the Safavid dynasty of Iran.
Rasht (رشت; Rəsht; also Romanized as Resht and Rast, and often spelt Recht in French and older German manuscripts) is the capital city of Gilan Province, Iran.
Rey or Ray (شهر ری, Šahr-e Rey, “City of Ray”), also known as Rhages (Ῥάγαι, or Europos (Ευρωπός) Rhagai; Rhagae or Rhaganae) and formerly as Arsacia, is the capital of Rey County in Tehran Province of Iran, and the oldest existing city in the province.
Reza Shah Pahlavi (رضا شاه پهلوی;; 15 March 1878 – 26 July 1944) was the Shah of Iran from 15 December 1925 until he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran on 16 September 1941.
Ronald Grigor Suny (born September 25, 1940) is director of the Eisenberg Institute for Historical Studies, the Charles Tilly Collegiate Professor of Social and Political History at the University of Michigan, and Emeritus Professor of political science and history at the University of Chicago.
The Russian Caucasus Army (Кавказскaя армия) of World War I was the Russian field army that fought in the Caucasus Campaign and Persian Campaign of World War I. It was renowned for inflicting heavy casualties on the opposing forces of the Ottoman Empire, particularly at the Battle of Sarikamish.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The 1804–1813 Russo-Persian War, was one of the many wars between the Persian Empire and Imperial Russia, and began like many of their wars as a territorial dispute.
The Russo-Persian War of 1826–28 was the last major military conflict between the Russian Empire and Iran.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774 was an armed conflict that brought Kabardia, the part of the Yedisan between the rivers Bug and Dnieper, and Crimea into the Russian sphere of influence.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 (lit, named for the year 1293 in the Islamic calendar; Руско-турска Освободителна война, Russian-Turkish Liberation war) was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro.
Sabar Mirza Farman Farmaian (1912–2006) The first son of Persian Qajar nobleman Abdol Hossein Mirza Farmanfarma through Masoumeh Khanoum.
Sadegh (also spelled as Sadeq) Hedayat (صادق هدایت; February 17, 1903 in Tehran – April 9, 1951 in Paris) was an Iranian writer, translator and intellectual.
The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.
Salâm-e Shâh (lit) or Salâmati-ye Shâh (lit) was the royal and national anthem of Persia (Iran) between 1873 and 1909.
Samarkand (Uzbek language Uzbek alphabet: Samarqand; سمرقند; Самарканд; Σαμαρκάνδη), alternatively Samarqand, is a city in modern-day Uzbekistan and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Central Asia.
Sanremo or San Remo (Sanrému, locally date The name of the city is a phonetic contraction of Sant'Eremo di San Romolo, which refers to Romulus of Genoa, the successor to Syrus of Genoa. It is often stated in modern folk stories that Sanremo is a translation of "Saint Remus", a deceased Saint. In Ligurian, his name is San Rœmu. The spelling San Remo is on all ancient maps of Liguria, the ancient Republic of Genoa, Italy in the Middle Ages, the Kingdom of Sardinia, and the Kingdom of Italy. It was used in 1924 in official documents under Mussolini. This form of the name appears still on some road signs and, more rarely, in unofficial tourist information. It has been the most widely used form of the name in English at least since the 19th century.
Aahoo Jahansouz "Sarah" Shahi (آهو جهانسوز سارا شاهی; born January 10, 1980) is an American television actress and former NFL Cheerleader of Iranian and Spanish ancestry.
Sattāreh Farmānfarmā'iān (ستاره فرمانفرمائیان December 23, 1921 – May 23, 2012), also Sattareh Farman-Farmaian, was one of the daughters of Persian nobleman Abdol Hossein Mirza Farmanfarma of the Qajar dynasty.
Shah (Šāh, pronounced, "king") is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran (historically also known as Persia).
Shahrnush Parsipur (شهرنوش پارسی پور.; born February 17, 1946) is an Iranian writer.
Gokcheh Sultan Ziyadoghlu Qajar (گکچه سلطان زیاداوغلی قاجار), better known as Shahverdi Sultan (شاهوردی سلطان), was a Safavid military leader of Turkmen origin, who served as the governor of Karabakh and Ganja during the reign of king Tahmasp I (r. 1524–1576).
Shaki (Şəki; until 1968 Nukha, Azerbaijani: Nuxa) is a city in northwestern Azerbaijan, in the rayon of the same name.
Shiraz (fa, Šīrāz) is the fifth-most-populous city of Iran and the capital of Fars Province (Old Persian as Pars).
Shirvan (from translit; Şirvan; Tat: Şirvan), also spelled as Sharvān, Shirwan, Shervan, Sherwan and Šervān, is a historical region in the eastern Caucasus, known by this name in both Islamic and modern times.
Shusha (Şuşa; Шуша), or Shushi (Շուշի), is a city in the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh in the South Caucasus.
A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault.
Solomon II (სოლომონ II) (1772 – February 7, 1815), of the Bagrationi Dynasty, was the last King of Imereti (western Georgia) from 1789 to 1790 and from 1792 until his deposition by the Imperial Russian government in 1810.
The Storming of Lankaran (یورش به لنکران — Yuresh be Lankaran; Штурм Ленкорани) took place on 1 January 1813 as part of the Russo-Persian War (1804-1813).
