124 relations: Ancient Linzi, Ban Liang, Bureaucracy, Burning of books and burying of scholars, Cambridge University Press, Cavalry, Chariot, Chinese folk religion, Chinese name, Chinese sovereign, Chinese surname, Chu (state), Comet, Composite bow, Confucianism, Confucius, Crossbow, Divination, Duke Xiang of Song, Duke Zhuang of Qin, Dynasties in Chinese history, Eclipse, Elixir, Emperor Gaozu of Han, Emperor of China, Eunuch, Fasting, Feizi, Five Barbarians, Fusu, Fuzhou, Gansu, Gao Yao (minister), Gonghe Regency, Great Wall of China, Greek language, Greenwood Publishing Group, Guangzhou, Guanzhong, Guerrilla warfare, Guilin, Hackett Publishing Company, Han (state), Han dynasty, Han Feizi, Hanoi, Hata clan, History of China, Hundred Schools of Thought, Indo-Aryan languages, ..., Jin (Chinese state), Kaifeng, King Huiwen of Qin, King Ping of Zhou, King Xiao of Zhou, King Xiaowen of Qin, King Zhaoxiang of Qin, King Zhuangxiang of Qin, Latin, Lü Buwei, Lüshi Chunqiu, Legalism (Chinese philosophy), Li Si, Logogram, Luan Da, Luoyang, Manchuria, Marshall Cavendish, McGraw-Hill Education, Meditation, Mediumship, Metal bellows, Mohism, Old Chinese, Ordos Desert, People's Daily, Posthumous name, Premature burial, PublicAffairs, Qi (state), Qin (state), Qin Shi Huang, Qin's campaign against the Xiongnu, Qin's campaign against the Yue tribes, Qin's wars of unification, Qing dynasty, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Sanskrit, Seal script, Second Emperor of Qin, Seven Warring States, Shaanxi, Shang Yang, Shen (Chinese religion), Shennong, Sichuan, Sima Qian, Song dynasty, Spring and Autumn Annals, Spring and Autumn period, Sword, Taoism, Terracotta Army, The Legend of Qin, Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors, Tianshui, UNESCO, Warring States period, Wei (state), Wei River, Westport, Connecticut, Westview Press, Xiang Yu, Xianyang, Xinjiang, Xiongnu, Yan (state), Yangtze, Yuan dynasty, Zhao (state), Zhao Gao, Zhou dynasty, Ziying, Zizhi Tongjian. Expand index (74 more) » « Shrink index
Linzi, originally called Yingqiu, was the capital of the ancient Chinese state of Qi during the Zhou Dynasty.
The Ban Liang (Traditional Chinese:; Pinyin: bàn liǎng) was the first unified currency of the Chinese empire, introduced by the first emperor Qin Shi Huang around 210 BC (although it already circulated in the State of Qin prior to unification).
Bureaucracy refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group.
The burning of books and burying of scholars refers to the supposed burning of texts in 213 BCE and live burial of 460 Confucian scholars in 212 BCE by the First Emperor of the Qin dynasty of ancient China.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.
A chariot is a type of carriage driven by a charioteer using primarily horses to provide rapid motive power.
Chinese folk religion (Chinese popular religion) or Han folk religion is the religious tradition of the Han people, including veneration of forces of nature and ancestors, exorcism of harmful forces, and a belief in the rational order of nature which can be influenced by human beings and their rulers as well as spirits and gods.
Chinese personal names are names used by those from mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, and the Chinese diaspora overseas.
The Chinese sovereign is the ruler of a particular period in ancient China.
Chinese surnames are used by Han Chinese and Sinicized ethnic groups in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Malaysia, Brunei, Taiwan, Korea, Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam and among overseas Chinese communities.
Chu (Old Chinese: *s-r̥aʔ) was a hegemonic, Zhou dynasty era state.
A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.
A composite bow is a traditional bow made from horn, wood, and sinew laminated together, cf., laminated bow.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.
A crossbow is a type of ranged weapon based on the bow and consisting of a horizontal bow-like assembly mounted on a frame which is handheld in a similar fashion to the stock of a gun.
