192 relations: Acupuncture, Aether (classical element), Aikido, Alternative medicine, Analects, Ancient Greece, Animal soul, Aura (paranormal), Baguazhang, Bernhard Karlgren, Biomechanics, Blood, Bound and unbound morphemes, Brian Dunning (author), Campfire, Cantonese, Chakra, China, Chinese bronze inscriptions, Chinese character classification, Chinese culture, Chinese food therapy, Chinese language, Chinese martial arts, Chinese philosophy, Chlorine, Confucius, Crane (bird), Culture of India, Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu, Dantian, Didacticism, Divination, Dong Zhongshu, Dragon Ball, Earth, East Asia, Eastern Min, Edwin G. Pulleyblank, Energy, Energy (esotericism), English language, Etymology, Falun Gong, Felix Mann, Feng shui, Fluorine, Fulu, Game Informer, Geomancy, ..., Gibbon, Guanzi (text), Hakka Chinese, Han dynasty, Hanja, Hanyu Da Zidian, Hapkido, Hawaii, Herbalism, Hinduism, Huainanzi, Huangdi Neijing, Humorism, Hydrogen, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, International Phonetic Alphabet, Japanese language, Japanese martial arts, Jedi, Jediism, Jewish culture, Jianquan Taijiquan Association, Jixia Academy, Kanji, Kendo, Kharia language, Khmer language, Korean language, Korean martial arts, Kyūjitai, Languages of East Asia, Large seal script, Laurent Sagart, Li (Neo-Confucianism), Li Rong (linguist), List of English words of Chinese origin, List of esoteric healing articles, Liu An, Liuhebafa, Livity (spiritual concept), Loanword, Logogram, Lung (Tibetan Buddhism), Luohan (martial arts), Luopan, Luxuriant Dew of the Spring and Autumn Annals, Mana, Manga, Manitou, Martial arts, Meaning (linguistics), Meditation, Mencius, Meridian (Chinese medicine), Middle Chinese, Moxibustion, Mozi, Mugwort, National Institutes of Health, Neijing, Neiye, Neo-Confucianism, Neon, Nomenclature, Odinani, Old Chinese, Oracle bone script, Orgone, Oxford English Dictionary, Pe̍h-ōe-jī, Pinyin, Pneuma (Stoic), Polysemy, Popular culture, Potentiality and actuality, Prana, Qigong, Qin dynasty, Radiant energy, Radical (Chinese characters), Radical 162, Radical 184, Radical 61, Radical 84, Radical 86, Regular script, Reiki, Rgyalrongic languages, Romanization of Chinese, Sati (Buddhism), Shang dynasty, Shaolin Kung Fu, Shinjitai, Shuowen Jiezi, Simplified Chinese characters, Sino-Xenic pronunciations, Skeptical movement, Small seal script, Snake Kung Fu, Sora language, Southern Dragon Kung Fu, Southern Min, Southern Praying Mantis, Spirit, Standard Chinese, Star Wars, Symptom, Syncretism, Tai chi, Taiji (philosophy), Tao, Tōyō kanji, Tekken, The All, The Chinese Repository, The Encyclopaedia Sinica, The Force, Tibetan Buddhism, Traditional Chinese characters, Traditional Chinese medicine, Tui na, Universe, Varieties of Chinese, Vietnamese language, Vitalism, Wade–Giles, Wang Li (linguist), Western esotericism, Western philosophy, William H. Baxter, Wind, Wu Chinese, Wu Xing, Xing Yi Quan, Xun Kuang, Yin and yang, Yoga, Yuán qì, Zang-fu, Zhengzhang Shangfang, Zhou dynasty, Zhuangzi (book). Expand index (142 more) » « Shrink index
Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine in which thin needles are inserted into the body.
According to ancient and medieval science, aether (αἰθήρ aithēr), also spelled æther or ether and also called quintessence, is the material that fills the region of the universe above the terrestrial sphere.
is a modern Japanese martial art developed by Morihei Ueshiba as a synthesis of his martial studies, philosophy, and religious beliefs.
Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.
The Analects (Old Chinese: *run ŋ(r)aʔ), also known as the Analects of Confucius, is a collection of sayings and ideas attributed to the Chinese philosopher Confucius and his contemporaries, traditionally believed to have been compiled and written by Confucius's followers.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
In kabbalah, the animal soul (nefesh habehamit) is one of the two souls of a Jew.
