236 relations: A Step into the Past, Alchemy, Ancestor veneration in China, Ancient Chinese states, Anqi Sheng, Argentina, Armistice, Assassination, Astronomical object, Axle, Baiyue, Ban Liang, BBC News, Big Trouble in Little China, Bloomington, Indiana, Book of Documents, Burning of books and burying of scholars, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Cardinal direction, Cart, Cash (Chinese coin), Catty, Channel 4, Chen Daoming, Chen Sheng, Chiang Kai-shek, China, China's First Emperor, Chinese alchemical elixir poisoning, Chinese astrology, Chinese calendar, Chinese characters, Chinese Civil War, Chinese mythology, Chinese name, Chinese nobility, Chinese palace, Chinese people, Chinese pronouns, Chinese sovereign, Chinese surname, Chinese units of measurement, Chu (state), Civilization (series), Civilization IV, Civilization VI, Class conflict, Classic of Poetry, Concubinage, Confucianism, ..., Contract killing, Counter-revolutionary, Coup d'état, Crossbow, Crown Prince Dan, Currency, Dagger, Dazexiang uprising, Decapitation, Derk Bodde, Dictatorship, Digital Trends, Dujiangyan, Duke of Zhou, East Asian cultural sphere, Edward H. Schafer, Elixir of life, Emperor of China, Eunuch, Family tree of ancient Chinese emperors, Fengjian, Fengxiang County, Feudalism, Firaxis Games, Four occupations, Fusu, Gao Jianli, Given name, Glottal stop, Grand chancellor (China), Great Wall of China, Guangdong, Han (state), Han dynasty, Han purple and Han blue, Handan, Hata clan, He Shi Bi, Heirloom Seal of the Realm, Heredity, Hero (2002 film), Historical revisionism, Historiography, History (U.S. TV network), History of China, History of the world, Huan Yi, Huang Yi (author), Hunan, Hundred Schools of Thought, James Pax, Japan, Jet Li, Jia Yi, Jin (Korean surname), Jing Ke, John Man (author), Jorge Luis Borges, Julian calendar, Jun (country subdivision), Kilometre, King Huiwen of Qin, King Kaolie of Chu, King Nan of Zhou, King Zhaoxiang of Qin, King Zhuangxiang of Qin, Kingdom (manga), Kong Anguo, Kuomintang, Lady Meng Jiang, Landlord, Lao Ai, Lü Buwei, Lüshi Chunqiu, Lead, Legalism (Chinese philosophy), Legitimacy (family law), Li River, Li Si, Li Xin (Qin), Liaodong Peninsula, List of Chinese monarchs, Lord Changping, Lute, Mao Zedong, Maoism, Mark Edward Lewis, Marquess, Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor, Meng Tian, Merchant, Mercury (element), Meteoroid, Modu Chanyu, Mount Li, Mount Penglai, Naming taboo, Nanjing, Nanyue, Natural disaster, Nomad, Northern Expedition, Old Chinese, Ordos Plateau, Pearl River (China), Peasant, Peter A. Boodberg, Pingyuan County, Shandong, Prefecture, Prophecy, Qi (state), Qin (state), Qin (surname), Qin dynasty, Qin Shi Huang (2001 TV series), Qin Wuyang, Qin's campaign against the Xiongnu, Qin's campaign against the Yue tribes, Qin's wars of unification, Queen Dowager Zhao, Reconstructions of Old Chinese, Records of the Grand Historian, Regnal name, Regular script, Rise of the Great Wall, Romanization of Chinese, Science fiction, Seal (East Asia), Seal script, Second Emperor of Qin, Seven Warring States, Shandong, Shang dynasty, Shangdi, Sichuan, Sima Qian, Sinology, Social class, Standard Chinese, Strongman (strength athlete), Subdistricts of the People's Republic of China, Suicide, Surname, Ten Crimes of Qin, Terracotta Army, The Emperor and the Assassin, The Emperor's Shadow, The Mummy: Tomb of the Dragon Emperor, Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors, Tian, Townships of the People's Republic of China, Tunliu County, TVB, Unit of measurement, United Kingdom, Wade–Giles, Warring States period, Wei (state), Wey (state), Will and testament, Wu Guang, Wu Xing, Xi'an, Xian (Taoism), Xiang River, Xiang Yu, Xianyang, Xiao Yishan, Xiongnu, Xu Fu, Xun Kuang, Yan (state), Yangtze, Yíng, Yellow Emperor, Yellow River, Zhang Fengyi, Zhang Liang (Western Han), Zhao (state), Zhao (surname), Zhao Chengjiao, Zhao Gao, Zhifu Island, Zhou dynasty, Ziying, 4X. Expand index (186 more) » « Shrink index
A Step into the Past is a 2001 Hong Kong television series produced by TVB and based on Huang Yi's novel of the same Chinese title.
