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Index Qatna

Qatna (modern: تل المشرفة, Tell al-Mishrifeh) is an ancient city located in Homs Governorate, Syria. [1]

145 relations: Adad-Nirari of Nuhašše, Adad-Nirari of Qatna, Adolf Erman, Aegean Sea, Afghanistan, Akhenaten, Akizzi, Akkadian language, Al-Mushrifah, Al-Qaryatayn, Al-Rastan, Al-Rawda (tell), Alan Gardiner, Amarna letters, Amarna Period, Amenemhat II, Amenhotep II, Amenhotep III, Amorite language, Amorites, Amqu, Amurru kingdom, Amut-piʾel II, Ancient Egypt, Arameans, Archaeological record, Artatama I, Asherah, Aziru, Šuppiluliuma I, Baetylus, Baltic region, Baltic Sea, Barga (kingdom), Beqaa Valley, Bronze Age, Byblos, Carchemish, Claude Frédéric-Armand Schaeffer, Deir ez-Zor, Directorate-General of Antiquities and Museums, Dominique Charpin, Ebla, Edward Lipiński (orientalist), Emar, Eshnunna, Ethiopian Semitic languages, Ghouta, Gilgamesh, Giovanni Pettinato, ..., Gustave Lefebvre, Hadad, Hama, Hammurabi, Hammurabi I, Harim Mountains, Hittites, Homs, Homs Governorate, Hurrian language, Hurrians, Hypogeum, Ib'al, Idanda, Inanna, Iron Age, Ishi-Addu, Jack M. Sasson, Jean Bottéro, Jean-Marie Durand, Joachim Friedrich Quack, Kadesh (Syria), Karnak, Kenneth Kitchen, Khabur (Euphrates), Levant, Limestone, Mari, Syria, Mediterranean Sea, Mina (unit), Minoan civilization, Mitanni, Mount Lebanon, Naplimma, Near East, Ninegal, Niya Kingdom, Nuhašše, Orontes River, Palistin, Palmyra, Qastun, Radiocarbon dating, Rammed earth, Robert du Mesnil du Buisson, Royal Palace of Mari, Salamiyah, Sargon II, Scarab (artifact), Scribe, Semitic languages, Senusret I, Sexagesimal, Shaft tomb, Shakkanakku, Shamshi-Adad I, Shattiwaza, Shekel, Story of Sinuhe, Suhum, Sumu-Epuh, Suteans, Syria, Syriac language, Syrian Civil War, Syrian elephant, Tel Hazor, Tell (archaeology), Tell Beydar, Thomas Schneider (Egyptologist), Thutmose I, Thutmose III, Thutmose IV, Trevor R. Bryce, Tudhaliya II, Tunip, Tushratta, Tuttul, Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt, Tyrian purple, Ugarit, Umm el-Marra, Utu, Veneration of the dead, Volute, Wadi, Waterway, William J. Murnane, William Kelly Simpson, Yahdun-Lim, Yamhad, Yarim-Lim I, Yarim-Lim III, Yasmah-Adad, Zimri-Lim. Expand index (95 more) »

Adad-Nirari of Nuhašše

Adad-Nirari or Addu-Nirari was a king of Nuhašše in the 14th century BC.

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Adad-Nirari of Qatna

Adad-Nirari or H̱addu-Nirari, was a king of Qatna in the 14th century BC.

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Adolf Erman

Johann Peter Adolf Erman (31 October 185426 June 1937) was a renowned German Egyptologist and lexicographer.

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Aegean Sea

The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.

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Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Akhenaten (also spelled Echnaton, Akhenaton, Ikhnaton, and Khuenaten; meaning "Effective for Aten"), known before the fifth year of his reign as Amenhotep IV (sometimes given its Greek form, Amenophis IV, and meaning "Amun Is Satisfied"), was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty who ruled for 17 years and died perhaps in 1336 BC or 1334 BC.

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Prince Akizzi was the ruler of Qatna in the fourteenth century BC.

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Akkadian language

Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.

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Al-Mushrifah (المشرفة, also spelled al-Mishirfeh, el-Mishrife or Musharrfeh) is a village in central Syria, administratively part of the Homs Governorate, located northeast of Homs, with a population of 14,868 in 2004.