An aura or Human energy field is, according to New Age beliefs, a colored emanation said to enclose a human body or any animal or object.
Baguazhang is one of the three main Chinese martial arts of the Wudang school, the other two being Taijiquan and Xing Yi Quan.
Klas Bernhard Johannes Karlgren (15 October 1889 – 20 October 1978) was a Swedish Sinologist and linguist who pioneered the study of Chinese historical phonology using modern comparative methods.
Biomechanics is the study of the structure and function of the mechanical aspects of biological systems, at any level from whole organisms to organs, cells and cell organelles, using the methods of mechanics.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
In morphology, a bound morpheme is a morpheme (the most basic unit of meaning) that can appear only as part of a larger word; a free morpheme or unbound morpheme is one that can stand alone or can appear with other morphemes in a lexeme.
Brian Andrew Dunning (born 1965) is an American writer and producer who focuses on science and skepticism.
A campfire is a fire at a campsite that provides light and warmth, and heat for cooking.
The Cantonese language is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its surrounding area in southeastern China.
Chakras (Sanskrit: चक्र, IAST: cakra, Pali: cakka, lit. wheel, circle) are the various focal points in the subtle body used in a variety of ancient meditation practices, collectively denominated as Tantra, or the esoteric or inner traditions of Indian religion, Chinese Taoism, Tibetan Buddhism, as well as Japanese Esoteric Buddhism, and in postmodernity, in new age medicine, and originally psychologically adopted to the western mind through the assistance of Carl G. Jung.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese bronze inscriptions, also commonly referred to as Bronze script or Bronzeware script, are writing in a variety of Chinese scripts on Chinese ritual bronzes such as zhōng bells and dǐng tripodal cauldrons from the Shang dynasty to the Zhou dynasty and even later.
All Chinese characters are logograms, but several different types can be identified, based on the manner in which they are formed or derived.
Chinese culture is one of the world's oldest cultures, originating thousands of years ago.
Chinese food therapy (also called nutrition therapy and dietary therapy) is a mode of dieting rooted in Chinese beliefs concerning the effects of food on the human organism, and centered on concepts such as eating in moderation.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Chinese martial arts, often named under the umbrella terms kung fu and wushu, are the several hundred fighting styles that have developed over the centuries in China.
Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, during a period known as the "Hundred Schools of Thought", which was characterized by significant intellectual and cultural developments.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.
Cranes are a family, Gruidae, of large, long-legged and long-necked birds in the group Gruiformes.
The culture of India refers collectively to the thousands of distinct and unique cultures of all religions and communities present in India.
, originally called, is a Japanese martial art that first became widely known in the early 20th century under the headmastership of Takeda Sōkaku.
Dantian, dan t'ian, dan tien or tan t'ien is loosely translated as "elixir field," "sea of qi," or simply "energy center." Dantian are the Qi Focus Flow Centers, important focal points for meditative and exercise techniques such as qigong, martial arts such as t'ai chi ch'uan, and in traditional Chinese medicine.
Didacticism is a philosophy that emphasizes instructional and informative qualities in literature and other types of art.
Divination (from Latin divinare "to foresee, to be inspired by a god", related to divinus, divine) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic, standardized process or ritual.
Dong Zhongshu (179–104 BC) was a Han Dynasty Chinese scholar.
is a Japanese media franchise created by Akira Toriyama in 1984.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
Eastern Min, or Min Dong (Foochow Romanized: Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄), is a branch of the Min group of varieties of Chinese.
Edwin George "Ted" Pulleyblank FRSC (August 7, 1922 – April 13, 2013) was a Canadian sinologist and professor at the University of British Columbia.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
The term energy is used by writers and practitioners of various esoteric forms of spirituality and alternative medicine to refer to a variety of phenomena.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
Falun Gong or Falun Dafa (Standard Mandarin Chinese:; literally, "Dharma Wheel Practice" or "Law Wheel Practice") is a modern Chinese spiritual practice that combines meditation and qigong exercises with a moral philosophy centered on the tenets of truthfulness, compassion, and forbearance.
Felix Mann (10 April 1931 – 2 October 2014) was a German-born acupuncturist.
Feng shui (pronounced), also known as Chinese geomancy, is a pseudoscience originating from China, which claims to use energy forces to harmonize individuals with their surrounding environment.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
Fulu is a term for Daoist practitioners in the past who could draw and write supernatural talismans, Fu, Shenfu which they believed functioned as summons or instructions to deities, spirits, or as tools of exorcism, as medicinal potions for ailments.
