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Qing dynasty

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The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912. [1]

472 relations: Aisin Gioro, Albazino, Along the River During the Qingming Festival, Amban, Anhui, Anti-Qing sentiment, Antoine Thomas, Ü-Tsang, Bada Shanren, Balance of trade, Battle of Bang Bo (Zhennan Pass), Battle of Ningyuan, Battle of Shanhai Pass, Battle of Song-Jin, Battle of Yangxia, Beijing, Beiyang Army, Beiyang Fleet, Beiyang government, Booi Aha, Boxer Protocol, Boxer Rebellion, British expedition to Tibet, Buddhism, Bureaucracy, Canton System, Cao Xueqin, Censorate, Chagatai language, Chahar Province, Chakravarti (Sanskrit term), Chen Yuanyuan, Chengde Mountain Resort, China, China proper, Chinese calligraphy, Chinese ceramics, Chinese characters, Chinese culture, Chinese export porcelain, Chinese folk religion, Chinese literature, Chinese Maritime Customs Service, Chinese opera, Chinese painting, Chinese Rites controversy, Chinese tea culture, Chinese theology, Chongzhen Emperor, Christianity, ..., Circuit (administrative division), Classic of Filial Piety, Classical 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Aisin Gioro

Aisin Gioro is the imperial clan of Manchu emperors of the Qing dynasty.

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Albazino

Albazino (Албазино́) is a village (selo) in Skovorodinsky District of Amur Oblast, Russia, noted as the site of Albazin (Албазин), the first Russian settlement on the Amur River.

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Along the River During the Qingming Festival

Along the River During the Qingming Festival, also known by its Chinese name as the Qingming Shanghe Tu, is a painting by the Song dynasty artist Zhang Zeduan (1085–1145).

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Amban

Amban (Manchu:Amban, Mongol: Амбан, Tibetan:ཨམ་བན་am ben, Uighur:ئامبان་am ben) is a Manchu language word meaning "high official," which corresponds to a number of different official titles in the Qing imperial government.

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Anhui

Anhui is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the eastern region of the country.

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Anti-Qing sentiment

Anti-Qing sentiment refers to a sentiment principally held in China against the Manchu ruling during the Qing dynasty (1644–1912), which was accused by a number of opponents of being barbarian.

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Antoine Thomas

Antoine Thomas (25 January 1644 – 29 June 1709) was a Belgian Jesuit priest, missionary, and astronomer in Qing China.

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Ü-Tsang

Ü-Tsang or Tsang-Ü, is one of the three traditional provinces of Tibet, the other two being Amdo and Kham.

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Bada Shanren

Bada Shanren (born Zhu Da ca. 1626—1705) was a Han Chinese painter of ink wash painting and a calligrapher.

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Balance of trade

The balance of trade, commercial balance, or net exports (sometimes symbolized as NX), is the difference between the monetary value of a nation's exports and imports over a certain period.

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Battle of Bang Bo (Zhennan Pass)

The Battle of Bang Bo, known in China as the battle of Zhennan Pass (Chinese:鎮南關之役), was a major Chinese victory during the Sino-French War (August 1884–April 1885).

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Battle of Ningyuan

The Battle of Ningyuan was a battle between the Ming dynasty and the Jurchen Later Jin (also spelled as Later Jinn or Later Kim, later known as the Qing dynasty) in 1626.

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Battle of Shanhai Pass

The Battle of Shanhai Pass, fought on 27 May 1644 at Shanhai Pass (Shanhaiguan, 山海關) at the eastern end of the Great Wall of China, was a decisive battle leading to the formation of the Qing dynasty in China.

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Battle of Song-Jin

The Battle of Song-Jin (Chinese: 松錦之戰) was fought in 1641 and 1642 at Songshan (Chinese: 松山) and Jinzhou (Chinese: 锦州), hence the name "Song-Jin".

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Battle of Yangxia

The Battle of Yangxia, also known as the Defense of Yangxia, was the largest military engagement of the Xinhai Revolution and was fought from October 18-December 1, 1911, between the revolutionaries of the Wuchang Uprising and the loyalist armies of the Qing Dynasty.

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Beijing

Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.

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Beiyang Army

The Beiyang Army (Pei-yang Army) was a powerful, Western-style Imperial Chinese Army established by the Qing Dynasty government in the late 19th century.

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Beiyang Fleet

The Beiyang Fleet (Pei-yang Fleet;, alternatively Northern Seas Fleet) was one of the four modernised Chinese navies in the late Qing Dynasty.

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Beiyang government

The Beiyang government (北洋政府), also sometimes spelled Peiyang Government, refers to the government of the Republic of China, which was in place in the capital city Beijing from 1912 to 1928.

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Booi Aha

Booi Aha (Manchu: (booi niyalma) for male, (booi hehe) for female; Chinese transliteration: 包衣阿哈) is a Manchu word literally meaning "household person", referring to hereditarily servile people in the 17th century China.