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Al-Qaryatayn (القريتين, also spelled Karyatayn, Qaratin or Cariatein) is a town in central Syria, administratively part of the Homs Governorate located southeast of Homs.

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ar-Rastan (الرستن) is the third largest city in the Homs Governorate, located north of its administrative capital Homs and from Hama.

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Al-Rawda (tell)

Al-Rawda (الروضة) is a tell, or archaeological settlement mound, in the Syrian steppe, east of Hama.

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Alan Gardiner

Sir Alan Henderson Gardiner (29 March 1879, in Eltham – 19 December 1963, in Oxford) was an English Egyptologist, linguist, philologist, and independent scholar.

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Amarna letters

The Amarna letters (sometimes referred to as the Amarna correspondence or Amarna tablets, and cited with the abbreviation EA) are an archive, written on clay tablets, primarily consisting of diplomatic correspondence between the Egyptian administration and its representatives in Canaan and Amurru during the New Kingdom.

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Amarna Period

The Amarna Period was an era of Egyptian history during the later half of the Eighteenth Dynasty when the royal residence of the pharaoh and his queen was shifted to Akhetaten ('Horizon of the Aten') in what is now Amarna.

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Amenemhat II

Nubkaure Amenemhat II was the third pharaoh of the 12th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt.

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Amenhotep II

Amenhotep II (sometimes called Amenophis II and meaning Amun is Satisfied) was the seventh Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt.

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Amenhotep III

Amenhotep III (Hellenized as Amenophis III; Egyptian Amāna-Ḥātpa; meaning Amun is Satisfied), also known as Amenhotep the Magnificent, was the ninth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty.

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Amorite language

Amorite is an extinct early Northwest Semitic language, formerly spoken by the Amorite tribes prominent in ancient Near Eastern history.

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The Amorites (Sumerian 𒈥𒌅 MAR.TU; Akkadian Tidnum or Amurrūm; Egyptian Amar; Hebrew אמורי ʼĔmōrī; Ἀμορραῖοι) were an ancient Semitic-speaking people from Syria who also occupied large parts of southern Mesopotamia from the 21st century BC to the end of the 17th century BC, where they established several prominent city states in existing locations, notably Babylon, which was raised from a small town to an independent state and a major city.

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The Amqu (also Amka, Amki, Amq) is a region (now in eastern Lebanon), equivalent to the Beqaa Valley region, named in the 1350-1335 BC Amarna letters corpus.

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Amurru kingdom

Amurru was an Amorite kingdom established c. 2000 BC, in a region spanning present-day western and north-western Syria and northern Lebanon The first documented leader of Amurru was Abdi-Ashirta, under whose leadership Amurru was part of the Egyptian empire.

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Amut-piʾel II

Amut-piʾel II was a king of Qatna in the 18th century BC.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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The Arameans, or Aramaeans (ܐܪ̈ܡܝܐ), were an ancient Northwest Semitic Aramaic-speaking tribal confederation who emerged from the region known as Aram (in present-day Syria) in the Late Bronze Age (11th to 8th centuries BC).

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Archaeological record

The archaeological record is the body of physical (not written) evidence about the past.

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Artatama I

Artatama I (Sanskrit: Ṛta-dhaman, "his abode is Ṛta") was a king of the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni in the late fifteenth century BC.

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Asherah in ancient Semitic religion, is a mother goddess who appears in a number of ancient sources.

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Aziru was the Canaanite ruler of Amurru, modern Lebanon, in the 14th century BC.

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Šuppiluliuma I

Suppiluliuma I or Suppiluliumas I was king of the Hittites (r. c. 1344–1322 BC (short chronology)).

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Baetylus (also Baetyl, Bethel, or Betyl, from Semitic bet el "house of god") is a word denoting sacred stones that were supposedly endowed with life.

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Baltic region

The terms Baltic region, Baltic Rim countries (or simply Baltic Rim), and the Baltic Sea countries refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe.

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Baltic Sea

The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.

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Barga (kingdom)

Barga was a city-state in the Amarna letters period of 1350-1335 BC and later.

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Beqaa Valley

The Beqaa Valley (وادي البقاع,, Lebanese; Բեքայի դաշտավայր), also transliterated as Bekaa, Biqâ and Becaa and known in Classical antiquity as Coele-Syria, is a fertile valley in eastern Lebanon.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Byblos, in Arabic Jbail (جبيل Lebanese Arabic pronunciation:; Phoenician: 𐤂𐤁𐤋 Gebal), is a Middle Eastern city on Levant coast in the Mount Lebanon Governorate, Lebanon.

