218 relations: Abatai, Aisin Gioro, Amursana, Andreas Everardus van Braam Houckgeest, Anti-Qing sentiment, Ayutthaya Kingdom, Évariste Régis Huc, Barbarian, Beijing, Bodhisattva, British Museum, Bronze, Burmese–Siamese War (1765–67), Calque, Canton System, Central Asia, Chagatai language, Changchun, Chengde, Chengde Mountain Resort, China, China proper, Chinese emperors family tree (late), Chinese era name, Chinese language, Chinese philosophy, Chingünjav, Chrétien-Louis-Joseph de Guignes, Consort Dun, Consort Shu, Dalai Lama, Damals, Daoguang Emperor, De facto, Dowager Noble Consort Wan, Dutch East India Company, Dynasty, Dzungar genocide, Dzungar Khanate, Dzungar people, Eastern Qing tombs, Eight Banners, Emin Minaret, Emperor of China, Empress Xiaoshengxian, Empress Xiaoxianchun, Empress Xiaoyichun, Evenks, Firearm ownership law in China, Forbidden City, ..., Fountain, Fragrant Concubine, Fu (poetry), Fu Sheng (scholar), Gelug, George III of the United Kingdom, George Macartney, 1st Earl Macartney, Giuseppe Castiglione (Jesuit painter), Green Standard Army, Guangzhou, Gurkha, Gurun Princess Hexiao, Haijin, Haining, Hall of Mental Cultivation, Han Chinese, Hanlin Academy, Hanoi, Hebei, Heshen, Hong Taiji, Hongshi, House of Zhu, Hsinbyushin, Hua Mulan, Hulunbuir, Ignatius Sichelbart, Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Imperial hunt of the Qing dynasty, Imperial Noble Consort Chunhui, Imperial Noble Consort Huixian, Imperial Noble Consort Qinggong, Imperial Noble Consort Zhemin, Inner Mongolia, Inwa, Isaac Titsingh, Jade, Jean Denis Attiret, Jean Joseph Marie Amiot, Jean-Damascène Sallusti, Jesus, Jiaqing Emperor, Jinzhou, Juanqinzhai, Kangxi Emperor, Kazakhs, Kowtow, Kunming Lake, Kyrgyz people, Lacquer, Landscape painting, Lê Chiêu Thống, Lê dynasty, Lhasa riot of 1750, Liao River, Liaoning, Lingchi, List of emperors of the Qing dynasty, List of largest empires, List of Qing imperial residents in Tibet, Literary Inquisition, Long Corridor, Macau, Manchu language, Manchu people, Manchuria, Manjushri, Manwen Laodang, Marquis of Extended Grace, Miao Rebellion (1735–36), Michel Benoist, Military strategy, Ming dynasty, Ming tombs, Mirror, Missionary, Mongolian language, Mongols, Names of China, Nguyễn Huệ, Ning'an, Noble Consort Xin, Noble Consort Xun, Noble Consort Ying, Noble Consort Yu, Nurhaci, Oirat language, Old Summer Palace, Opium, Opium Wars, Palace of Heavenly Purity, Palace of Tranquil Longevity, Panchen Lama, Pentaglot Dictionary, Percival David Foundation of Chinese Art, Peter C. Perdue, Potala Palace, Pottery, Prince Cheng of the First Rank, Prince Ding, Prince Lü, Prince Qing, Prince Rong, Prince Shen, Prince Xun (循), Prince Yi (儀), Putuo Zongcheng Temple, Qianlong Dynasty, Qin dynasty, Qing dynasty, Regent, Rehe Province, Russian Empire, Seal (emblem), Shenyang, Shunzhi Emperor, Siku Quanshu, Sino-Burmese War (1765–69), Smallpox, Solon people, Song dynasty, Songhua River, Summer Palace, Tael, Taishang Huang, Tangshan, Tangut language, Tết, Tây Sơn dynasty, Ten Great Campaigns, Thangka, The Immobile Empire, The Journal of Asian Studies, Tianxia, Tibetan Buddhism, Tibetic languages, Tieling, Tributary state, Turpan, Ulanara, the Step Empress, University of Hong Kong, Uyghurs, Victoria and Albert Museum, Vitreous enamel, Water supply, Wei Yuan, White Lotus Rebellion, World Monuments Fund, Xinjiang, Xiyang Lou, Yan Hui, Yonghe Temple, Yonghuang, Yonglin, Yongqi, Prince Rong, Yongrong, Yongzheng Emperor, Yu Minzhong, Yuan dynasty, Yue Fei, Yue Zhongqi, Yunnan, Yunsi, Zhang Zai, Zhao Yi, Zhejiang, Zhoushan, Zunhua. Expand index (168 more) » « Shrink index
Abatai (Manchu:; 27 July 1589 – 10 May 1646) was a Manchu prince and military general of the early Qing dynasty.