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Boxer Protocol

The Boxer Protocol was signed on September 7, 1901, between the Qing Empire of China and the Eight-Nation Alliance that had provided military forces (Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) plus Belgium, Spain and the Netherlands after China's defeat in the intervention to put down the Boxer Rebellion at the hands of the Eight-Power Expeditionary Force.

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Boxer Rebellion

The Boxer Rebellion (拳亂), Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement (義和團運動) was a violent anti-foreign, anti-colonial and anti-Christian uprising that took place in China between 1899 and 1901, toward the end of the Qing dynasty.

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British expedition to Tibet

The British expedition to Tibet, also known as the British invasion of Tibet or the Younghusband expedition to Tibet began in December 1903 and lasted until September 1904.

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Buddhism

Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Bureaucracy

Bureaucracy refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group.

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Canton System

The Canton System (1757–1842) served as a means for China to control trade with the west within its own country by focusing all trade on the southern port of Canton (now Guangzhou).

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Cao Xueqin

Cáo Xuěqín; (1715 or 17241763 or 1764)Briggs, Asa (ed.) (1989) The Longman Encyclopedia, Longman, was a Chinese writer during the Qing dynasty.

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Censorate

The Censorate was a high-level supervisory agency in ancient China, first established during the Qin dynasty (221–207 BCE).

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Chagatai language

Chagatai (جغتای) is an extinct Turkic language which was once widely spoken in Central Asia, and remained the shared literary language there until the early 20th century.

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Chahar Province

Chahar (ᠴᠠᠬᠠᠷ Чахар), also known as Chaha'er, Chakhar, or Qahar, was a province of the Republic of China in existence from 1912 to 1936, mostly covering territory in what is part of eastern Inner Mongolia.

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Chakravarti (Sanskrit term)

Chakravarti (Sanskrit cakravartin, Pali cakkavattin), is a Sanskrit term used to refer to an ideal universal ruler who rules ethically and benevolently over the entire world.

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Chen Yuanyuan

Chen Yuanyuan (1624–1681) was a courtesan who lived during the late Ming and early Qing dynasties.

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Chengde Mountain Resort

The Mountain Resort in Chengde (Manchu: Halhūn be jailara gurung) or Ligong, is a large complex of imperial palaces and gardens situated in the city of Chengde in Hebei, China.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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China proper

China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western writers on the Manchu Qing dynasty to express a distinction between the core and frontier regions of China.

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Chinese calligraphy

Chinese calligraphy is a form of aesthetically pleasing writing (calligraphy), or, the artistic expression of human language in a tangible form.

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Chinese ceramics

Chinese ceramics show a continuous development since pre-dynastic times and are one of the most significant forms of Chinese art and ceramics globally.

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Chinese characters

Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.

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Chinese culture

Chinese culture is one of the world's oldest cultures, originating thousands of years ago.

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Chinese export porcelain

Chinese export porcelain includes a wide range of Chinese porcelain that was made (almost) exclusively for export to Europe and later to North America between the 16th and the 20th century.

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Chinese folk religion

Chinese folk religion (Chinese popular religion) or Han folk religion is the religious tradition of the Han people, including veneration of forces of nature and ancestors, exorcism of harmful forces, and a belief in the rational order of nature which can be influenced by human beings and their rulers as well as spirits and gods.

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Chinese literature

The history of Chinese literature extends thousands of years, from the earliest recorded dynastic court archives to the mature vernacular fiction novels that arose during the Ming Dynasty to entertain the masses of literate Chinese.

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Chinese Maritime Customs Service

The Chinese Maritime Customs Service was a Chinese governmental tax collection agency and information service from its founding in 1854 until it split in 1949 into services operating in the Republic of China on Taiwan, and in the People's Republic of China.

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Chinese opera

Traditional Chinese opera, or Xiqu, is a popular form of drama and musical theatre in China with roots going back to the early periods in China.

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Chinese painting

Chinese painting is one of the oldest continuous artistic traditions in the world.

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Chinese Rites controversy

The Chinese Rites controversy was a dispute among Roman Catholic missionaries over the religiosity of Confucianism and Chinese rituals during the 17th and 18th centuries.

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Chinese tea culture

Chinese tea culture refers to how tea is prepared as well as the occasions when people consume tea in China.

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Chinese theology

Chinese theology, which comes in different interpretations according to the classic texts and the common religion, and specifically Confucian, Taoist and other philosophical formulations, is fundamentally monistic, that is to say it sees the world and the gods of its phenomena as an organic whole, or cosmos, which continuously emerges from a simple principle.

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Chongzhen Emperor

The Chongzhen Emperor (6 February 1611 – 25 April 1644), personal name Zhu Youjian, was the 17th and last emperor of the Ming dynasty in China, reigning from 1627–1644.