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Carchemish, also spelled Karkemish (Hittite: Karkamiš; Turkish: Karkamış; Greek: Εὔρωπος; Latin: Europus), was an important ancient capital in the northern part of the region of Syria.

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Claude Frédéric-Armand Schaeffer

Claude Frédéric-Armand Schaeffer (March 6, 1898 – August 25, 1982) was a French archeologist, born in Strasbourg, who led the French excavation team that began working on the site of Ugarit, the present day Ras Shamra in 1929, leading to the uncovering of the Ugaritic religious texts.

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Deir ez-Zor

Deir ez-Zor (دير الزور Dayr az-Zūr; Syriac: ܕܝܪܐ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ Dayrāʾ Zəʿōrtāʾ) is the largest city in eastern Syria and the seventh largest in the country.

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Directorate-General of Antiquities and Museums

The Directorate-General for Antiquities and Museums (DGAM) (المديرية العامة للآثار والمتاحف) is a Syrian government owned agency that is responsible for the protection, promotion and excavation activities in all sites of national heritage in the country.

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Dominique Charpin

Dominique Charpin (born 12 June 1954 in Neuilly-sur-Seine) is a French Assyriologist, professor at the Collège de France, corresponding member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, specialized in the "Old-Babylonian" period.

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Ebla (إبلا., modern: تل مرديخ, Tell Mardikh) was one of the earliest kingdoms in Syria.

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Edward Lipiński (orientalist)

Edward Lipiński, or Edouard Lipiński (born 18 June 1930 in Łódź, Poland), is a Belgian Biblical scholar and Orientalist.

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Emar (modern Tell Meskene) is an archaeological site in Aleppo Governorate, northern Syria.

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Eshnunna (modern Tell Asmar in Diyala Province, Iraq) was an ancient Sumerian (and later Akkadian) city and city-state in central Mesopotamia.

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Ethiopian Semitic languages

Ethiopian Semitic (also known as Ethiosemitic or Ethiopic, or in the past by a few linguists as Abyssinian due to geographyIgor Mikhailovich Diakonov: Nauka, Central Department of Oriental Literature, (1965) pp 12) is a language group which forms the Western branch of the South Semitic languages.

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Ghouta (غوطة دمشق / ALA-LC: Ghūṭat Dimashq) is a countryside and suburban area in southwestern Syria that surrounds the city of Damascus along its eastern and southern rim.

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Gilgamesh was a historical king of the Sumerian city-state of Uruk, a major hero in ancient Mesopotamian mythology, and the protagonist of the Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem written in Akkadian during the late second millennium BC.

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Giovanni Pettinato

Giovanni Pettinato (30 April 1934 in Troina – 19 May 2011 in Rome) was a paleographer of writings from the ancient Near East, specializing in the Eblaite language, His major contributions to the field include the deciphering of the Eblaite script, discovered by P. Matthiae in 1974–75.

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Gustave Lefebvre

Gustave Lefebvre (17 July 1879 – 1 November 1957) was a French Egyptologist.

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Hadad (𐎅𐎄), Adad, Haddad (Akkadian) or Iškur (Sumerian) was the storm and rain god in the Northwest Semitic and ancient Mesopotamian religions.

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Hama (حماة,; ܚܡܬ Ḥmṭ, "fortress"; Biblical Hebrew: חֲמָת Ḥamāth) is a city on the banks of the Orontes River in west-central Syria.

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Hammurabi was the sixth king of the First Babylonian Dynasty, reigning from 1792 BC to 1750 BC (according to the Middle Chronology).

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Hammurabi I

Hammurabi I (reigned - Middle chronology) is the third attested king of Yamhad (Halab).

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Harim Mountains

Ḥārim Mountains (جبال حارم) are highlands in the north of Idlib Governorate in northwestern Syria.

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The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.

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Homs (حمص / ALA-LC: Ḥimṣ), previously known as Emesa or Emisa (Greek: Ἔμεσα Emesa), is a city in western Syria and the capital of the Homs Governorate.

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Homs Governorate

Homs Governorate (مُحافظة حمص / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Ḥimṣ) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.