Aisin Gioro is the imperial clan of Manchu emperors of the Qing dynasty.
Amursana (Mongolian; 172321September 1757) was an 18th-century taishi or prince of the Khoit-Oirat tribe that ruled over parts of Dzungaria and Altishahr in present-day northwest China.
Andreas Everardus van Braam Houckgeest (1 November 1739 in Werkhoven – 8 July 1801 in Amsterdam) Dutch-American merchant who is mostly known for his participation in the last Dutch embassy to China under the tributary system.
Anti-Qing sentiment refers to a sentiment principally held in China against the Manchu ruling during the Qing dynasty (1644–1912), which was accused by a number of opponents of being barbarian.
The Ayutthaya Kingdom (อยุธยา,; also spelled Ayudhya or Ayodhaya) was a Siamese kingdom that existed from 1351 to 1767.
Évariste Régis Huc, C.M., or the Abbé Huc,* (1813–1860) was a French missionary Catholic priest and traveller, famous for his accounts of China, Tartary and Tibet, in his book "A Journey Through the Chinese Empire".
A barbarian is a human who is perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
In Buddhism, Bodhisattva is the Sanskrit term for anyone who has generated Bodhicitta, a spontaneous wish and compassionate mind to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings. Bodhisattvas are a popular subject in Buddhist art.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
The Burmese–Siamese War (1765–1767) (ယိုးဒယား-မြန်မာစစ် (၁၇၆၅–၁၇၆၇); สงครามคราวเสียกรุงศรีอยุธยาครั้งที่สอง, lit. "war of the second fall of Ayutthaya") was the second military conflict between the Konbaung Dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) and the Ban Phlu Luang Dynasty of Siam (Thailand), and the war that ended the four-century-old Siamese kingdom.
In linguistics, a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation.
The Canton System (1757–1842) served as a means for China to control trade with the west within its own country by focusing all trade on the southern port of Canton (now Guangzhou).
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Chagatai (جغتای) is an extinct Turkic language which was once widely spoken in Central Asia, and remained the shared literary language there until the early 20th century.
Changchun is the capital and largest city of Jilin Province, and is also the core city of Northeast Asia.
Chengde, previously known as Jehol or Rehe, is a prefecture-level city in Hebei province, situated northeast of Beijing.
The Mountain Resort in Chengde (Manchu: Halhūn be jailara gurung) or Ligong, is a large complex of imperial palaces and gardens situated in the city of Chengde in Hebei, China.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western writers on the Manchu Qing dynasty to express a distinction between the core and frontier regions of China.
This is a family tree of Chinese emperors from the Mongol conquest of 1279 to the end of the Qing dynasty in 1912.
A Chinese era name is the regnal year, reign period, or regnal title used when traditionally numbering years in an emperor's reign and naming certain Chinese rulers.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, during a period known as the "Hundred Schools of Thought", which was characterized by significant intellectual and cultural developments.
Chingunjavi (Чингүн, also known as Admiral Chingün, Чингүн., 1710–1757) was the Khalka prince ruler of the Khotogoids and one of the two major leaders of the 1756-57 rebellion in Outer Mongolia.
Chrétien-Louis-Joseph de Guignes (1759–1845) was a French merchant-trader, ambassador and scholar, born in Paris.
Consort Dun (27 March 1746 – 6 March 1806) was a consort of the Qianlong Emperor of the Qing dynasty.
Consort Shu (1728–1777) was a consort of the Qianlong Emperor of the Qing dynasty.
Dalai Lama (Standard Tibetan: ཏཱ་ལའི་བླ་མ་, Tā la'i bla ma) is a title given to spiritual leaders of the Tibetan people.
Damals is a German monthly popular scientific history magazine.