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
Chinese ancestor worship, or Chinese ancestor veneration, also called the Chinese patriarchal religion, is an aspect of the Chinese traditional religion which revolves around the ritual celebration of the deified ancestors and tutelary deities of people with the same surname organised into lineage societies in ancestral shrines.
Ancient Chinese States were typified by variously sized city states and territories that existed in China prior to its unification by Qin Shi Huang in 221 BCE.
Anqi Sheng was a Chinese immortal and wizard, said to be already over 1,000 years old at the time of Qin Shi Huang, the first emperor.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
An armistice is a formal agreement of warring parties to stop fighting.
Assassination is the killing of a prominent person, either for political or religious reasons or for payment.
An astronomical object or celestial object is a naturally occurring physical entity, association, or structure that exists in the observable universe.
An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear.
The Baiyue, Hundred Yue or Yue were various indigenous peoples of mostly non-Chinese ethnicity who inhabited the region stretching along the coastal area from Shandong to the Yangtze basin, and as far to west as the present-day Sichuan province between the first millennium BC and the first millennium AD.
The Ban Liang (Traditional Chinese:; Pinyin: bàn liǎng) was the first unified currency of the Chinese empire, introduced by the first emperor Qin Shi Huang around 210 BC (although it already circulated in the State of Qin prior to unification).
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Big Trouble in Little China is a 1986 American fantasy martial arts comedy film directed by John Carpenter and starring Kurt Russell, Kim Cattrall, Dennis Dun, and James Hong.
Bloomington is a city in and the county seat of Monroe County in the southern region of the U.S. state of Indiana.
The Book of Documents (Shujing, earlier Shu-king) or Classic of History, also known as the Shangshu ("Esteemed Documents"), is one of the Five Classics of ancient Chinese literature.
The burning of books and burying of scholars refers to the supposed burning of texts in 213 BCE and live burial of 460 Confucian scholars in 212 BCE by the First Emperor of the Qin dynasty of ancient China.
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Boston metropolitan area.
The four cardinal directions or cardinal points are the directions north, east, south, and west, commonly denoted by their initials N, E, S, and W. East and west are at right angles to north and south, with east being in the clockwise direction of rotation from north and west being directly opposite east.
A cart is a vehicle designed for transport, using two wheels and normally pulled by one or a pair of draught animals.
Cash was a type of coin of China and East Asia, used from the 4th century BC until the 20th century AD.
The catty, kati (in Singaporean English) or jin (commonly in China), symbol 斤, is a traditional Chinese unit of mass used across East and Southeast Asia, notably for weighing food and other groceries in some wet markets, street markets, and shops.
Channel 4 is a British public-service television broadcaster that began transmission on 2 November 1982.
Chen Daoming (born 26 April 1955) is a Chinese actor who has starred in various genres of film and television series.
Chen Sheng (died 208 BC), also known as Chen She, was the leader of the Dazexiang Uprising, the first rebellion against the Qin Dynasty.
Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih or Jiang Jieshi and known as Chiang Chungcheng, was a political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and then in exile in Taiwan.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
China's First Emperor was a documentary aired on The History Channel in 2008.
In Chinese alchemy, elixir poisoning refers to the toxic effects from elixirs of immortality that contained metals and minerals such as mercury and arsenic.