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Christianity

ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Circuit (administrative division)

A circuit was a historical political division of China and is a historical and modern administrative unit in Japan.

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Classic of Filial Piety

The Classic of Filial Piety, also known by its Chinese name as the Xiaojing, is a Confucian classic treatise giving advice on filial piety: that is, how to behave towards a senior such as a father, an elder brother, or ruler.

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Classical Chinese poetry

Attributed to Han Gan, ''Huiyebai (Night-Shining White Steed)'', about 750 CE (Tang Dynasty). Classical Chinese poetry is traditional Chinese poetry written in Classical Chinese and typified by certain traditional forms, or modes; traditional genres; and connections with particular historical periods, such as the poetry of the Tang Dynasty.

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Cochinchina Campaign

The Cochinchina Campaign (Campagne de Cochinchine; Expedición franco-española a Cochinchina; Chiến dịch Nam Kỳ; Filipino: Expedisiyong pranses-espanyol sa Cochinchina); (1858–1862), fought between the French and Spanish on one side and the Vietnamese on the other, began as a limited punitive campaign for the murder of several Spanish and French missionaries in Vietnam.

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Cohong

The Cohong, sometimes spelled kehang or gonghang, was a guild of Chinese merchants or ''hongs'' who operated the import-export monopoly in Canton (now Guangzhou) during the Qing dynasty (16441911).

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Columbian Exchange

The Columbian Exchange was the widespread transfer of plants, animals, culture, human populations, technology, and ideas between the Americas and the Old World in the 15th and 16th centuries, related to European colonization and trade following Christopher Columbus's 1492 voyage.

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Confucianism

Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.

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Confucius

Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.

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Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory

The Convention between the United Kingdom and China, Respecting an Extension of Hong Kong Territory, commonly known as the Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory or the Second Convention of Peking, was a lease signed between Qing China and the United Kingdom on 9 June 1898.

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Convention of Peking

The Convention or First Convention of Peking, sometimes now known as the Convention of Beijing, is an agreement comprising three distinct treaties concluded between the Qing dynasty of China and the United Kingdom, French Empire, and Russian Empire in 1860.

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Convention of Tientsin

The, also known as the Tianjin Convention, was an agreement signed between the Meiji period Empire of Japan and Qing Dynasty Empire of China in Tientsin, China on 18 April 1885.

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Corvée

Corvée is a form of unpaid, unfree labour, which is intermittent in nature and which lasts limited periods of time: typically only a certain number of days' work each year.

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Counties of the People's Republic of China

Counties, formally county-level divisions, are found in the third level of the administrative hierarchy in Provinces and Autonomous regions, and the second level in municipalities and Hainan, a level that is known as "county level" and also contains autonomous counties, county-level cities, banners, autonomous banner, and City districts.

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County magistrate

County magistrate (or sometimes called local magistrate, in imperial China was the official in charge of the xian, or county, the lowest level of central government. The magistrate was the official who had face-to-face relations with the people and administered all aspects of government on behalf of the emperor. Because he was expected to rule in a disciplined but caring way and because the people were expected to obey, the county magistrate was informally known as the Fumu Guan, the "Father and Mother" or "parental" official. The emperor appointed magistrates from among those who passed the imperial examinations or had purchased equivalent degrees. Education in the Confucian Classics indoctrinated these officials with a shared ideology that helped to unify the empire, but not with practical training. A magistrate acquired specialized skills only after assuming office. Once in office, the magistrate was caught between the demands of his superiors and the needs and resistance of his often unruly constituents. Promotion depended on the magistrate's ability to maintain peace and lawful order as he supervised tax collection, roads, water control, and the census; handled legal functions as both prosecutor and judge; arranged relief for the poor or afflicted; carried out rituals; encouraged education and schools; and performed any further task the emperor chose to assign. Allowed to serve in any one place for only three years, he was also at the mercy of the local elites for knowledge of the local scene. There was a temptation to postpone difficult problems to the succeeding magistrate's term or to push them into a neighboring magistrate's jurisdiction. The Yongzheng emperor praised the magistrate: "The integrity of one man involves the peace or unhappiness of a myriad." But a recent historian said of the magistrate that "if he had possessed the qualifications for carrying out all his duties, he would have been a genius. Instead, he was an all-around blunderer, a harassed Jack-of-all trades...." The Republic of China (1912 –) made extensive reforms in county government, but the position of magistrate was retained.. Under the People's Republic of China (1949 –) the office of county magistrate, sometimes translated as "mayor," was no longer the lowest level of the central government, which extended its control directly to the village level.

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Cup of Solid Gold

The "Cup of Solid Gold" (IPA), adopted by the Qing dynasty (1644–1912) on October 4, 1911, was the first official national anthem of China.

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Dai Zhen

Dai Zhen (January 19, 1724 – July 1, 1777) was a prominent Chinese scholar of the Qing dynasty from Xiuning, Anhui.