Game Informer (GI) is an American monthly video game magazine featuring articles, news, strategy, and reviews of video games and associated consoles.
Geomancy (Greek: γεωμαντεία, "earth divination") is a method of divination that interprets markings on the ground or the patterns formed by tossed handfuls of soil, rocks, or sand.
Gibbons are apes in the family Hylobatidae.
The Guanzi is an ancient Chinese political and philosophical text that is named for and traditionally attributed to the 7th century BCE statesman Guan Zhong, who served as Prime Minister to Duke Huan of Qi.
Hakka, also rendered Kejia, is one of the major groups of varieties of Chinese, spoken natively by the Hakka people throughout southern China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and throughout the diaspora areas of East Asia, Southeast Asia, and in overseas Chinese communities around the world.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters.
The Hanyu dazidian is a reference work on Chinese characters.
Hapkido (also spelled hap ki do or hapki-do; from Korean hapgido) is a highly eclectic Korean martial art.
Hawaii (Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959.
Herbalism (also herbal medicine or phytotherapy) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
The Huainanzi is an ancient Chinese text that consists of a collection of essays that resulted from a series of scholarly debates held at the court of Liu An, King of Huainan, sometime before 139.
Huangdi Neijing, literally the Inner Canon of the Yellow Emperor or Esoteric Scripture of the Yellow Emperor, is an ancient Chinese medical text that has been treated as the fundamental doctrinal source for Chinese medicine for more than two millennia.
Humorism, or humoralism, was a system of medicine detailing the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers, positing that an excess or deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluids in a person—known as humors or humours—directly influences their temperament and health.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Japanese martial arts refer to the variety of martial arts native to the country of Japan.
The Jedi are the main protagonists in the Star Wars universe.
Jediism (or Jedism) is a philosophy mainly based on the depiction of the Jedi characters in Star Wars media.
Jewish culture is the culture of the Jewish people from the formation of the Jewish nation in biblical times through life in the diaspora and the modern state of Israel.
The Jianquan Taijiquan Association (also spelled as Chien-ch'uan T'ai Chi Ch'uan Association, Chian Chuan Taichi Chuan Association and in Chinese: 鑑泉太極拳社) is a well known school teaching Wu style t'ai chi ch'uan.
The Jixia Academy or Academy of the Gate of ChiNeedham, Joseph.
Kanji (漢字) are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system.
is a traditional Japanese martial art, which descended from swordsmanship (kenjutsu) and uses bamboo swords (shinai) and protective armour (bōgu).
The Kharia language (autonym: kʰaɽija or kʰeɽija) is a Munda language that is primarily spoken by the indigenous Kharia people of eastern India.
Khmer or Cambodian (natively ភាសាខ្មែរ phiəsaa khmae, or more formally ខេមរភាសា kheemaʾraʾ phiəsaa) is the language of the Khmer people and the official language of Cambodia.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
Korean martial arts (Hangul: 무술, Hanja: 武術, musul or Hangul: 무예, Hanja: 武藝, muye) are military practices and methods which have their place in the history of Korea but have been adapted for use by both military and non-military personnel as a method of personal growth or recreation.
, are the traditional forms of kanji, Chinese written characters used in Japanese.
The languages of East Asia belong to several distinct language families, with many common features attributed to interaction.
Large Seal script or Great Seal script is a traditional reference to Chinese writing from before the Qin dynasty, and is now popularly understood to refer narrowly to the writing of the Western and early Eastern Zhou dynasties, and more broadly to also include the oracle bone script.
Laurent Sagart (born 1951) is a senior researcher at the Centre de recherches linguistiques sur l'Asie orientale (CRLAO – UMR 8563) unit of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS).
Li （理, pinyin lǐ）is a concept found in Neo-Confucian Chinese philosophy.
Li Rong (4 February 1920 – 31 December 2002) was a Chinese linguist known for his work on Chinese dialectology.
Words of Chinese origin have entered the English language and many European languages.
Esoteric healing refers to numerous types of alternative therapy which aim to heal disease and disability, using esoteric means, either through faith and human will, or by using pseudoscientific processes.
Liú Ān (c. 179–122 BC) was a Han dynasty Chinese prince and an advisor to his nephew, Emperor Wu of Han (武帝).