Chinese astrology is based on the traditional astronomy and calendars.
The traditional Chinese calendar (official Chinese name: Rural Calendar, alternately Former Calendar, Traditional Calendar, or Lunar Calendar) is a lunisolar calendar which reckons years, months and days according to astronomical phenomena.
Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC).
Chinese mythology refers to myths found in the historical geographic area of China: these include myths in Chinese and other languages, as transmitted by Han Chinese and other ethnic groups, which have their own languages and myths.
Chinese personal names are names used by those from mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, and the Chinese diaspora overseas.
Chinese sovereignty and peerage, the nobility of China, was an important feature of the traditional social and political organization of Imperial China.
A Chinese palace is an imperial complex where the royal court and the civil government resided.
Chinese people are the various individuals or ethnic groups associated with China, usually through ancestry, ethnicity, nationality, citizenship or other affiliation.
Chinese pronouns differ somewhat from pronouns in English and other Indo-European languages.
The Chinese sovereign is the ruler of a particular period in ancient China.
Chinese surnames are used by Han Chinese and Sinicized ethnic groups in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Malaysia, Brunei, Taiwan, Korea, Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam and among overseas Chinese communities.
Chinese units of measurement, known in Chinese as the shìzhì ("market system"), are the traditional units of measurement of the Han Chinese.
Chu (Old Chinese: *s-r̥aʔ) was a hegemonic, Zhou dynasty era state.
Civilization is a series of turn-based strategy video games, its first release in 1991.
Civilization IV (also known as Sid Meier's Civilization IV) is a turn-based strategy computer game and the fourth installment of the ''Civilization'' series.
Sid Meier's Civilization VI is a turn-based strategy 4X video game developed by Firaxis Games, published by 2K Games, and distributed by Take-Two Interactive.
Class conflict, frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes.
The Classic of Poetry, also Shijing or Shih-ching, translated variously as the Book of Songs, Book of Odes, or simply known as the Odes or Poetry is the oldest existing collection of Chinese poetry, comprising 305 works dating from the 11th to 7th centuries BC.
Concubinage is an interpersonal and sexual relationship in which the couple are not or cannot be married.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
Contract killing is a form of murder in which one party hires another party to kill a target individual or group of people.
A counter-revolutionary is anyone who opposes a revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it, in full or in part.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
A crossbow is a type of ranged weapon based on the bow and consisting of a horizontal bow-like assembly mounted on a frame which is handheld in a similar fashion to the stock of a gun.
Crown Prince Dan was a crown prince of the State of Yan during the Warring States period of ancient China.
A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.
A dagger is a knife with a very sharp point and one or two sharp edges, typically designed or capable of being used as a thrusting or stabbing weapon.
The Dazexiang uprising (July 209 B.C. - December 209 B.C.), also known as the Uprising of Chen Sheng and Wu Guang, was the first uprising against Qin rule following the death of Qin Shi Huang.
Decapitation is the complete separation of the head from the body.
Derk Bodde (9 March 19093 November 2003) was an American Sinologist and historian of China known for his pioneering work on the history of the Chinese legal system.
A dictatorship is an authoritarian form of government, characterized by a single leader or group of leaders with either no party or a weak party, little mass mobilization, and limited political pluralism.
Digital Trends is a technology news, lifestyle, and information website that publishes news, reviews, guides, how-to articles, descriptive videos and podcasts about technology and consumer electronics products.
The Dujiangyan is an ancient irrigation system in Dujiangyan City, Sichuan, China.
Dan, Duke Wen of Zhou (11th Century BC), commonly known as the Duke of Zhou, was a member of the royal family of the Zhou dynasty who played a major role in consolidating the kingdom established by his elder brother King Wu.
The "Sinosphere", or "East Asian cultural sphere", refers to a grouping of countries and regions in East Asia that were historically influenced by the Chinese culture.
Edward Hetsel Schafer (23 August 1913 – 9 February 1991) was an American Sinologist, historian, and writer noted for his expertise on the Tang Dynasty, and was a professor of Chinese at University of California, Berkeley for 35 years.