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Dalai Lama

Dalai Lama (Standard Tibetan: ཏཱ་ལའི་བླ་མ་, Tā la'i bla ma) is a title given to spiritual leaders of the Tibetan people.

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Daoguang Emperor

The Daoguang Emperor (16 September 1782 – 25 February 1850) was the eighth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the sixth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1820 to 1850.

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Dariganga, Sükhbaatar

Dariganga (Дарьганга) is a sum (district) of Sükhbaatar Province in eastern Mongolia.

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Deliberative Council of Princes and Ministers

The Deliberative Council of Princes and Ministers, also known as the Council of Princes and High Officials and Assembly of Princes and High Officials, or simply as the Deliberative Council, was an advisory body for the emperors of the early Qing dynasty (1636–1912).

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Diaspora

A diaspora (/daɪˈæspərə/) is a scattered population whose origin lies in a separate geographic locale.

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Dorgon

Dorgon (Manchu:, literally "badger"; 17 November 1612 – 31 December 1650), formally known as Prince Rui, was a Manchu prince and regent of the early Qing dynasty.

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Dream of the Red Chamber

Dream of the Red Chamber, also called The Story of the Stone, composed by Cao Xueqin, is one of China's Four Great Classical Novels.

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Duke Yansheng

The Duke of Yansheng, literally "Duke Overflowing with Sagacity", sometimes translated as Holy Duke of Yen, was a Chinese title of nobility.

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Dungan Revolt (1862–77)

The Dungan Revolt (1862–77) or Tongzhi Hui Revolt (Xiao'erjing: توْجِ حُوِ بِيًا/لُوًا, Тунҗы Хуэй Бян/Луан) or Hui (Muslim) Minorities War was a mainly ethnic and religious war fought in 19th-century western China, mostly during the reign of the Tongzhi Emperor (r. 1861–75) of the Qing dynasty.

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Dutch East India Company

The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.

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Dutch Empire

The Dutch Empire (Het Nederlandse Koloniale Rijk) comprised the overseas colonies, enclaves, and outposts controlled and administered by Dutch chartered companies, mainly the Dutch West India and the Dutch East India Company, and subsequently by the Dutch Republic (1581–1795), and the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands since 1815.

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Dynasties in Chinese history

The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese History.

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Dzungar people

The name Dzungar people, also written as Zunghar (literally züüngar, from the Mongolian for "left hand"), referred to the several Oirat tribes who formed and maintained the Dzungar Khanate in the 17th and 18th centuries.

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Dzungar–Qing Wars

The Dzungar–Qing Wars (1687–1757) were a decades-long series of conflicts that pitted the Dzungar Khanate against the Qing dynasty of China and their Mongolian vassals.

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Dzungaria

Dzungaria (also spelled Zungaria, Dzungharia or Zungharia, Dzhungaria or Zhungaria, or Djungaria or Jungaria) is a geographical region in northwest China corresponding to the northern half of Xinjiang, also known as Beijiang.

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East India Company

The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.

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Ebilun

Ebilun (Manchu:, Mölendroff: ebilun;; died 1673) was a Manchu noble and warrior of the Niohuru clan, most famous for being one of the Four Regents assisting the young Kangxi Emperor from 1661 to 1667, during the early Qing dynasty (1644–1912).

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Eight Banners

The Eight Banners (in Manchu: jakūn gūsa) were administrative/military divisions under the Qing dynasty into which all Manchu households were placed.

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Eight Trigrams uprising of 1813

The Eight Trigrams uprising of 1813 broke out in China under the Qing dynasty.

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Eight-Nation Alliance

The Eight-Nation Alliance was an international military coalition set up in response to the Boxer Rebellion in China.

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Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period

Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period (1644–1912) (ECCP) is a biographical dictionary published in 1943 by the United States Government Printing Office, edited by Arthur W. Hummel, Sr., then head of the Orientalia Division of the Library of Congress.

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Emperor of China

The Emperor or Huangdi was the secular imperial title of the Chinese sovereign reigning between the founding of the Qin dynasty that unified China in 221 BC, until the abdication of Puyi in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution and the establishment of the Republic of China, although it was later restored twice in two failed revolutions in 1916 and 1917.

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Empire of Japan

The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.

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Empress Dowager Ci'an

Empress Xiaozhenxian (Manchu: Hiyoošungga jekdun iletu Hūwangheo; 12 August 1837 – 8 April 1881), better known as Empress Dowager Ci'an (Manchu: Hiyoošungga Jekdun Iletu Hūwanghu) and informally as the East Empress Dowager, was the Empress Consort of the Xianfeng Emperor of the Qing dynasty in China.

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Empress Dowager Cixi

Empress Dowager Cixi1 (Manchu: Tsysi taiheo; 29 November 1835 – 15 November 1908), of the Manchu Yehenara clan, was a Chinese empress dowager and regent who effectively controlled the Chinese government in the late Qing dynasty for 47 years from 1861 until her death in 1908.