Divination (from Latin divinare "to foresee, to be inspired by a god", related to divinus, divine) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic, standardized process or ritual.
Duke Xiang of Song (宋襄公) (died 637 BC) was the leader in the state of Song in the Spring and Autumn period.
Duke Zhuang of Qin (died 778 BC) was from 821 to 778 BC the fifth ruler of the Zhou Dynasty state of Qin that eventually united China to become the Qin Dynasty.
The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese History.
An eclipse is an astronomical event that occurs when an astronomical object is temporarily obscured, either by passing into the shadow of another body or by having another body pass between it and the viewer.
An elixir (from Arabic: إكسير Iksīr; from Greek ξήριον xērion "powder for drying wounds" from ξηρός xēros "dry") is a clear, sweet-flavored liquid used for medicinal purposes, to be taken orally and intended to cure one's illness.
Emperor Gaozu of Han (256 BC – 1 June 195 BC), born Liu Bang (刘邦), was the founder and first emperor of the Han dynasty, reigning from 202 – 195 BC.
The Emperor or Huangdi was the secular imperial title of the Chinese sovereign reigning between the founding of the Qin dynasty that unified China in 221 BC, until the abdication of Puyi in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution and the establishment of the Republic of China, although it was later restored twice in two failed revolutions in 1916 and 1917.
The term eunuch (εὐνοῦχος) generally refers to a man who has been castrated, typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences.
Fasting is the willing abstinence or reduction from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time.
Feizi (died 858 BC), also known by the title Qin Ying, was the founder of the ancient Chinese state of Qin, predecessor of the Qin Dynasty that would conquer all other Chinese states and unite China in 221 BC.
The Five Barbarians or Wu Hu, is a Chinese historical exonym for ancient non-Han Chinese peoples who immigrated to northern China in the Eastern Han Dynasty, and then overthrew the Western Jin Dynasty and established their own kingdoms in the 4th–5th centuries.
Fusu (died 210BC) was the eldest son and heir apparent of the First Emperor of the Qin Dynasty.
Fuzhou, formerly romanized as Foochow, is the capital and one of the largest cities in Fujian province, China.
Gansu (Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.
Gao Yao was the Minister for Law of Emperor Shun in prehistorical China according to tradition.
The Gonghe Regency was an interregnum period in Chinese history from 841 to 828 BC, after King Li of Zhou was exiled by his nobles until the ascension of his son, King Xuan of Zhou.
The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe with an eye to expansion.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.
Guanzhong (formerly romanised as Kwanchung), or Guanzhong Plain, is a historical region of China corresponding to the lower valley of the Wei River.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
Guilin, formerly romanized as Kweilin, is a prefecture-level city in the northeast of China's Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.
Hackett Publishing Company, Inc. is an academic publishing house based in Indianapolis, Indiana.
Han (Old Chinese: *) was an ancient Chinese state during the Warring States period of ancient China, located in modern-day Shanxi and Henan.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
The Han Feizi is an ancient Chinese text attributed to foundational political philosopher, "Master" Han Fei.
Hanoi (or; Hà Nội)) is the capital of Vietnam and the country's second largest city by population. The population in 2015 was estimated at 7.7 million people. The city lies on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is north of Ho Chi Minh City and west of Hai Phong city. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam. It was eclipsed by Huế, the imperial capital of Vietnam during the Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1945). In 1873 Hanoi was conquered by the French. From 1883 to 1945, the city was the administrative center of the colony of French Indochina. The French built a modern administrative city south of Old Hanoi, creating broad, perpendicular tree-lined avenues of opera, churches, public buildings, and luxury villas, but they also destroyed large parts of the city, shedding or reducing the size of lakes and canals, while also clearing out various imperial palaces and citadels. From 1940 to 1945 Hanoi, as well as the largest part of French Indochina and Southeast Asia, was occupied by the Japanese. On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). The Vietnamese National Assembly under Ho Chi Minh decided on January 6, 1946, to make Hanoi the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Vietnam, and it became the capital of a reunified Vietnam in 1976, after the North's victory in the Vietnam War. October 2010 officially marked 1,000 years since the establishment of the city. The Hanoi Ceramic Mosaic Mural is a ceramic mosaic mural created to mark the occasion.