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Hurrian language

Hurrian is an extinct Hurro-Urartian language spoken by the Hurrians (Khurrites), a people who entered northern Mesopotamia around 2300 BC and had mostly vanished by 1000 BC.

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The Hurrians (cuneiform:; transliteration: Ḫu-ur-ri; also called Hari, Khurrites, Hourri, Churri, Hurri or Hurriter) were a people of the Bronze Age Near East.

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Hypogeum or hypogaeum (plural hypogea or hypogaea which is commonly seen) literally means "underground", from Greek hypo (under) and gaia (mother earth or goddess of earth).

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Ib'al was the name used by Ebla in the 24th century BC to indicate a confederation of tribes occupying the steppic region south of Ebla; the region included small villages and towns.

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Idanda was a king of Qatna in the middle of the 14th century BC.

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Inanna was the ancient Sumerian goddess of love, beauty, sex, desire, fertility, war, combat, justice, and political power.

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Iron Age

The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.

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Išḫi-Addu or Ishi-Addu was king of Qatna in the first half of the 18th century BC.

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Jack M. Sasson

Jack M. Sasson, now retired, taught most recently as Mary Jane Werthan Professor of Jewish Studies and Hebrew Bible at Vanderbilt Divinity School and before that as a Professor of Classics at Vanderbilt University.

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Jean Bottéro

Jean Bottéro (30 August 1914 – 15 December 2007) was a French historian born in Vallauris.

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Jean-Marie Durand

Jean-Marie Durand (13 November 1940) is a French Assyriologist.

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Joachim Friedrich Quack

Joachim Friedrich Quack (born 10 June 1966 in Husum, Schleswig-Holstein) is a German Egyptologist and Demotic Language specialist.

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Kadesh (Syria)

Kadesh (also Qadesh) was an ancient city of the Levant, located on or near the headwaters or a ford of the Orontes River.

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The Karnak Temple Complex, commonly known as Karnak (from Arabic Ka-Ranak meaning "fortified village"), comprises a vast mix of decayed temples, chapels, pylons, and other buildings in Egypt.

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Kenneth Kitchen

Kenneth Anderson Kitchen (born 1932) is a British Bible scholar, Ancient Near Eastern historian, and Personal and Brunner Professor Emeritus of Egyptology and Honorary Research Fellow at the School of Archaeology, Classics and Egyptology, University of Liverpool, England.

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Khabur (Euphrates)

The Khabur River is the largest perennial tributary to the Euphrates in Syrian territory.

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The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.

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Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.

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Mari, Syria

Mari (modern Tell Hariri, تل حريري) was an ancient Semitic city in modern-day Syria.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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Mina (unit)

The mina (also mĕnē, Aramaic) is an ancient Near Eastern unit of weight, which was divided into 50 shekels.

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Minoan civilization

The Minoan civilization was an Aegean Bronze Age civilization on the island of Crete and other Aegean Islands which flourished from about 2600 to 1600 BC, before a late period of decline, finally ending around 1100.

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Mitanni (Hittite cuneiform; Mittani), also called Hanigalbat (Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform) in Assyrian or Naharin in Egyptian texts, was a Hurrian-speaking state in northern Syria and southeast Anatolia from c. 1500 to 1300 BC.

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Mount Lebanon

Mount Lebanon (جَبَل لُبْنَان, jabal lubnān, Lebanese Arabic pronunciation; ܛܘܪ ܠܒܢܢ) is a mountain range in Lebanon.

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Naplimma was a king of Qatna in c 1450 BC.

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Near East

The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.

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Ninegala is one of many names of the Sumerian goddess Inanna.

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Niya Kingdom

Niya, Niye, and also Niy of Thutmose I's Ancient Egypt, also Nii of the Amarna letters, and Nihe, etc.

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Nuhašše, also Nuhašša, was a region in northwestern Syria that flourished in the 2nd millennium BC.

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Orontes River

The Orontes (Ὀρόντης) or Asi (العاصي, ‘Āṣī; Asi) is a northward-flowing river which begins in Lebanon and flows through Syria and Turkey before entering the Mediterranean Sea.

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Palistin (or Walistin), was an early Syro-Hittite kingdom located in what is now northwestern Syria and the southeastern Turkish province of Hatay.