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Empress Dowager Longyu

Empress Xiaodingjing (28 January 1868 – 22 February 1913), better known as Empress Dowager Longyu, personal name Jingfen, was the Empress Consort of the Guangxu Emperor, the penultimate emperor of the Qing dynasty and imperial China.

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Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang

Empress Xiaozhuangwen (ᡥᡳᠶᠣᡠ᠋ᡧᡠᠩᡤᠠ ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠯᡳᠩᡤᡡ ᡤᡝᠩᡤᡳᠶᡝᠨ ᡧᡠ ᡥᡡᠸᠠᠩᡥᡝᡠ᠋|v.

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Extraterritoriality

Extraterritoriality is the state of being exempted from the jurisdiction of local law, usually as the result of diplomatic negotiations.

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Ferdinand Verbiest

Father Ferdinand Verbiest (9 October 1623 – 28 January 1688) was a Flemish Jesuit missionary in China during the Qing dynasty.

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First Opium War

The First Opium War (第一次鴉片戰爭), also known as the Opium War or the Anglo-Chinese War, was a series of military engagements fought between the United Kingdom and the Qing dynasty of China over their conflicting viewpoints on diplomatic relations, trade, and the administration of justice in China.

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First Sino-Japanese War

The First Sino-Japanese War (25 July 1894 – 17 April 1895) was fought between Qing dynasty of China and Empire of Japan, primarily for influence over Joseon.

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Flowers in the Mirror

Flowers in the Mirror, also translated as The Marriage of Flowers in the Mirror, or Romance of the Flowers in the Mirror, is a fantasy novel written by Li Ruzhen (Li Ju-chen), completed in the year of 1827 during the Qing dynasty.

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Foot binding

Foot binding was the custom of applying tight binding to the feet of young girls to modify the shape of their feet.

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Forbidden City

The Forbidden City is a palace complex in central Beijing, China.

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Four arts

The four arts (四藝, siyi), or the four arts of the Chinese scholar, were the four main academic and artistic accomplishments required of the aristocratic ancient Chinese scholar-gentleman.

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Four occupations

The four occupations or "four categories of the people"Hansson, pp.

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Four Wangs

The Four Wangs were four Chinese landscape painters in the 17th century, all called Wang (surname Wang).

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Free trade

Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.

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Fu (country subdivision)

Fu is a traditional administrative division of Chinese origin used in the East Asian cultural sphere, translated variously as commandery, prefecture, urban prefecture, or city.

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Fujian

Fujian (pronounced), formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China.

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Fuzhou

Fuzhou, formerly romanized as Foochow, is the capital and one of the largest cities in Fujian province, China.

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Galdan Boshugtu Khan

Choros Erdeniin Galdan (1644–1697, Галдан Бошигт хаан,, in Mongolian script: Galdan bošoɣtu qaɣan) was a Dzungar-Oirat Khan of the Dzungar Khanate.

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Gansu

Gansu (Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.

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Gapsin Coup

The Gapsin Coup, also known as the Gapsin Revolution, was a failed three-day coup d'état during 1884 in Korea.

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Geng Jingzhong

Geng Jingzhong (died 1682) was a powerful military commander of the early Qing dynasty.

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Geography of Taiwan

Taiwan, formerly known as Formosa, is an island in East Asia; located some off the southeastern coast of mainland China across the Taiwan Strait.

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George Macartney, 1st Earl Macartney

George Macartney, 1st Earl Macartney, KB (14 May 1737 – 31 May 1806) was a British statesman, colonial administrator and diplomat.

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German Empire

The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.

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Ginseng

Ginseng is the root of plants in the genus Panax, such as Korean ginseng (P. ginseng), South China ginseng (P. notoginseng), and American ginseng (P. quinquefolius), typically characterized by the presence of ginsenosides and gintonin.

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Grand Canal (China)

The Grand Canal, known to the Chinese as the Beijing–Hangzhou Grand Canal (Jīng-Háng Dà Yùnhé), a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the longest as well as one of the oldest canal or artificial river in the world and a famous tourist destination.

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Grand chancellor (China)

The grand chancellor, also translated as counselor-in-chief, chancellor, chief councillor, chief minister, imperial chancellor, lieutenant chancellor and prime minister, was the highest-ranking executive official in the imperial Chinese government.

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Grand coordinator and provincial governor

A xunfu was an important imperial Chinese provincial office under both the Ming (14th–17th centuries) and Qing dynasties (17th–20th centuries).

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Grand Council (Qing dynasty)

The Grand Council or Junjichu (Manchu: coohai nashūn i ba; literally, "Office of Military Secrets") was an important policy-making body during the Qing dynasty.