Note: The art is commonly abbreviated as LHBF, and often referred to by its Cantonese name: Lok Hap Baat Faat Liuhebafachuan 六合八法拳; Pinyin: liùhébāfǎquán) (literally Six Harmonies Eight Methods Boxing) is a form of internal Chinese martial arts. It has been called "Xinyi Liuhebafa-" 心意六合八法拳 and is also referred to as "Water Boxing" (shuǐ quán 水拳) due to its principles.
Livity is the Rastafarian concept of righteous, everliving living.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase.
Lung (rlung) means wind or breath.
Luohan quan, which means "Arhat fist", is a general name for all the styles of Chinese martial arts that are named after the Arhats, the holy Buddhist figures.
The luopan or geomantic compass is a Chinese magnetic compass, also known as a Feng Shui compass.
The Luxuriant Dew of the Spring and Autumn Annals is one of the works attributed to Dong Zhongshu that has survived to the present, though its compilation might have continued past his lifetime into the 4th century.
Mana, in Austronesian languages, means "power", "effectiveness", and "prestige".
are comics created in Japan or by creators in the Japanese language, conforming to a style developed in Japan in the late 19th century.
Manitou, akin to the Iroquois orenda, is the spiritual and fundamental life force among Algonquian groups in the Native American mythology.
Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practices, which are practiced for a number of reasons: as self-defense, military and law enforcement applications, mental and spiritual development; as well as entertainment and the preservation of a nation's intangible cultural heritage.
In linguistics, meaning is the information or concepts that a sender intends to convey, or does convey, in communication with a receiver.
Meditation can be defined as a practice where an individual uses a technique, such as focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity, to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state.
Mencius or Mengzi (372–289 BC or 385–303 or 302BC) was a Chinese philosopher who has often been described as the "second Sage", that is after only Confucius himself.
The meridian system (also called channel network) is a concept in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) about a path through which the life-energy known as "qi" flows.
Middle Chinese (formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese recorded in the Qieyun, a rime dictionary first published in 601 and followed by several revised and expanded editions.
Moxibustion is a traditional Chinese medicine therapy which consists of burning dried mugwort (wikt:moxa) on particular points on the body.
Mozi (Latinized as Micius; c. 470 – c. 391 BC), original name Mo Di (墨翟), was a Chinese philosopher during the Hundred Schools of Thought period (early Warring States period).
Mugwort is a common name for several species of aromatic plants in the genus Artemisia. In Europe, mugwort most often refers to the species Artemisia vulgaris, or common mugwort.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.
In advanced traditional Chinese kung fu (martial arts), Neijing (Traditional Chinese: 內勁; pinyin: nèijìng) refers to the conscious control of the practitioner's qi, or "life energy", to gain advantages in combat.
The c. 350 BCE Neiye 內業 or Inward Training is the oldest Chinese received text describing Daoist breath meditation techniques and qi circulation.
Neo-Confucianism (often shortened to lixue 理學) is a moral, ethical, and metaphysical Chinese philosophy influenced by Confucianism, and originated with Han Yu and Li Ao (772–841) in the Tang Dynasty, and became prominent during the Song and Ming dynasties.
Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.
Nomenclature is a system of names or terms, or the rules for forming these terms in a particular field of arts or sciences.
Odinani comprises the traditional religious practices and cultural beliefs of the Igbo people of southern Nigeria.
Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese.
Oracle bone script was the form of Chinese characters used on oracle bonesanimal bones or turtle plastrons used in pyromantic divinationin the late 2nd millennium BCE, and is the earliest known form of Chinese writing.
Orgone is a pseudo-scientific and spiritual concept described as an esoteric energy or hypothetical universal life force, originally proposed in the 1930s by Wilhelm Reich.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Pe̍h-ōe-jī (abbreviated POJ, literally vernacular writing, also known as Church Romanization) is an orthography used to write variants of Southern Min Chinese, particularly Taiwanese Southern Min and Amoy Hokkien.
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
In Stoic philosophy, pneuma (πνεῦμα) is the concept of the "breath of life," a mixture of the elements air (in motion) and fire (as warmth).
Polysemy (or; from πολυ-, poly-, "many" and σῆμα, sêma, "sign") is the capacity for a sign (such as a word, phrase, or symbol) to have multiple meanings (that is, multiple semes or sememes and thus multiple senses), usually related by contiguity of meaning within a semantic field.
Popular culture (also called pop culture) is generally recognized as a set of the practices, beliefs, and objects that are dominant or ubiquitous in a society at a given point in time.