Sultan Husayn (also known as Soltan Hosayn and Soltan Hosein), (October 1668 – November 1726) (شاه سلطان حسین) reigned 1694–1722; was a Safavid Shah of Iran (Persia).
Tabriz (تبریز; تبریز) is the most populated city in Iranian Azerbaijan, one of the historical capitals of Iran and the present capital of East Azerbaijan province.
Tahmasp II (1704? – 11 February 1740) was one of the last Safavid rulers of Persia (Iran).
Talysh (also Talishi, Taleshi or Talyshi) are an IranianGarnik Asatrian & Habib Borjian (2005.). Talish and the Talashis (State of Research).
Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
Teimuraz II (თეიმურაზ II) (1680–1762) of the Bagrationi dynasty, was a king of Kakheti, eastern Georgia, from 1732 to 1744, then of Kartli from 1744 until his death.
The Cambridge History of Iran is a multi-volume survey of Iranian history published by Cambridge University Press.
Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.
Touraj Atabaki (تورج اتابکی, born February 23, 1950 in Tehran) is the Senior Research Fellow at the International Institute of Social History in Amsterdam.
Transcaucasia (Закавказье), or the South Caucasus, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
The Treaty of Akhal was a treaty signed by Persia and Imperial Russia on 21 September 1881.
The Treaty of Georgievsk (Георгиевский трактат, Georgievskiy traktat; გეორგიევსკის ტრაქტატი, georgievskis trakt'at'i) was a bilateral treaty concluded between the Russian Empire and the east Georgian kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti on July 24, 1783.
The Treaty of Gulistan (Гюлистанский договор; عهدنامه گلستان) was a peace treaty concluded between Imperial Russia and Persia (modern day Iran) on 24 October 1813 in the village of Gulistan (in modern-day Goranboy Rayon of Azerbaijan) as a result of the first full-scale Russo-Persian War, lasting from 1804 to 1813.
The Treaty of Paris (1857) marked the end of the hostilities of the Anglo-Persian War.
The Treaty of Turkmenchay (Туркманчайский договор, عهدنامه ترکمنچای) was an agreement between Persia (Iran) and the Russian Empire, which concluded the Russo-Persian War (1826–28). It was signed on 10 February 1828 in Torkamanchay, Iran. By the treaty, Persia ceded to Russia control of several areas in the South Caucasus: the Erivan Khanate, the Nakhchivan Khanate, and the remainder of the Talysh Khanate. The boundary between Russian and Persia was set at the Aras River. These territories comprise modern-day Armenia, the southern parts of the modern-day Republic of Azerbaijan, Nakhchivan, as well as Iğdır Province (now part of Turkey). The treaty was signed for Persia by Crown Prince Abbas Mirza and Allah-Yar Khan Asaf al-Daula, chancellor to Shah Fath Ali (of the Qajar Dynasty), and for Russia by General Ivan Paskievich. Like the 1813 Treaty of Gulistan, this treaty was imposed by Russia, following military victory over Persia. Paskievich threatened to occupy Tehran in five days unless the treaty was signed. By this final treaty of 1828 and the 1813 Gulistan treaty, Russia had finalised conquering all the Caucasus territories from Iran, comprising modern-day Dagestan, eastern Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia, all which had formed part of its very concept for centuries. The area to the North of the river Aras, amongst which the territory of the contemporary nations of Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia and the North Caucasian Republic of Dagestan were Iranian territory until they were occupied by Russia in the course of the 19th century. As a further direct result and consequence of the two treaties, the formerly Iranian territories became now part of Russia for around the next 180 years, except Dagestan, which has remained a Russian possession ever since. Out of the greater part of the territory, three separate nations would be formed through the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, namely Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia.
The Tudeh Party of Iran (lit) is an Iranian communist party.
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
An ultimatum (the last one) is a demand whose fulfillment is requested in a specified period of time and which is backed up by a threat to be followed through in case of noncompliance.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
Count Valerian Aleksandrovich Zubov (1771–1804) was a Russian general who led the Persian Expedition of 1796.
Wāli or vali (from Arabic والي Wāli) is an administrative title that was used during the Caliphate and Ottoman Empire to designate governors of administrative divisions.
West Azerbaijan Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
William Morgan Shuster (23 February 1877 in Washington, D.C. – 26 May 1960 in New York City), was an American lawyer, civil servant, and publisher, who is best known as the treasurer-general of Persia by appointment of the Iranian parliament, or Majles, from May to December 1911.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
The Zand dynasty (سلسله زندیه) was an Iranian dynasty of Lak a branch of Lurs origin founded by Karim Khan Zand that initially ruled southern and central Iran in the 18th century.
1921 Persian coup d'état, known in Iran as 3 Esfand coup d'état (کودتای ۳ اسفند ۱۲۹۹), refers to several major events in Persia (Iran) in 1921, which eventually led to the establishment of the Pahlavi dynasty as the ruling house of the country in 1925.
Iran under Qajar dynasty, Kadjar, Kadjar dynasty, Persia under Qajar dynasty, Qadjar, Qadjar emperor, Qajar, Qajar Dynasty, Qajar Empire, Qajar Iran, Qajar Persia, Qajar era, Qajarid, Qajars, Qajjar dynasty, Qajár dynasty, Qujar, Quvanlu Qajars, Sublime State of Iran, Sublime State of Persia.