The was an immigrant clan active in Japan since the Kofun period (250–538), according to the history of Japan laid out in Nihon Shoki.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
The Hundred Schools of Thought were philosophies and schools that flourished from the 6th century to 221 BC, during the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period of ancient China.
The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.
Jin (Old Chinese: *), originally known as Tang (唐), was a major state during the middle part of the Zhou dynasty, based near the centre of what was then China, on the lands attributed to the legendary Xia dynasty: the southern part of modern Shanxi.
Kaifeng, known previously by several names, is a prefecture-level city in east-central Henan province, China.
King Huiwen of Qin, also known as Lord Huiwen of Qin or King Hui of Qin, given name Si (駟), was the ruler of the Qin state from 338 to 311 BC during the Warring States period of Chinese history and likely an ancestor of Emperor Qin Shi Huang.
King Ping of Zhou (died 720 BC), formerly romanized as King P’ing of Chou, was the thirteenth king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the first of Eastern Zhou Dynasty.
King Xiao of Zhou or King Hsiao of Chou was the eighth king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty.
King Xiaowen of Qin (reigned 250 BC) was a Chinese king, who had a very brief reign.
King Zhaoxiang of Qin (325–250 BC), or King Zhao of Qin (秦昭王), born Ying Ji, was the king of Qin from 307 BC to 250 BC.
King Zhuangxiang of Qin (281–247 BC), personal names Yiren and Zichu, was a ruler of the Qin state during the third century BC in the Warring States period of ancient China.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lü Buwei (291–235 BC) was a politician of the Qin state in the Warring States period of ancient China.
The Lüshi Chunqiu, also known in English as Master Lü's Spring and Autumn Annals, is an encyclopedic Chinese classic text compiled around 239 BC under the patronage of the Qin Dynasty Chancellor Lü Buwei.
Fajia or Legalism is one of Sima Tan's six classical schools of thought in Chinese philosophy.
Li Si (280 BCSeptember or October 208 BC) was a Chinese politician of the Qin dynasty, well known Legalist writer and politician, and notable calligrapher.
In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase.
Luan Da (died 112 BC;Sima Qian 1994, p. 239) was a religious figure during the early Han Dynasty from the state of Yue.
Luoyang, formerly romanized as Loyang, is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River in the west of Henan province.
Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
Marshall Cavendish is a subsidiary company of Times Publishing Group, the printing and publishing subsidiary of Singapore-based conglomerate Fraser and Neave (which in turn currently owned by ThaiBev) and at present is a publisher of books, business directories and magazines.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
Meditation can be defined as a practice where an individual uses a technique, such as focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity, to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state.
Mediumship is the practice of certain people—known as mediums—to purportedly mediate communication between spirits of the dead and living human beings.
Metal bellows are elastic vessels that can be compressed when pressure is applied to the outside of the vessel, or extended under vacuum.
Mohism or Moism was an ancient Chinese philosophy of logic, rational thought and science developed by the academic scholars who studied under the ancient Chinese philosopher Mozi (c. 470 BC – c. 391 BC) and embodied in an eponymous book: the Mozi.
Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese.
The Ordos Desert, also known as the Muu-us or Bad Water Desert,Donovan Webster.
The People's Daily or Renmin Ribao is the biggest newspaper group in China.
A posthumous name is an honorary name given to royalty, nobles, and sometimes others, in East Asia after the person's death, and is used almost exclusively instead of one's personal name or other official titles during his life.
Premature burial, also known as live burial, burial alive, or vivisepulture, means to be buried while still alive.
PublicAffairs (or PublicAffairs Books) is an imprint of the Perseus Books Group, an American book publishing company located in New York City.
Qi was a state of the Zhou dynasty-era in ancient China, variously reckoned as a march, duchy, and independent kingdom.
Qin (Old Chinese: *) was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty.
Qin Shi Huang (18 February 25910 September 210) was the founder of the Qin dynasty and was the first emperor of a unified China.
In 215 BC, Qin Shi Huang ordered General Meng Tian to set out against the Xiongnu tribes in the Ordos region, and establish a frontier region at the loop of the Yellow River.