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Great Divergence

The Great Divergence is a term made popular by Kenneth Pomeranz's book by that title, (also known as the European miracle, a term coined by Eric Jones in 1981) referring to the process by which the Western world (i.e. Western Europe and the parts of the New World where its people became the dominant populations) overcame pre-modern growth constraints and emerged during the 19th century as the most powerful and wealthy world civilization, eclipsing Medieval India, Qing China, the Islamic World, and Tokugawa Japan.

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Great Qing Legal Code

The Great Qing Legal Code (or Great Ching Legal Code), also known as the Qing Code (Ching Code) or, in Hong Kong law, as the Ta Tsing Leu Lee (大清律例), was the legal code of the Qing empire (1644–1912).

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Great Wall of China

The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe with an eye to expansion.

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Green Standard Army

The Green Standard Army (Manchu: niowanggiyan turun i kūwaran) was the name of a category of military units under the control of Qing dynasty China.

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Gu Yanwu

Gu Yanwu (July 15, 1613 – February 15, 1682), also known as Gu Tinglin, was a Chinese philologist and geographer.

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Guangdong

Guangdong is a province in South China, located on the South China Sea coast.

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Guangxi

Guangxi (pronounced; Zhuang: Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is a Chinese autonomous region in South Central China, bordering Vietnam.

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Guangxu Emperor

The Guangxu Emperor (14 August 187114 November 1908), personal name Zaitian (Manchu: dzai-tiyan), was the eleventh emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the ninth Qing emperor to rule over China.

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Guangzhou

Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.

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Guizhou

Guizhou, formerly romanized as Kweichow, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country.

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Haipai

Haipai (海派, Shanghainese: hepha,; literally "Shanghai style") refers to the avant-garde but unique "East Meets West" culture from Shanghai in the 20th and 21st centuries.

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Han Chinese

The Han Chinese,.

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Hankou

Hankou p Hànkǒu), formerly romanized as Hankow (Hangkow), was one of the three cities whose merging formed modern-day Wuhan municipality, the capital of the Hubei province, China.

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He Changling

He Changling (March 18, 1785—July 6, 1848), courtesy name Ougen (耦耕), was a Chinese scholar and official of the Qing dynasty from Changsha, Hunan.

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Heilongjiang

Heilongjiang (Wade-Giles: Heilungkiang) is a province of the People's Republic of China.

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Heirloom Seal of the Realm

The Heirloom Seal of the Realm, also known in English as the Imperial Seal of China, is a Chinese jade seal carved out of the He Shi Bi, a historically famous piece of jade.

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Henan

Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country.

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Heshen

Niohuru Heshen (1 July 1750 – 22 February 1799) of the Manchu Niohuru clan, was an official of the Qing dynasty who was favoured by the Qianlong Emperor.

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History of China

The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.

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History of opium in China

The history of opium in China began with the use of opium for medicinal purposes during the 7th century.

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History of rail transport in China

The history of rail transport in China began in the late nineteenth century during the Qing Dynasty.

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Hohhot

Hohhot, abbreviated in Chinese as Hushi, formerly known as Kweisui, is the capital of Inner Mongolia in the north of the People's Republic of China, serving as the region's administrative, economic and cultural center.

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Hong (business)

A Hong was a large general trading house in Canton (now known as Guangzhou), Guangdong, China, in the 19th century.

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Hong Chengchou

Hong Chengchou (1593–1665), courtesy name Yanyan and art name Hengjiu, was a Chinese official who served under the Ming and Qing dynasties.

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Hong Kong Island

Hong Kong Island is an island in the southern part of Hong Kong.

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Hong Taiji

Hong Taiji (28November 159221 September1643), sometimes written as Huang Taiji and also referred to as Abahai in Western literature, was an Emperor of the Qing dynasty.

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Hong Xiuquan

Hong Xiuquan (洪秀全) (1 January 1814 – 1 June 1864), born Hong Huoxiu and with the courtesy name Renkun, was a Hakka Chinese leader of the Taiping Rebellion against the Qing Dynasty.

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Hooge (prince)

Hooge (Manchu:; 1609–1648), formally known as Prince Su, was a Manchu prince of the Qing dynasty.

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House of Zhu

House of Zhu, also known as House of Chu, was the imperial family of the Ming dynasty of China.

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Huai Army

The Huai Army, named for the Huai River, was a Qing dynasty military force raised to contain the Taiping Rebellion in 1862.

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Hubei

Hubei is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the Central China region.

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Huguang Province

Huguang was a province of China during the Yuan and Ming dynasties.

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Hui people

The Hui people (Xiao'erjing: خُوِذُو; Dungan: Хуэйзў, Xuejzw) are an East Asian ethnoreligious group predominantly composed of Han Chinese adherents of the Muslim faith found throughout China, mainly in the northwestern provinces of the country and the Zhongyuan region.

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Hulunbuir

Hulunbuir or Hulun Buir (style, Kölün buyir, Cyrillic: Хөлөнбуйр, Khölönbuir;, Hūlúnbèi'ěr) is a region that is governed as a prefecture-level city in northeastern Inner Mongolia, in China.