The Daoguang Emperor (16 September 1782 – 25 February 1850) was the eighth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the sixth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1820 to 1850.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
Dowager Noble Consort Wan (1716 – 10 March 1807) was a consort of the Qianlong Emperor of the Qing dynasty.
The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family,Oxford English Dictionary, "dynasty, n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1897.
The Dzungar genocide was the mass extermination of the Mongol Buddhist Dzungar people, sometimes referred as "Zunghars", at the hands of the Manchu Qing dynasty of China and the Uyghurs of Xinjiang.
The Dzungar Khanate, also written as the Zunghar Khanate, was an Oirat khanate on the Eurasian Steppe.
The name Dzungar people, also written as Zunghar (literally züüngar, from the Mongolian for "left hand"), referred to the several Oirat tribes who formed and maintained the Dzungar Khanate in the 17th and 18th centuries.
The Eastern Qing tombs are an imperial mausoleum complex of the Qing dynasty located in Zunhua, northeast of Beijing.
The Eight Banners (in Manchu: jakūn gūsa) were administrative/military divisions under the Qing dynasty into which all Manchu households were placed.
The Emin Minaret or Emin Tower stands by the Uyghur mosque located in Turfan, Xinjiang, China.
The Emperor or Huangdi was the secular imperial title of the Chinese sovereign reigning between the founding of the Qin dynasty that unified China in 221 BC, until the abdication of Puyi in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution and the establishment of the Republic of China, although it was later restored twice in two failed revolutions in 1916 and 1917.
Empress Xiaoshengxian (Manchu: hiyoošungga enduringge temgetulehe hūwangheo; 1 January 1693 – 2 March 1777) was a consort of the Yongzheng Emperor of the Qing dynasty.
Empress Xiaoxianchun (28 March 1712 – 8 April 1748) was the first Empress Consort of the Qianlong Emperor of the Qing dynasty.
Empress Xiaoyichun (23 October 1727 – 28 February 1775) was an Imperial Noble Consort of the Qianlong Emperor of the Qing dynasty.
The Evenks (also spelled Ewenki or Evenki) (autonym: Эвэнкил Evenkil; Эвенки Evenki; Èwēnkè Zú; formerly known as Tungus or Tunguz; Хамниган Khamnigan) are a Tungusic people of Northern Asia.
Firearm ownership law in the People's Republic of China heavily regulates the ownership of firearms.
The Forbidden City is a palace complex in central Beijing, China.
A fountain (from the Latin "fons" (genitive "fontis"), a source or spring) is a piece of architecture which pours water into a basin or jets it into the air to supply drinking water and/or for a decorative or dramatic effect.
The Fragrant Concubine (Uyghur: ئىپارخان / Iparxan / Ипархан) is a figure in Chinese legend who was taken as a consort by the Qianlong Emperor of the Qing dynasty in the 18th century.
Fu, sometimes translated "rhapsody" or "poetic exposition", is a form of Chinese rhymed prose that was the dominant literary form during the Han dynasty (206AD220).
Fu Sheng (268–178 BC), also known as Master Fu (伏生), was a Confucian scholar of the Qin and Western Han dynasties of ancient China.
The Gelug (Wylie: dGe-Lugs-Pa) is the newest of the schools of Tibetan Buddhism.
George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.
George Macartney, 1st Earl Macartney, KB (14 May 1737 – 31 May 1806) was a British statesman, colonial administrator and diplomat.
Giuseppe Castiglione, S.J. (19 July 1688 – 17 July 1766), was an Italian Jesuit brother and a missionary in China, where he served as an artist at the imperial court of three emperors – the Kangxi, Yongzheng and Qianlong emperors.
The Green Standard Army (Manchu: niowanggiyan turun i kūwaran) was the name of a category of military units under the control of Qing dynasty China.
Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.
The Gurkhas or Gorkhas with endonym Gorkhali (गोरखाली) are the soldiers of Nepalese nationality and ethnic Indian Gorkhas recruited in the British Army, Nepalese Army, Indian Army, Gurkha Contingent Singapore, Gurkha Reserve Unit Brunei, UN Peace Keeping force, and war zones around the world.
Gurun Princess Hexiao (2 February 1775 – 13 October 1823), personal name unknown, was a Manchu princess of the Qing dynasty.
The Haijin or sea ban was a series of related isolationist Chinese policies restricting private maritime trading and coastal settlement during most of the Ming dynasty and some of the Qing.