The elixir of life, also known as elixir of immortality and sometimes equated with the philosopher's stone, is a potion that supposedly grants the drinker eternal life and/or eternal youth.
The Emperor or Huangdi was the secular imperial title of the Chinese sovereign reigning between the founding of the Qin dynasty that unified China in 221 BC, until the abdication of Puyi in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution and the establishment of the Republic of China, although it was later restored twice in two failed revolutions in 1916 and 1917.
The term eunuch (εὐνοῦχος) generally refers to a man who has been castrated, typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences.
This is a family tree of Chinese kings before the establishment of the title emperor (皇帝) by Shi Huangdi.
Fēngjiàn (封建) was a political ideology during the later part of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China, its social structure forming a decentralized system of government based on four occupations, or "four categories of the people." The Zhou kings enfeoffed their fellow warriors and relatives, creating large domains of land.
Fengxiang County is a county administered by Baoji City in the west of Shaanxi province, People’s Republic of China.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
Firaxis Games, Inc. is an American video game developer based in Sparks, Maryland.
The four occupations or "four categories of the people"Hansson, pp.
Fusu (died 210BC) was the eldest son and heir apparent of the First Emperor of the Qin Dynasty.
Gao Jianli (Chinese: 高漸離) was a citizen of Yan, a Chinese state during the Warring States period, and a player of the lute (a stringed musical instrument played with a thin stick).
A given name (also known as a first name, forename or Christian name) is a part of a person's personal name.
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
The grand chancellor, also translated as counselor-in-chief, chancellor, chief councillor, chief minister, imperial chancellor, lieutenant chancellor and prime minister, was the highest-ranking executive official in the imperial Chinese government.
The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe with an eye to expansion.
Guangdong is a province in South China, located on the South China Sea coast.
Han (Old Chinese: *) was an ancient Chinese state during the Warring States period of ancient China, located in modern-day Shanxi and Henan.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Han purple and Han blue (also called Chinese purple and Chinese blue) are synthetic barium copper silicate pigments developed in China and used in ancient and imperial China from the Western Zhou period (1045–771 BC) until the end of the Han dynasty (circa 220 AD).
Handan is a prefecture-level city located in the southwestern part of Hebei province, China.
The was an immigrant clan active in Japan since the Kofun period (250–538), according to the history of Japan laid out in Nihon Shoki.
The He Shi Bi or He's Jade Disc, was a jade bi disc which played an important part in many historical stories in Ancient China.
The Heirloom Seal of the Realm, also known in English as the Imperial Seal of China, is a Chinese jade seal carved out of the He Shi Bi, a historically famous piece of jade.
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.
Hero is a 2002 Chinese wuxia film directed by Zhang Yimou.
In historiography, the term historical revisionism identifies the re-interpretation of the historical record.
Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject.
History (originally The History Channel from 1995 to 2008) is a history-based digital cable and satellite television network that is owned by A&E Networks, a joint venture between the Hearst Communications and the Disney–ABC Television Group division of the Walt Disney Company.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
The history of the world is the history of humanity (or human history), as determined from archaeology, anthropology, genetics, linguistics, and other disciplines; and, for periods since the invention of writing, from recorded history and from secondary sources and studies.
Huan Yi (died 227 BC) was a Qin general who lived in the Warring States period of China.
Wong Cho-keung (15 March 1952 – 5 April 2017), better known by his pen name Huang Yi or Huang An, was a Hong Kong writer of wuxia and science fiction novels.
Hunan is the 7th most populous province of China and the 10th most extensive by area.
The Hundred Schools of Thought were philosophies and schools that flourished from the 6th century to 221 BC, during the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period of ancient China.
James Pax is a Japanese-born actor who has acted in films produced in Hollywood, Hong Kong and Japan.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Li Lianjie (born 26 April 1963), better known by his stage name Jet Li, is a Chinese film actor, film producer, martial artist, and retired Wushu champion who was born in Beijing.