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Hunan

Hunan is the 7th most populous province of China and the 10th most extensive by area.

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Hundred Days' Reform

The Hundred Days' Reform was a failed 104-day national, cultural, political, and educational reform movement from 11 June to 22 September 1898 in late Qing dynasty China.

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Imperial Chinese harem system

The ranks of imperial consorts have varied over the course of Chinese history but remained important throughout owing to its importance in management of the inner court and in imperial succession, which ranked heirs according to the prominence of their mothers in addition to their strict birth order.

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Imperial Chinese Tributary System

The Imperial Chinese Tributary System is a term created by John King Fairbank to describe "a set of ideas and practices developed and perpetuated by the rulers of China over many centuries".

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Imperial examination

The Chinese imperial examinations were a civil service examination system in Imperial China to select candidates for the state bureaucracy.

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Imperial Household Department

The Imperial Household Department (Manchu: dorgi baita be uheri kadalara yamun) was an institution of the Qing dynasty of China.

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Imperial Seal of the Mongols

The Imperial Seal of the Mongols is a seal (tamgha-тамга) that was used by the Mongols.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indonesia

Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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Infanticide

Infanticide (or infant homicide) is the intentional killing of infants.

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Inner Asia

Inner Asia refers to regions within East Asia and North Asia that are today part of western China, Mongolia and eastern Russia.

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Inner Mongolia

Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region (Ѳвѳр Монголын Ѳѳртѳѳ Засах Орон in Mongolian Cyrillic), is one of the autonomous regions of China, located in the north of the country.

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International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919)

This article covers worldwide diplomacy and, more generally, the international relations of the major powers from 1814 to 1919, particularly the "Big Four".

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Islam

IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Islam during the Qing dynasty

Qing dynasty (1644–1911).

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Itō Hirobumi

Prince was a Japanese statesman and genrō.

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Jahangir Khoja

Jahanghir Khoja, Jāhangīr Khwāja, or Jihangir Khoja (جهانگیر خوجا, جهانگير خوجة,; 1788 – 1828) was a member of the influential East Turkestan Afaqi khoja clan, who managed to wrest Kashgaria from the Qing Empire's power for a few years in the 1820s.

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Jahriyya revolt

In the Jahriyya revolt of 1781 sectarian violence between two suborders of the Naqshbandi Sufis, the Jahriyya Sufi Muslims and their rivals, the Khafiyya Sufi Muslims, led to Qing intervention to stop the fighting between the two, which in turn led to a Jahriyya Sufi Muslim rebellion which the Qing dynasty in China crushed with the help of the Khufiyya (Khafiyya) Sufi Muslims.

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Japanese invasion of Manchuria

The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on 18 September 1931, when the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan invaded Manchuria immediately following the Mukden Incident.

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Jehovah

Jehovah is a Latinization of the Hebrew, one vocalization of the Tetragrammaton (YHWH), the proper name of the God of Israel in the Hebrew Bible and one of the seven names of God in Judaism.

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Jiangnan

Jiangnan or Jiang Nan (sometimes spelled Kiang-nan, literally "South of the river") is a geographic area in China referring to lands immediately to the south of the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, including the southern part of its delta.

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Jiangsu

Jiangsu, formerly romanized as Kiangsu, is an eastern-central coastal province of the People's Republic of China.

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Jiangxi

Jiangxi, formerly spelled as Kiangsi Gan: Kongsi) is a province in the People's Republic of China, located in the southeast of the country. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze river in the north into hillier areas in the south and east, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to the northwest. The name "Jiangxi" derives from the circuit administrated under the Tang dynasty in 733, Jiangnanxidao (道, Circuit of Western Jiangnan; Gan: Kongnomsitau). The short name for Jiangxi is 赣 (pinyin: Gàn; Gan: Gōm), for the Gan River which runs across from the south to the north and flows into the Yangtze River. Jiangxi is also alternately called Ganpo Dadi (贛鄱大地) which literally means the "Great Land of Gan and Po".

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Jiangyin

Jiangyin (Jiangyin dialect) is a county-level city on the southern bank of the Yangtze River, and is administered by Wuxi, Jiangsu province.

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Jianzhou Jurchens

The Jianzhou Jurchens (Chinese: 建州女真) were one of the three major groups of Jurchens as identified by the Ming dynasty.

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Jiaozhou Bay

The Jiaozhou Bay (Kiautschou Bucht) is a gulf located in Qingdao, China.

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Jiaqing Emperor

The Jiaqing Emperor (13 November 1760 – 2 September 1820), personal name Yongyan, was the seventh emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the fifth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1796 to 1820.

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Jilin

Jilin, formerly romanized as Kirin is one of the three provinces of Northeast China.