In philosophy, potentiality and actuality are principles of a dichotomy which Aristotle used to analyze motion, causality, ethics, and physiology in his Physics, Metaphysics, Nicomachean Ethics and De Anima, which is about the human psyche.
In Hindu philosophy including yoga, Indian medicine, and martial arts, Prana (प्राण,; the Sanskrit word for "life force" or "vital principle") comprises all cosmic energies that permeate the Universe on all levels.
Qigong, qi gong, chi kung, or chi gung is a holistic system of coordinated body posture and movement, breathing, and meditation used in the belief that it promotes health, spirituality, and martial arts training.
The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.
In physics, and in particular as measured by radiometry, radiant energy is the energy of electromagnetic and gravitational radiation.
A Chinese radical is a graphical component of a Chinese character under which the character is traditionally listed in a Chinese dictionary.
Radical 162 meaning "walk" is 1 of 20 Kangxi radicals (214 radicals total) composed of 7 strokes.
Radical 184 meaning "eat" or "food" is 1 of 11 Kangxi radicals (214 radicals total) composed of 9 strokes.
File:心-bronze.svg|Bronze script character File:心-bigseal.svg|Large Seal Script character File:心-seal.svg|Small Seal Script character Radical 61 meaning "heart" is one of 34 of the 214 Kangxi radicals that are composed of 4 strokes.
Radical 84 meaning "steam" or "breath" is 1 of 34 Kangxi radicals (214 radicals total) composed of 4 strokes.
Radical 86 meaning "fire" is 1 of 34 Kangxi radicals (214 radicals total) composed of 4 strokes.
Regular script (Hepburn: kaisho), also called 正楷, 真書 (zhēnshū), 楷體 (kǎitǐ) and 正書 (zhèngshū), is the newest of the Chinese script styles (appearing by the Cao Wei dynasty ca. 200 CE and maturing stylistically around the 7th century), hence most common in modern writings and publications (after the Ming and gothic styles, used exclusively in print).
() is a form of alternative medicine developed in 1922 by Mikao Usui.
The Rgyalrongic languages (also rendered Jiarongic), constitute a branch of the Qiangic languages of Sino-Tibetan, although Randy LaPolla (2003) proposes that it may be part of a larger Rung languages group.
The Romanization of Chinese is the use of the Latin alphabet to write Chinese.
Sati (in Pali; Sanskrit: smṛti) is mindfulness or awareness, a spiritual or psychological faculty (indriya) that forms an essential part of Buddhist practice.
The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.
Shaolin Kung Fu, also called Shaolin Wushu or Shaolin quan, is one of the oldest, largest, and most famous styles of wushu or kungfu.
are the simplified forms of kanji used in Japan since the promulgation of the Tōyō Kanji List in 1946.
Shuowen Jiezi, often shortened to Shuowen, was an early 2nd-century Chinese dictionary from the Han Dynasty.
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China.
Sino-Xenic or Sinoxenic pronunciations are regular systems for reading Chinese characters in Japan, Korea and Vietnam, originating in medieval times and the source of large-scale borrowings of Chinese words into the Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese languages, none of which are genetically related to Chinese.
The skeptical movement (also spelled sceptical) is a modern social movement based on the idea of scientific skepticism (also called rational skepticism).
Small Seal Script (Chinese: 小篆, xiǎozhuàn), formerly romanized as Hsiao-chuan and also known as Seal Script, Lesser Seal Script and Qin Script (秦篆, Qínzhuàn), is an archaic form of Chinese calligraphy.
There are several Chinese martial arts known as Snake Boxing or Fanged Snake Style which imitate the movements of snakes.
Sora is an Austroasiatic language of the Sora people, an ethnic group of eastern India, mainly in the states of Odisha and Andhra Pradesh.
The movements of the Southern Dragon style of Shaolin Boxing are based on the mythical Chinese dragon.
Southern Min, or Minnan, is a branch of Min Chinese spoken in Taiwan and in certain parts of China including Fujian (especially the Minnan region), eastern Guangdong, Hainan, and southern Zhejiang.
Southern Praying Mantis is a Chinese martial art originating with the Hakka people.
A spirit is a supernatural being, often but not exclusively a non-physical entity; such as a ghost, fairy, or angel.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
Star Wars is an American epic space opera media franchise, centered on a film series created by George Lucas.