() is a county-level city in Zhejiang Province, China, and under the jurisdiction of Jiaxing.
The Hall of Mental Cultivation is a building in the inner courtyard of the Forbidden City in Beijing, China.
The Han Chinese,.
The Hanlin Academy (Manchu: bithei yamun) was an academic and administrative institution founded in the eighth-century Tang China by Emperor Xuanzong in Chang'an.
Hanoi (or; Hà Nội)) is the capital of Vietnam and the country's second largest city by population. The population in 2015 was estimated at 7.7 million people. The city lies on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is north of Ho Chi Minh City and west of Hai Phong city. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam. It was eclipsed by Huế, the imperial capital of Vietnam during the Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1945). In 1873 Hanoi was conquered by the French. From 1883 to 1945, the city was the administrative center of the colony of French Indochina. The French built a modern administrative city south of Old Hanoi, creating broad, perpendicular tree-lined avenues of opera, churches, public buildings, and luxury villas, but they also destroyed large parts of the city, shedding or reducing the size of lakes and canals, while also clearing out various imperial palaces and citadels. From 1940 to 1945 Hanoi, as well as the largest part of French Indochina and Southeast Asia, was occupied by the Japanese. On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). The Vietnamese National Assembly under Ho Chi Minh decided on January 6, 1946, to make Hanoi the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Vietnam, and it became the capital of a reunified Vietnam in 1976, after the North's victory in the Vietnam War. October 2010 officially marked 1,000 years since the establishment of the city. The Hanoi Ceramic Mosaic Mural is a ceramic mosaic mural created to mark the occasion.
Hebei (postal: Hopeh) is a province of China in the North China region.
Niohuru Heshen (1 July 1750 – 22 February 1799) of the Manchu Niohuru clan, was an official of the Qing dynasty who was favoured by the Qianlong Emperor.
Hong Taiji (28November 159221 September1643), sometimes written as Huang Taiji and also referred to as Abahai in Western literature, was an Emperor of the Qing dynasty.
Hongshi (Manchu: Hungši; 18 March 1704 – 20 September 1727) was a Manchu prince of the Qing dynasty.
House of Zhu, also known as House of Chu, was the imperial family of the Ming dynasty of China.
Hsinbyushin (ဆင်ဖြူရှင်,; พระเจ้ามังระ; 12 September 1736 – 10 June 1776) was king of the Konbaung dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from 1763 to 1776.
Hua Mulan is a legendary woman warrior from the Northern and Southern dynasties period (420–589) of Chinese history, originally described in the Ballad of Mulan.
Hulunbuir or Hulun Buir (style, Kölün buyir, Cyrillic: Хөлөнбуйр, Khölönbuir;, Hūlúnbèi'ěr) is a region that is governed as a prefecture-level city in northeastern Inner Mongolia, in China.
Ignatius Sichelbart also Sickelbart, Sickelpart; Chinese 艾啓蒙 / 艾启蒙 Ài Qǐměng or Ai Ch'i-meng; (September 26, 1708 Nejdek – October 6, 1780 Beijing), was a German-Bohemian Jesuit missionary and painter.
Ili or Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture in northernmost Xinjiang is the only Kazakh autonomous prefecture in China.
The imperial hunt of the Qing dynasty was an annual rite of the emperors of China during the Qing dynasty (1644–1911).
Imperial Noble Consort Chunhui (1713–1760) was a consort of the Qianlong Emperor of the Qing dynasty.
Imperial Noble Consort Huixian (died 1745) was a consort of the Qianlong Emperor of the Qing dynasty.
Imperial Noble Consort Qinggong (1724–1774) was a consort of the Qianlong Emperor of the Qing dynasty.
Imperial Noble Consort Zhemin (died 20 August 1735) was a consort of the Qianlong Emperor of the Qing dynasty.
Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region (Ѳвѳр Монголын Ѳѳртѳѳ Засах Орон in Mongolian Cyrillic), is one of the autonomous regions of China, located in the north of the country.
Inwa or Ava (or; also spelled Innwa), located in Mandalay Region, Burma (Myanmar), is an ancient imperial capital of successive Burmese kingdoms from the 14th to 19th centuries.
Isaac Titsingh FRS (10 January 1745 in Amsterdam – 2 February 1812 in Paris) was a Dutch scholar, merchant-trader and ambassador.