As trade was an important source of wealth for the Yue tribes of coastal China, south of the Yangtze River attracted the attention of Emperor Qin Shi Huang to undertake a series of military campaigns to conquer it.
Qin's wars of unification were a series of military campaigns launched in the late 3rd century BC by the Qin state against the other six major states — Han, Zhao, Yan, Wei, Chu and Qi — within the territories that formed modern China.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Seal script is an ancient style of writing Chinese characters that was common throughout the latter half of the 1st millennium BC.
The Second Emperor of Qin (229 – October 207 BCE) was the son of Qin Shi Huang and the second emperor of China's Qin dynasty.
The Seven Warring States or Seven Kingdoms refers to the seven leading states during the Warring States period (c. 475 to 221 BC) of ancient China.
Shaanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China.
Shang Yang, or Wei YangAntonio S. Cua (ed.), 2003, p. 362, Encyclopedia of Chinese Philosophy (born with the surname Gongsun in Wey, Zhou Kingdom; c. 390 – 338 BCE), was a statesman and reformer of the State of Qin during the Warring States period of ancient China.
Shen is the Chinese word for "god", "deity", "spirit" or theos.
Shennong (which can be variously translated as "God Farmer" or "God Peasant", "Agriculture God"), also known as the Wugushen (五穀神 "Five Grains' or Five Cereals' God") or also Wuguxiandi (五穀先帝 "First Deity of the Five Grains"), is a deity in Chinese religion, a mythical sage ruler of prehistoric China.
Sichuan, formerly romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south.
Sima Qian was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty (206AD220).
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
The Spring and Autumn Annals or Chunqiu is an ancient Chinese chronicle that has been one of the core Chinese classics since ancient times.
The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BC (or according to some authorities until 403 BC) which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou Period.
A sword is a bladed weapon intended for slashing or thrusting that is longer than a knife or dagger.
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
The Terracotta Army is a collection of terracotta sculptures depicting the armies of Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China.
The Legend of Qin, Qin's Moon, may refer to.
The Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors were a group of mythological rulers or deities in ancient northern China who in later history have been assigned dates in a period from circa 2852 BC to 2070 BC.
Tianshui is the second-largest city in Gansu Province, China.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.
Wei (Old Chinese: *) was an ancient Chinese state during the Warring States period.
The Wei River is a major river in west-central China's Gansu and Shaanxi provinces.
Westport is an affluent town located in Connecticut, along Long Island Sound within Connecticut's Gold Coast in Fairfield County, Connecticut.
Westview Press was an American publishing house.
Xiang Ji (232–202 BC), courtesy name Yu, better known as Xiang Yu, was a prominent warlord who lived in the late Qin dynasty.
Xianyang is a prefecture-level city in central Shaanxi province, situated on the Wei River a few kilometers upstream (west) from the provincial capital of Xi'an.
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.
The Xiongnu were a confederation of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Asian Steppe from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD.
Yan (Old Chinese pronunciation: *) was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty.
The Yangtze, which is 6,380 km (3,964 miles) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
Zhao was one of the seven major states during the Warring States period of ancient China.
Zhao Gao (died 207 BC) was an official of the Qin dynasty of China.
The Zhou dynasty or the Zhou Kingdom was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty.
Ziying (died January 206 BC) was the third and last ruler of the Qin dynasty.
The Zizhi Tongjian is a pioneering reference work in Chinese historiography, published in 1084, in the form of a chronicle.
Ch'In Dynasty, Ch'in Ch'ao, Ch'in Dynasty, Ch'in dynasty, Ch'in empire, Cin Dynasty, Collapse of the Qin Dynasty, Da Qin Di Guo, Daqin Diguo, Empire of Ch'in, Empire of Qin, Fall of the Qin, History of the Qin Dynasty, Qin Chao, Qin China, Qin Dynasty, Qin Empire, Qin empire, Qín Cháo, Qín Dynasty, The Ch'In Dynasty, The Qin Empire, The Six Kingdoms, Trade in the Qin dynasty, Trade in the qin dynasty, 秦, 秦朝.