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
Tai chi (taiji), short for T'ai chi ch'üan, or Taijiquan (pinyin: tàijíquán; 太极拳), is an internal Chinese martial art practiced for both its defense training and its health benefits.
Taiji is a Chinese cosmological term for the "Supreme Ultimate" state of undifferentiated absolute and infinite potential, the oneness before duality, from which Yin and Yang originate, can be compared with the old Wuji (無極, "without ridgepole").
Tao or Dao (from) is a Chinese word signifying 'way', 'path', 'route', 'road' or sometimes more loosely 'doctrine', 'principle' or 'holistic science' Dr Zai, J..
The tōyō kanji, also known as the Tōyō kanjihyō (当用漢字表, "list of kanji for general use") are the result of a reform of the Kanji characters of Chinese origin in the Japanese written language.
is a fighting video game franchise created, developed, and published by Namco (later Bandai Namco Entertainment).
The All (also called The One, The Absolute, The Great One, The Creator, The Supreme Mind, The Supreme Good, The Father, and The All Mother) is the Hermetic, pantheistic, pandeistic or panentheistic view of God, which is that everything that is, or at least that can be experienced, collectively makes up The All.
The Chinese Repository was a periodical published in Canton between May 1832 and 1851 to inform Protestant missionaries working in Asia about the history and culture of China, of current events, and documents.
The Encyclopaedia Sinica is a 1917 English-language encyclopedia on China and China-related subjects edited by English missionary Samuel Couling.
The Force is a metaphysical and ubiquitous power in the Star Wars fictional universe.
Tibetan Buddhism is the form of Buddhist doctrine and institutions named after the lands of Tibet, but also found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas and much of Central Asia.
Traditional Chinese characters (Pinyin) are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine.
Tui na is a form of Chinese manipulative therapy often used in conjunction with acupuncture, moxibustion, fire cupping, Chinese herbalism, t'ai chi, and qigong.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
Chinese, also known as Sinitic, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
Vitalism is the belief that "living organisms are fundamentally different from non-living entities because they contain some non-physical element or are governed by different principles than are inanimate things".
Wade–Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese.
Wang Li (IPA: /wɑŋ' li:/; 10 August 1900 – 3 May 1986) was a Chinese linguist, educator, translator and poet, described as "the founder of Chinese Linguistics".
Western esotericism (also called esotericism and esoterism), also known as the Western mystery tradition, is a term under which scholars have categorised a wide range of loosely related ideas and movements which have developed within Western society.
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
William Hubbard Baxter III (born March 3, 1949) is an American linguist specializing in the history of the Chinese language and best known for his work on the reconstruction on Old Chinese.
Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale.
Wu (Shanghainese:; Suzhou dialect:; Wuxi dialect) is a group of linguistically similar and historically related varieties of Chinese primarily spoken in the whole Zhejiang province, city of Shanghai, and the southern half of Jiangsu province, as well as bordering areas.
The Wu Xing, also known as the Five Elements, Five Phases, the Five Agents, the Five Movements, Five Processes, the Five Steps/Stages and the Five Planets of significant gravity: Jupiter-木, Saturn-土, Mercury-水, Venus-金, Mars-火Dr Zai, J..
Xing Yi Quan is classified as one of the Wudang styles of Chinese martial arts.
Xun Kuang (c. 310c. 235 BC, alt. c. 314c. 217 BC), also widely known as Xunzi ("Master Xun"), was a Chinese Confucian philosopher who lived during the Warring States period and contributed to the Hundred Schools of Thought.
In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang (and; 陽 yīnyáng, lit. "dark-bright", "negative-positive") describes how seemingly opposite or contrary forces may actually be complementary, interconnected, and interdependent in the natural world, and how they may give rise to each other as they interrelate to one another.
Yoga (Sanskrit, योगः) is a group of physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India.
In traditional Chinese medicine and Chinese culture, yuán qì (元氣) is an innate or pre-natal qi.
The zàng-fǔ organs are functional entities stipulated by Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).
Zhengzhang Shangfang (9 August 1933 – 19 May 2018) was a Chinese linguist, known for his reconstruction of Old Chinese.
The Zhou dynasty or the Zhou Kingdom was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty.
The Zhuangzi (Mandarin:; historically romanized Chuang-tzu) is an ancient Chinese text from the late Warring States period (476221) which contains stories and anecdotes that exemplify the carefree nature of the ideal Daoist sage.