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Palmyra (Palmyrene: Tadmor; تَدْمُر Tadmur) is an ancient Semitic city in present-day Homs Governorate, Syria.

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Qastun (قسطون), also spelled Kastun or Kustun, is a village in northern Syria, administratively part of the Hama Governorate, located northwest of Hama and 35 kilometers southwest of Idlib.

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Radiocarbon dating

Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.

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Rammed earth

Rammed earth, also known as taipa in Portuguese, tapial or tapia in Spanish, pisé (de terre) in French, and hangtu, is a technique for constructing foundations, floors, and walls using natural raw materials such as earth, chalk, lime, or gravel.

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Robert du Mesnil du Buisson

Count Robert du Mesnil du Buisson (9 April 1895, Champobert, Bourges – 8 April 1986, Caen) was a French historian, soldier, and archeologist.

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Royal Palace of Mari

The Royal Palace of Mari was the royal residence of the rulers of the ancient kingdom of Mari in eastern Syria.

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A full view of Shmemis (spring 1995) Salamiyah (سلمية) is a city and district in western Syria, in the Hama Governorate.

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Sargon II

Sargon II (Assyrian Šarru-ukīn (LUGAL-GI.NA 𒈗𒄀𒈾).; Aramaic סרגן; reigned 722–705 BC) was an Assyrian king.

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Scarab (artifact)

Scarabs were popular amulets and impression seals in Ancient Egypt.

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A scribe is a person who serves as a professional copyist, especially one who made copies of manuscripts before the invention of automatic printing.

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Semitic languages

The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.

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Senusret I

Senusret I, also anglicized as Sesostris I and Senwosret I, was the second pharaoh of the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt.

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Sexagesimal (base 60) is a numeral system with sixty as its base.

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Shaft tomb

A shaft tomb or shaft grave is a type of deep rectangular burial structure, similar in shape to the much shallower cist grave, containing a floor of pebbles, walls of rubble masonry, and a roof constructed of wooden planks.

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In the Akkadian, Shakkanakku,, was a title designating a military governor.

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Shamshi-Adad I

Shamshi-Adad I (Šamši-Adad I; Amorite: Shamshi-Addu I; fl. c. 1809 BC – c. 1776 BC by the middle chronology) was an Amorite who had conquered lands across much of Syria, Anatolia, and Upper Mesopotamia for the Old Assyrian Empire.

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Shattiwaza (or Šattiwaza), alternatively referred to as Kurtiwaza or Mattiwaza, was a king of the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni in the fourteenth century BC.

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Shekel (Akkadian: šiqlu or siqlu; שקל,. shekels or sheqalim) is any of several ancient units of weight or of currency.

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Story of Sinuhe

The Story of Sinuhe is considered one of the finest works of ancient Egyptian literature.

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Suhum or Suḫu was an ancient geographic region around the middle course of the Euphrates river, south of Mari.

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Sumu-Epuh (reigned Middle chronology) is the first attested king of Yamhad (Halab).

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The Suteans were a Semitic people who lived throughout the Levant and Canaan c. 1350 BC, and later also lived in Babylonia.

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Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

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Syriac language

Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.

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Syrian Civil War

The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.

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Syrian elephant

The Syrian elephant or Western Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus asurus) is a proposed name for the westernmost population of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), which became extinct in ancient times.

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Tel Hazor

Tel Hazor (תל חצור), also Hatzor and Tell el-Qedah (تل القضاه), is an archaeological tell at the site of ancient Hazor, located in Israel, Upper Galilee, north of the Sea of Galilee, in the southern Hula Valley overlooking Lake Merom.

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Tell (archaeology)

In archaeology, a tell, or tel (derived from تَل,, 'hill' or 'mound'), is an artificial mound formed from the accumulated refuse of people living on the same site for hundreds or thousands of years.

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Tell Beydar

Tell Beydar is a village and ancient site in the modern Al-Hasakah Governorate, Syria.

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Thomas Schneider (Egyptologist)

Thomas Schneider (born 6 September 1964 in Göttingen) is a German Egyptologist.

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Thutmose I

Thutmose I (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis I, Thothmes in older history works in Latinized Greek; Ancient Egyptian: /ḏḥwty.ms/ Djehutymes, meaning "Thoth is born") was the third pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt.