Jia Yi (c. 200169 BCE) was a Chinese writer, poet and politician of the Western Han dynasty, best known as one of the earliest known writers of ''fu'' rhapsody and for his essay "Disquisition Finding Fault with Qin" (Guò Qín Lùn 過秦論), which criticises the Qin dynasty and describes Jia's opinions on the reasons for its collapse.
Jin (진) is the romanization of a number of Korean surnames, written as 陳, 秦, 眞, or 晉 in hanja.
Jing Ke (? – 227 BC) was a retainer of Crown Prince Dan of the Yan state and renowned for his failed assassination attempt of King Zheng of the Qin state, who later became Qin Shi Huang, China's first emperor (reign from 221 BC to 210 BC).
John Anthony Garnet Man (born 15 May 1941) is a British historian and travel writer.
Jorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges Acevedo (24 August 1899 – 14 June 1986) was an Argentine short-story writer, essayist, poet and translator, and a key figure in Spanish-language literature.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
A jùn was a historical administrative division of China from the Zhou dynasty (c. 7th century BCE) until the early Tang (c. 7th century CE).
The kilometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: km; or) or kilometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousand metres (kilo- being the SI prefix for). It is now the measurement unit used officially for expressing distances between geographical places on land in most of the world; notable exceptions are the United States and the road network of the United Kingdom where the statute mile is the official unit used.
King Huiwen of Qin, also known as Lord Huiwen of Qin or King Hui of Qin, given name Si (駟), was the ruler of the Qin state from 338 to 311 BC during the Warring States period of Chinese history and likely an ancestor of Emperor Qin Shi Huang.
King Kaolie of Chu (died 238 BC) was from 262 to 238 BC the king of the state of Chu during the late Warring States period of ancient China.
King Nan of Zhou (?–256 BC), born Ji Yan and less commonly known as King Yin of Zhou, was the 37th and last king of the Chinese Zhou dynasty, the son of King Shenjing of Zhou and grandson of King Xian of Zhou.
King Zhaoxiang of Qin (325–250 BC), or King Zhao of Qin (秦昭王), born Ying Ji, was the king of Qin from 307 BC to 250 BC.
King Zhuangxiang of Qin (281–247 BC), personal names Yiren and Zichu, was a ruler of the Qin state during the third century BC in the Warring States period of ancient China.
is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by.
Kong Anguo (ca. 156 – ca. 74 BC), courtesy name Ziguo (子國), was a Confucian scholar and government official of the Western Han dynasty of ancient China.
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
Lady Meng Jiang or Meng Jiang Nü is a Chinese tale, with many variations.
A landlord is the owner of a house, apartment, condominium, land or real estate which is rented or leased to an individual or business, who is called a tenant (also a lessee or renter).
Lao Ai (died 238 BCE) was an imposter eunuch and official of the State of Qin during the late Warring States period.
Lü Buwei (291–235 BC) was a politician of the Qin state in the Warring States period of ancient China.
The Lüshi Chunqiu, also known in English as Master Lü's Spring and Autumn Annals, is an encyclopedic Chinese classic text compiled around 239 BC under the patronage of the Qin Dynasty Chancellor Lü Buwei.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Fajia or Legalism is one of Sima Tan's six classical schools of thought in Chinese philosophy.
Legitimacy, in traditional Western common law, is the status of a child born to parents who are legally married to each other, and of a child conceived before the parents obtain a legal divorce.
The Li River or Li Jiang is a river in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.
Li Si (280 BCSeptember or October 208 BC) was a Chinese politician of the Qin dynasty, well known Legalist writer and politician, and notable calligrapher.
Li Xin (李信) was a general of Qin during the Warring States era.
The Liaodong Peninsula is a peninsula in Liaoning Province of Northeast China, historically known in the West as Southeastern Manchuria.
This list of Chinese monarchs includes rulers of China with various titles prior to the establishment of the Republic in 1912.