Jade is an ornamental mineral, mostly known for its green varieties, which is featured prominently in ancient Asian art.
Jean Denis Attiret (31 July 1702 – 8 December 1768) was a French Jesuit painter and missionary to China.
Jean Joseph Marie Amiot (sometimes Amyot;; February 1718 - October 9, 1793) was a French Jesuit missionary in Qing China, during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor.
Jean-Damascène Sallusti (An Deyi) (d. 1781) was an Italian missionary to China, as well as a court painter under the Qianlong Emperor of the Qing dynasty.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
The Jiaqing Emperor (13 November 1760 – 2 September 1820), personal name Yongyan, was the seventh emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the fifth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1796 to 1820.
Jinzhou is a prefecture-level city of Liaoning province, People's Republic of China.
Juanqinzhai (Chinese: 倦勤斋), or the "Studio of Exhaustion From Diligent Service," is a hall in the Palace of Tranquil Longevity built by the aging Qianlong Emperor as part of his retirement suite.
The Kangxi Emperor (康熙; 4 May 165420 December 1722), personal name Xuanye, was the fourth emperor of the Qing dynasty, the first to be born on Chinese soil south of the Shanhai Pass near Beijing, and the second Qing emperor to rule over that part of China, from 1661 to 1722.
The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Қазақ, Qazaq, قازاق, Qazaqtar, Қазақтар, قازاقتار; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people who mainly inhabit the southern part of Eastern Europe and the Ural mountains and northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia and Mongolia), the region also known as the Eurasian sub-continent.
Kowtow, which is borrowed from kau tau in Cantonese (koutou in Mandarin Chinese), is the act of deep respect shown by prostration, that is, kneeling and bowing so low as to have one's head touching the ground.
Kunming Lake (Chinese: 昆明湖, p Kūnmíng Hú) is the central lake on the grounds of the Summer Palace in Beijing, China.
The Kyrgyz people (also spelled Kyrghyz and Kirghiz) are a Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily Kyrgyzstan.
The term lacquer is used for a number of hard and potentially shiny finishes applied to materials such as wood.
Landscape painting, also known as landscape art, is the depiction of landscapes in art – natural scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, and forests, especially where the main subject is a wide view – with its elements arranged into a coherent composition.
Lê Chiêu Thống (1765–1793), born Lê Duy Khiêm and later Lê Duy Kỳ, was the last emperor of the Vietnamese Lê dynasty.
The Later Lê dynasty (Nhà Hậu Lê; Hán Việt: 後黎朝), sometimes referred to as the Lê dynasty (the earlier Lê dynasty ruled only for a brief period (980–1009)), was the longest-ruling dynasty of Vietnam, ruling the country from 1428 to 1788, with a brief six-year interruption of the Mạc dynasty usurpers (1527–1533).
The Lhasa riot of 1750 took place in the Tibetan capital Lhasa, and lasted several days during the period of Qing rule of Tibet.
The Liao River is the principal river in southern Northeast China, and one of the seven main river systems in mainland China.
Liaoning is a province of China, located in the northeast of the country.
Lingchi, translated variously as the slow process, the lingering death, or slow slicing, and also known as death by a thousand cuts, was a form of torture and execution used in China from roughly 900 CE until it was banned in 1905.
The Qing dynasty (1644–1912) was the last imperial dynasty of China.
This is a list of the largest empires in world history, but the list is not and cannot be definitive since the decision about which entities to consider as "empires" is difficult and fraught with controversy.
Qing dynasty imperial residents in Tibet (Tibetan: བོད་བཞུགས་ཨམ་བན, bod bzhugs am ban, Chinese: 钦差驻藏办事大臣), are ambans appointed from the Qing government to govern Tibet.
The literary inquisition or speech crime refers to official persecution of intellectuals for their writings in China.
The Long Corridor is a covered walkway in the Summer Palace in Beijing, China.
Macau, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Manchu (Manchu: manju gisun) is a critically endangered Tungusic language spoken in Manchuria; it was the native language of the Manchus and one of the official languages of the Qing dynasty (1636–1911) of China.
The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.
Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
Mañjuśrī is a bodhisattva associated with prajñā (insight) in Mahayana Buddhism.
Manwen Laodang (滿文老檔) is a set of Manchu official documents of the Qing dynasty, compiled during the late Qianlong period based on Jiu Manzhou Dang.