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Thutmose III

Thutmose III (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis III, Thothmes in older history works, and meaning "Thoth is born") was the sixth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty.

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Thutmose IV

Thutmose IV (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis IV, Thothmes in older history works in Latinized Greek; Ancient Egyptian: /ḏḥwty.ms/ Djehutymes, meaning "Thoth is born") was the 8th Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt, who ruled in approximately the 14th century BC.

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Trevor R. Bryce

Trevor Robert Bryce (born 1940) is an Australian Hittitologist specializing in ancient and classical Near-eastern history.

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Tudhaliya II

Tudhaliya II (also Tudhaliya III) was a king of the Hittite empire (New kingdom) c. 1360? – 1344 BC (short chronology).

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Tunip was a city-state in western Syria in 1350–1335 BC, the period of the Amarna letters.

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Tushratta (Sanskrit Tvesa-ratha, "his chariot charges") was a king of Mitanni at the end of the reign of Amenhotep III and throughout the reign of Akhenaten—approximately the late 14th century BC.

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The Bronze Age town of Tuttul is identified with the archaeological site of Tell Bi'a in Raqqa Governorate, northern Syria.

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Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt

The Twelfth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (Dynasty XII), is often combined with the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties under the group title Middle Kingdom.

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Tyrian purple

Tyrian purple (Greek, πορφύρα, porphyra, purpura), also known as Tyrian red, Phoenician purple, royal purple, imperial purple or imperial dye, is a reddish-purple natural dye.

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Ugarit (𐎜𐎂𐎗𐎚, ʼUgart; أُوغَارِيت Ūġārīt, alternatively أُوجَارِيت Ūǧārīt) was an ancient port city in northern Syria.

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Umm el-Marra

Umm el-Marra, أم المرى, east of modern Aleppo in the Jabbul Plain of northern Syria, was one of the ancient Near East's oldest cities, located on a crossroads of two trade routes northwest of Ebla, in a landscape that was much more fertile than it is today.

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Utu later worshipped by East Semitic peoples as Shamash, was the ancient Mesopotamian god of the sun, justice, morality, and truth, and the twin brother of the goddess Inanna, the Queen of Heaven.

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Veneration of the dead

The veneration of the dead, including one's ancestors, is based on love and respect for the deceased.

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A volute is a spiral, scroll-like ornament that forms the basis of the Ionic order, found in the capital of the Ionic column.

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Wadi (wādī; ואדי), alternatively wād (وَاد), is the Arabic and Hebrew term traditionally referring to a valley.

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A waterway is any navigable body of water.

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William J. Murnane

William Joseph Murnane (March 22, 1945 – November 17, 2000) was an American Egyptologist and author of a number of books and monographs on Ancient Egypt.

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William Kelly Simpson

William Kelly Simpson (born January 3, 1928 – March 24, 2017 in New York City) was an American professor of Egyptology, Archaeology, Ancient Egyptian literature, and Afro-Asiatic languages at Yale University.

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Yahdunlim (or Yakhdunlim) was the name of two different kings in Upper Mesopotamia: one of Mari during the 19th century BC and one of Karkemish during the 18th century BC.

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Yamhad was an ancient Semitic kingdom centered on Ḥalab (Aleppo), Syria.

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Yarim-Lim I

Yarim-Lim I, also given as Yarimlim, (reigned) was the second king of the ancient Amorite kingdom of Yamhad in modern-day Aleppo, Syria.

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Yarim-Lim III

Yarim-Lim III (reigned c. Middle 17th century BC - c. 1625 BC - Middle chronology) was the king of Yamhad (Halab) succeeding Hammurabi II.

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Yasmah-Adad (Yasmah-Addu, Yasmakh-Adad, Ismah-Adad, Iasmakh-Adad) was the younger son of the Amorite king of Upper Mesopotamia, Shamshi-Adad I. He was put on throne of Mari by his father after a successful military attack following the assassination of Yahdun-Lim of Mari in 1795 B.C.E. He was responsible for the southwestern section of his father's kingdom (of which Mari was the capital) including the Balikh River, Habur River, and Euphrates River.

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Zimri-Lim was king of Mari from about 1775 to 1761 BC.

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Redirects here:

Al Mashrafah, Al-Mashrafah, Mashrafah, Mecherfe, Mecherfeh, Quatna, Tell al-Mishrifeh.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qatna

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