Lord Changping (昌平君; died 223 BC) was a general and lord of Qin, but later seceded from Qin and died as the last king of Chu (224–223 BC) in the last days of the Warring States period of ancient China.
A lute is any plucked string instrument with a neck (either fretted or unfretted) and a deep round back enclosing a hollow cavity, usually with a sound hole or opening in the body.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
Maoism, known in China as Mao Zedong Thought, is a political theory derived from the teachings of the Chinese political leader Mao Zedong, whose followers are known as Maoists.
Mark Edward Lewis (born September 25, 1954) is an American sinologist and historian of ancient China.
A marquess (marquis) is a nobleman of hereditary rank in various European peerages and in those of some of their former colonies.
The Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor (Qin Shi Huang) is located in Lintong District, Xi'an, Shaanxi province of China.
Meng Tian (died 210 BC) was a general of the Qin dynasty who distinguished himself in campaigns against the Xiongnu and in the construction of the Great Wall of China.
A merchant is a person who trades in commodities produced by other people.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
A meteoroid is a small rocky or metallic body in outer space.
Modu, Modun, or Maodun (Mongolian: Модунь, Modun; Баатар, Baatar; c. 234 – c. 174 BC) was the fourth known Xiongnu ruler and the founder of the Xiongnu Empire.
Mount Li is a mountain located in the northeast of Xi'an in Shaanxi Province, China.
Penglai is a legendary land of Chinese mythology.
A naming taboo is a cultural taboo against speaking or writing the given names of exalted persons in China and neighboring nations in the ancient Chinese cultural sphere.
Nanjing, formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of and a total population of 8,270,500.
Nanyue or, or Nam Viet (Nam Việt) was an ancient kingdom that covered parts of northern Vietnam and the modern Chinese provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi, and Yunnan.
A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth; examples include floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, and other geologic processes.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
The Northern Expedition was a military campaign launched by the National Revolutionary Army of the Kuomintang (KMT), also known as the Nationalists, against the Beiyang government and other regional warlords in 1926.
Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese.
The Ordos Loop is a large rectangular bend of the Yellow River in central China.
The Pearl River, also known by its Chinese name Zhujiang and formerly often known as the, is an extensive river system in southern China.
A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees or services to a landlord.
Peter Alexis Boodberg (born Pyotr Alekseyevich von Budberg; 8 April 1903 – 29 June 1972) was a Russian-American scholar, linguist, and sinologist who taught at the University of California, Berkeley for 40 years.
Pingyuan County is a county of northwestern Shandong province, People's Republic of China.
A prefecture (from the Latin Praefectura) is an administrative jurisdiction or subdivision in any of various countries and within some international church structures, and in antiquity a Roman district governed by an appointed prefect.
A prophecy is a message that is claimed by a prophet to have been communicated to them by a god.
Qi was a state of the Zhou dynasty-era in ancient China, variously reckoned as a march, duchy, and independent kingdom.
Qin (Old Chinese: *) was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty.
Qín (秦) is a common Chinese surname.
The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.
Qin Shi Huang is a Chinese television series based on the life of Qin Shi Huang, the First Emperor who unified China under the Qin dynasty in 221 BC.
Qin Wuyang (秦舞陽) was a young man who followed Jing Ke when the latter went on the mission to assassinate Ying Zheng, the king of Qin.
In 215 BC, Qin Shi Huang ordered General Meng Tian to set out against the Xiongnu tribes in the Ordos region, and establish a frontier region at the loop of the Yellow River.
As trade was an important source of wealth for the Yue tribes of coastal China, south of the Yangtze River attracted the attention of Emperor Qin Shi Huang to undertake a series of military campaigns to conquer it.
Qin's wars of unification were a series of military campaigns launched in the late 3rd century BC by the Qin state against the other six major states — Han, Zhao, Yan, Wei, Chu and Qi — within the territories that formed modern China.
Zhao Ji (–228 BC) was the wife of King Zhuangxiang of Qin and the mother of Qin Shi Huang, the first emperor of China.
Although Old Chinese is known from written records beginning around 1200 BC, the logographic script provides much more indirect and partial information about the pronunciation of the language than alphabetic systems used elsewhere.