Marquis of Extended Grace was a title held by a descendant of the imperial family of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) during the subsequent Qing dynasty (1644–1912).
The Miao Rebellion of 1735-36 was an uprising of autochthonous people from southwest China (called by the Chinese "Miao", but including more than the antecedents of the present-day Miao national minority).
Michel Benoist (October 8, 1715 in Autun or Dijon, France – October 23, 1774 in Beijing, China of a stroke) was a Jesuit scientist, who stood in the service of the Chinese Qianlong Emperor for thirty years and is most noted for the waterworks he constructed for the emperor.
Military strategy is a set of ideas implemented by military organizations to pursue desired strategic goals.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
The Ming tombs are a collection of mausoleums built by the emperors of the Ming dynasty of China.
A mirror is an object that reflects light in such a way that, for incident light in some range of wavelengths, the reflected light preserves many or most of the detailed physical characteristics of the original light, called specular reflection.
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.
The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script: Moŋɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол хэл, mongol khel.) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
The names of China include the many contemporary and historical appellations given in various languages for the East Asian country known as Zhongguo (中國/中国) in its official language.
Nguyễn Huệ (阮惠), also known as Emperor Quang Trung (光中) (born in Bình Định in 1753, died in Phú Xuân on 16 September 1792), was the second emperor of the Tây Sơn dynasty, reigning from 1788 until 1792.
Ning'an (Chinese: 宁安; Pinyin: Níng'ān) is a city located approximately 20 km southwest of Mudanjiang, in Heilongjiang province of China.
Noble Consort Xin (died 1764) was a consort of the Qianlong Emperor of the Qing dynasty.
Noble Consort Xun (died 1797) was a consort of the Qianlong Emperor of the Qing dynasty.
Noble Consort Ying (1731–1800) was a consort of the Qianlong Emperor of the Qing dynasty.
Noble Consort Yu (15 June 1714 – 9 July 1792) was a consort of the Qianlong Emperor of the Qing dynasty.
Nurhaci (alternatively Nurhachi; 21 February 1559 – 30 September 1626) was a Jurchen chieftain of Jianzhou, a vassal of Ming, who rose to prominence in the late 16th century in Manchuria.
Oirat (Clear script: Oirad kelen; Kalmyk: Өөрд, Őrd; Khalkha-Mongolian: Ойрад, Oirad) belongs to the group of Mongolic languages.
The Old Summer Palace, known in Chinese as Yuanming Yuan, and originally called the Imperial Gardens, was a complex of palaces and gardens in present-day Haidian District, Beijing, China. It is located northwest of the walls of the former Imperial City section of Beijing.
Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).
The Opium Wars were two wars in the mid-19th century involving Anglo-Chinese disputes over British trade in China (prominently the eponymous opium trade) and China's sovereignty.
The Palace of Heavenly Purity, or Qianqing Palace (Manchu:; Möllendorff: kiyan cing gung) is a palace in the Forbidden City in Beijing, China.
The Palace of Tranquil Longevity (Chinese), literally, "peaceful old age palace," also called the Qianlong Garden, Qianlong Palace, Qianlong District or the Palace of Tranquility and Longevity, is a palace in Beijing, China, located in the northeast corner of the Inner Court of the Forbidden City.
The Panchen Lama is a tulku of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism.
The Pentaglot Dictionary (Chinese: 御製五體清文鑑, Yuzhi Wuti Qing Wenjian; the term 清文, Qingwen, "Qing language", was another name for the Manchu language in Chinese), also known as the Manchu Polyglot Dictionary, was a dictionary of major imperial languages compiled in the late Qianlong era of the Qing dynasty (also said to be compiled in 1794).
The Percival David Foundation of Chinese Art is a collection of Chinese ceramics and related items, on permanent display in its own gallery in Room 95 at the British Museum.
Peter C. Perdue (born 1949) is an American author, professor, and historian.
The Potala Palace in Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region, China was the residence of the Dalai Lama until the 14th Dalai Lama fled to India during the 1959 Tibetan uprising.
Pottery is the ceramic material which makes up pottery wares, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.
Prince Cheng of the First Rank, or simply Prince Cheng, was the title of a princely peerage used in China during the Manchu-led Qing dynasty (1644–1912).
Prince Ding of the First Rank, or simply Prince Ding, was the title of a princely peerage used in China during the Manchu-led Qing dynasty (1644–1912).
Prince Lü of the First Rank, or simply Prince Lü, was the title of a princely peerage used in China during the Manchu-led Qing dynasty (1644–1912).
Prince Qing of the First Rank (Manchu:; hošoi fengšen cin wang), or simply Prince Qing, was the title of a princely peerage used in China during the Manchu-led Qing dynasty (1644–1912).
Prince Rong of the First Rank, or simply Prince Rong, was the title of a princely peerage used in China during the Manchu-led Qing dynasty (1644–1912).
Prince Shen of the Second Rank (Manchu:; doroi ginggulehe giyūn wang), or simply Prince Shen, was the title of a princely peerage used in China during the Manchu-led Qing dynasty (1644–1912).
Prince Xun of the Second Rank, or simply Prince Xun, was the title of a princely peerage used in China during the Manchu-led Qing dynasty (1644–1912).
Prince Yi of the First Rank, or simply Prince Yi, was the title of a princely peerage used in China during the Manchu-led Qing dynasty (1644–1912).
The Putuo Zongcheng Temple of Chengde, Hebei province, China is a Qing dynasty era Buddhist temple complex built between 1767 and 1771,Foret, 155.
Qianlong Dynasty is a Chinese television series based on the novel Qianlong Huangdi (乾隆皇帝; The Qianlong Emperor) by Eryue He.
The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.
Rehe (ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ), also known as Jehol, is a former Chinese special administrative region and province.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
A seal is a device for making an impression in wax, clay, paper, or some other medium, including an embossment on paper, and is also the impression thus made.
Shenyang, formerly known by its Manchu name Mukden or Fengtian, is the provincial capital and the largest city of Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China, as well as the largest city in Northeast China by urban population.
The Shunzhi Emperor; Manchu: ijishūn dasan hūwangdi; ᠡᠶ ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ |translit.
The Siku Quanshu, variously translated as the Complete Library in Four Sections, Imperial Collection of Four, Emperor's Four Treasuries, Complete Library in Four Branches of Literature, or Complete Library of the Four Treasuries, is the largest collection of books in Chinese history.
The Sino-Burmese War (တရုတ်-မြန်မာ စစ် (၁၇၆၅–၆၉)), also known as the Qing invasions of Burma or the Myanmar campaign of the Qing dynasty, was a war fought between the Qing dynasty of China and the Konbaung dynasty of Burma (Myanmar).
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
The Solon people are a subgroup of the Ewenki (Evenk) people of northeastern Asia.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
The Songhua River (also Haixi or Xingal, formerly Sunggari) is one of the primary rivers of China, and the largest tributary of the Amur River.
The Summer Palace, is a vast ensemble of lakes, gardens and palaces in Beijing.
Tael (at the OED Online.) or tahil can refer to any one of several weight measures of the Far East.
In Chinese history, a Taishang Huang or Taishang Huangdi, is a retired emperor who had, at least in name, abdicated in favour of someone else.
Tangshan is a largely industrial prefecture-level city in northeastern Hebei province, China.
Tangut (also Xīxià or Hsi-Hsia or Mi-nia) is an ancient northeastern Tibeto-Burman language once spoken in the Western Xia, also known as the Tangut Empire.
Tết, or Vietnamese New Year, is the most important celebration in Vietnamese culture.
The name Tây Sơn (Hán Việt: 西山朝) is used in Vietnamese history in various ways to refer to the period of peasant rebellions and decentralized dynasties established between the end of the figurehead Lê dynasty in 1770 and the beginning of the Nguyễn dynasty in 1802.
The Ten Great Campaigns were a series of military campaigns launched by the Qing Empire of China in the mid–late 18th century during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor (r. 1735–96).
A thangka, variously spelt as thangka, tangka, thanka, or tanka (Nepal Bhasa: पौभा), is a Tibetan Buddhist painting on cotton, silk appliqué, usually depicting a Buddhist deity, scene, or mandala.
The Immobile Empire is the English translation of L'empire Immobile, Ou, Le Choc Des Mondes: Récit Historique, a book of history published in French 1989 by the French politician and writer Alain Peyrefitte and translated into English in 1992.
The Journal of Asian Studies is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Association for Asian Studies, covering Asian studies, ranging from history, the arts, social sciences, to philosophy of East, South, and Southeast Asia.