The Records of the Grand Historian, also known by its Chinese name Shiji, is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Han dynasty official Sima Qian after having been started by his father, Sima Tan, Grand Astrologer to the imperial court.
A regnal name, or reign name, is a name used by some monarchs and popes during their reigns, and used subsequently to refer to them.
Regular script (Hepburn: kaisho), also called 正楷, 真書 (zhēnshū), 楷體 (kǎitǐ) and 正書 (zhèngshū), is the newest of the Chinese script styles (appearing by the Cao Wei dynasty ca. 200 CE and maturing stylistically around the 7th century), hence most common in modern writings and publications (after the Ming and gothic styles, used exclusively in print).
Rise of the Great Wall is a 1986 Hong Kong television series based on the life of Qin Shi Huang, the First Emperor of China and founder of the Qin dynasty.
The Romanization of Chinese is the use of the Latin alphabet to write Chinese.
Science fiction (often shortened to Sci-Fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction, typically dealing with imaginative concepts such as advanced science and technology, spaceflight, time travel, and extraterrestrial life.
A seal, in an East and Southeast Asian context is a general name for printing stamps and impressions thereof which are used in lieu of signatures in personal documents, office paperwork, contracts, art, or any item requiring acknowledgement or authorship.
Seal script is an ancient style of writing Chinese characters that was common throughout the latter half of the 1st millennium BC.
The Second Emperor of Qin (229 – October 207 BCE) was the son of Qin Shi Huang and the second emperor of China's Qin dynasty.
The Seven Warring States or Seven Kingdoms refers to the seven leading states during the Warring States period (c. 475 to 221 BC) of ancient China.
Shandong (formerly romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the East China region.
The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.
Shangdi, also written simply, "Emperor", is the Chinese term for "Supreme Deity" or "Highest Deity" in the theology of the classical texts, especially deriving from Shang theology and finding an equivalent in the later Tian ("Heaven" or "Great Whole") of Zhou theology.
Sichuan, formerly romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south.
Sima Qian was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty (206AD220).
Sinology or Chinese studies is the academic study of China primarily through Chinese language, literature, Chinese culture and history, and often refers to Western scholarship.
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
A strongman is a man who competes in strength athletics.
The subdistrict (literally "Street") (also abbreviated as 街(Jiē)) is one of the smaller political divisions of the People's Republic of China.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
A surname, family name, or last name is the portion of a personal name that indicates a person's family (or tribe or community, depending on the culture).
Confucian historians condemned the emperor Qin Shi Huang in the Ten Crimes of Qin, a list that was compiled to highlight his tyrannical actions.
The Terracotta Army is a collection of terracotta sculptures depicting the armies of Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China.
The Emperor and the Assassin, also known as The First Emperor, is a 1998 - 1999 Chinese historical romance film based primarily on Jing Ke's assassination attempt on the King of Qin, as described in Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian.
The Emperor's Shadow is a 1996 Chinese historical film directed by Zhou Xiaowen and starring Jiang Wen, Ge You, Xu Qing and Ge Zhijun.
The Mummy: Tomb of the Dragon Emperor is a 2008 American action-adventure fantasy film directed by Rob Cohen, written by Alfred Gough and Miles Millar, and produced by Stephen Sommers (director of The Mummy (1999) and The Mummy Returns (2001)), Bob Ducsay, Sean Daniel, and James Jacks.
The Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors were a group of mythological rulers or deities in ancient northern China who in later history have been assigned dates in a period from circa 2852 BC to 2070 BC.
Tiān (天) is one of the oldest Chinese terms for heaven and a key concept in Chinese mythology, philosophy, and religion.
Townships, formally township-level divisions, are the basic level (fourth-level administrative units) of political divisions in China.
Tunliu County is a county of Shanxi, China.
Television Broadcasts Limited, commonly known as TVB, was the first wireless commercial television station in Hong Kong and commenced broadcasting on 19 November 1967.