Tianxia is a Chinese term for an ancient Chinese cultural concept that denoted either the entire geographical world or the metaphysical realm of mortals, and later became associated with political sovereignty.
Tibetan Buddhism is the form of Buddhist doctrine and institutions named after the lands of Tibet, but also found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas and much of Central Asia.
The Tibetic languages are a cluster of Sino-Tibetan languages descended from Old Tibetan, spoken across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering the Indian subcontinent, including the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas in Baltistan, Ladakh, Nepal, Sikkim, and Bhutan.
Tieling is one of 14 prefecture-level citys in Liaoning province of the People's Republic of China.Tieling is a city where coal mining is an important industry.
A tributary state is a term for a pre-modern state in a particular type of subordinate relationship to a more powerful state which involved the sending of a regular token of submission, or tribute, to the superior power.
Turpan, also known as Turfan or Tulufan, is a prefecture-level city located in the east of Xinjiang, People's Republic of China.
The Step Empress (11 March 1718 – 14 July 1766), of the Ulanara clan, was the second Empress Consort of the Qianlong Emperor of the Qing dynasty.
The University of Hong Kong (often abbreviated as HKU) is a public research university located in Pokfulam, Hong Kong.
The Uyghurs or Uygurs (as the standard romanisation in Chinese GB 3304-1991) are a Turkic ethnic group who live in East and Central Asia.
The Victoria and Albert Museum (often abbreviated as the V&A) in London is the world's largest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 2.3 million objects.
Vitreous enamel, also called porcelain enamel, is a material made by fusing powdered glass to a substrate by firing, usually between.
Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities commercial organisations, community endeavors or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes.
Wei Yuan (April23, 1794March26, 1857), born Wei Yuanda, courtesy names Moshen (默深) and Hanshi (漢士), was a Chinese scholar from Shaoyang, Hunan.
The White Lotus Rebellion (1796–1804) was a rebellion initiated by followers of the White Lotus movement during the Qing dynasty of China.
World Monuments Fund (WMF) is a private, international, non-profit organization dedicated to the preservation of historic architecture and cultural heritage sites around the world through fieldwork, advocacy, grantmaking, education, and training.
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.
Xiyang Lou, are ruins of 18th-century European-style imperial buildings on the grounds of the Old Summer Palace in Beijing, China.
Yan Hui (–481 BC) was the favorite disciple of Confucius and one of the most revered figures of Confucianism.
The Yonghe Temple ("Palace of Peace and Harmony"), also known as the Yonghe Lamasery, or popularly as the Lama Temple, is a temple and monastery of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism located in Dongcheng District, Beijing, China.
Yonghuang (Manchu: Yong huwang; 5 July 1728 – 21 April 1750) was an imperial prince of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty in China.
Yonglin (17 June 1766 – 25 April 1820), formally known as Prince Qing, was a Manchu prince of the Qing dynasty in China.
Yongqi (23 March 1741 – 16 April 1766), courtesy name Junting, art name Tengqin Jushi, formally known as Prince Rong, was a Manchu prince of the Qing dynasty.
Yongrong (28 January 1744 – 13 June 1790) was a Manchu prince and calligrapher of the Qing dynasty in China.
The Yongzheng Emperor (13 December 1678 – 8 October 1735), born Yinzhen, was the fifth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the third Qing emperor to rule over China proper.
Yu Minzhong (1714–1779) was an official of the Qing Dynasty, who served as chief grand councilor for part of the reign of the Qianlong Emperor.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
Yue Fei (24 March 1103 – 27 January 1142), courtesy name Pengju, was a Han Chinese military general who lived during the Southern Song dynasty.
Yue Zhongqi (岳鍾琪, 1686 – 1754) was a Han Chinese military commander of the Qing dynasty.
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.
Yunsi (29 March 1681 – 5 October 1726), born Yinsi, was a Manchu prince of the Qing dynasty in China.
Zhang Zai (1020–1077) was a Chinese Neo-Confucian moral philosopher and cosmologist.
Zhao Yi (1727-1814) was a poet, historian, and critic during the Qing Dynasty in China.
, formerly romanized as Chekiang, is an eastern coastal province of China.
, formerly romanized as Chusan, is a prefecture-level "city" in northeastern Zhejiang Province in eastern China.
Zunhua is a county-level city under the administration of Tangshan, Hebei, China.
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