A unit of measurement is a definite magnitude of a quantity, defined and adopted by convention or by law, that is used as a standard for measurement of the same kind of quantity.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
Wade–Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese.
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.
Wei (Old Chinese: *) was an ancient Chinese state during the Warring States period.
Wei (Old Chinese: *ɢʷat-s), commonly spelled Wey to distinguish from the larger Wei (魏) state, was an ancient Chinese state that was founded in the early Western Zhou dynasty and rose to prominence during the Spring and Autumn period.
A will or testament is a legal document by which a person, the testator, expresses their wishes as to how their property is to be distributed at death, and names one or more persons, the executor, to manage the estate until its final distribution.
Wu Guang (traditional Chinese 吳廣, modern Chinese 吴广, died 208 BC) was a leader of the first rebellion against the Qin Dynasty during the reign of the Second Qin Emperor.
The Wu Xing, also known as the Five Elements, Five Phases, the Five Agents, the Five Movements, Five Processes, the Five Steps/Stages and the Five Planets of significant gravity: Jupiter-木, Saturn-土, Mercury-水, Venus-金, Mars-火Dr Zai, J..
Xi'an is the capital of Shaanxi Province, China.
Xian is a Chinese word for an enlightened person, translatable in English as.
The Xiang River is the chief river of the Lake Dongting drainage system of the middle Yangtze, the largest river in Hunan Province, China.
Xiang Ji (232–202 BC), courtesy name Yu, better known as Xiang Yu, was a prominent warlord who lived in the late Qin dynasty.
Xianyang is a prefecture-level city in central Shaanxi province, situated on the Wei River a few kilometers upstream (west) from the provincial capital of Xi'an.
Xiao Yishan (蕭一山, May 7, 1902 – July 4, 1978) was a modern Chinese historian.
The Xiongnu were a confederation of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Asian Steppe from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD.
Xu Fu (Hsu Fu) was born in 255 BC in Qi, an ancient Chinese state, and probably died in between 195 and 155 BC.
Xun Kuang (c. 310c. 235 BC, alt. c. 314c. 217 BC), also widely known as Xunzi ("Master Xun"), was a Chinese Confucian philosopher who lived during the Warring States period and contributed to the Hundred Schools of Thought.
Yan (Old Chinese pronunciation: *) was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty.
The Yangtze, which is 6,380 km (3,964 miles) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.
Ying is a Chinese surname.
The Yellow Emperor, also known as the Yellow Thearch, the Yellow God or the Yellow Lord, or simply by his Chinese name Huangdi, is a deity in Chinese religion, one of the legendary Chinese sovereigns and culture heroes included among the mytho-historical Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors and cosmological Five Forms of the Highest Deity (五方上帝 Wǔfāng Shàngdì).
The Yellow River or Huang He is the second longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of.
Zhang Fengyi (born 1 September 1956) is a Chinese actor best known for his role as "Duan Xiaolou" in Farewell My Concubine (1993), Jing Ke in The Emperor and the Assassin (1998), and Cao Cao in Red Cliff (2008-2009).
Zhang Liang (3rd century BC – 186 BC), courtesy name Zifang, was a strategist and statesman who lived in the early Western Han dynasty.
Zhao was one of the seven major states during the Warring States period of ancient China.
Zhao, romanized in Taiwan and Hong Kong as Chao, also elsewhere as Cho, Chiu, Tio, and various other forms, is a Chinese family name, ranking as the 7th most common surname in Mainland China and carried mainly by people of Mandarin-speaking regions.
Chengjiao, titled Lord of Chang'an (長安君 Chǎng'ān Jūn),司馬遷.
Zhao Gao (died 207 BC) was an official of the Qin dynasty of China.
Zhifu Island or North Island, is an islet with historical significance in Shandong Province, China.
The Zhou dynasty or the Zhou Kingdom was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty.
Ziying (died January 206 BC) was the third and last ruler of the Qin dynasty.
4X is a genre of strategy-based video and board games in which players control an empire and "eXplore, eXpand, eXploit, and eXterminate".
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