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Jin dynasty (1115–1234)

The Jin dynasty, officially known as the Great Jin, lasted from 1115 to 1234 as one of the last dynasties in Chinese history to predate the Mongol invasion of China.

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Jinzhou

Jinzhou is a prefecture-level city of Liaoning province, People's Republic of China.

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Johann Adam Schall von Bell

Johann Adam Schall von Bell (1 May 1591 – 15 August 1666) was a German Jesuit and astronomer.

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Joseon

The Joseon dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosun, 조선; officially the Kingdom of Great Joseon, 대조선국) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries.

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Junk (ship)

Junk is a type of ancient Chinese sailing ship that is still in use today.

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Jurchen people

The Jurchen (Manchu: Jušen; 女真, Nǚzhēn), also known by many variant names, were a Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until around 1630, at which point they were reformed and combined with their neighbors as the Manchu.

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Jurchen script

Jurchen script (Jurchen) was the writing system used to write the Jurchen language, the language of the Jurchen people who created the Jin Empire in northeastern China in the 12th–13th centuries.

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Juye Incident

The Juye Incident (German: Juye Vorfall) refers to the killing of two German Catholic missionaries, Richard Henle and Franz Xaver Nies, of the Society of the Divine Word, in Juye County Shandong Province, China in the night of 1-2 November 1897 (All Saints' Day to All Souls' Day).

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Kang Youwei

Kang Youwei (Cantonese: Hōng Yáuh-wàih; 19March 185831March 1927) was a Chinese scholar, noted calligrapher and prominent political thinker and reformer of the late Qing dynasty.

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Kangxi Dictionary

The Kangxi Dictionary was the standard Chinese dictionary during the 18th and 19th centuries.

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Kangxi Emperor

The Kangxi Emperor (康熙; 4 May 165420 December 1722), personal name Xuanye, was the fourth emperor of the Qing dynasty, the first to be born on Chinese soil south of the Shanhai Pass near Beijing, and the second Qing emperor to rule over that part of China, from 1661 to 1722.

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Kaozheng

Kaozheng 考證 ("search for evidence"), also kaoju xue 考據學 ("evidential scholarship") – a school and approach to study and research in China from about 1600 to 1850.

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Kashgar

Kashgar is an oasis city in Xinjiang, People's Republic of China.

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Katoor Dynasty

The Katoor Dynasty (also spelled Katur and Kator) is a dynasty, which along with its collateral branches ruled the sovereign, later princely state of Chitral and its neighbours in the eastern Hindu Kush region for over 450 years, from around 1570 until 1947.

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Keelung Campaign

The Keelung Campaign (August 1884–April 1885) was a controversial military campaign undertaken by the French in northern Formosa (Taiwan) during the Sino-French War. After making a botched attack on Keelung in August 1884, the French landed an expeditionary corps of 2,000 men and captured the port in October 1884. Unable to advance beyond their bridgehead, they were invested inside Keelung by superior Chinese forces under the command of the imperial commissioner Liu Mingchuan. In November and December 1884 cholera and typhoid drained the strength of the French expeditionary corps, while reinforcements for the Chinese army flowed into Formosa via the Pescadores Islands, raising its strength to 35,000 men by the end of the war. Reinforced in January 1885 to a strength of 4,500 men, the French won two impressive tactical victories against the besieging Chinese in late January and early March 1885, but were not strong enough to exploit these victories. The Keelung campaign ended in April 1885 in a strategic and tactical stalemate. The campaign was criticised at the time by Admiral Amédée Courbet, the commander of the French Far East Squadron, as strategically irrelevant and a wasteful diversion of the French navy.

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Khagan

Khagan or Qaghan (Old Turkic: kaɣan; хаан, khaan) is a title of imperial rank in the Turkic and Mongolian languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a khaganate (empire).

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Khalkha Mongols

The Khalkha (Халх, Halh) is the largest subgroup of Mongol people in Mongolia since the 15th century.

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Kham

Kham is a historical region of Tibet covering a land area largely divided between present-day Tibet Autonomous Region and Sichuan, with smaller portions located within Qinghai, Gansu and Yunnan provinces of China.

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Khan (title)

Khan خان/khan; is a title for a sovereign or a military ruler, used by Mongolians living to the north of China. Khan has equivalent meanings such as "commander", "leader", or "ruler", "king" and "chief". khans exist in South Asia, Middle East, Central Asia, Eastern Europe, East Africa and Turkey. The female alternatives are Khatun and Khanum. These titles or names are sometimes written as Khan/خان in Persian, Han, Kan, Hakan, Hanum, or Hatun (in Turkey) and as "xan", "xanım" (in Azerbaijan), and medieval Turkic tribes.

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Khanate of Kokand

The Khanate of Kokand (Qo‘qon Xonligi, Қўқон Хонлиги, قۇقان خانلىگى; Qoqon xandığı, قوقون حاندىعى; Xânâte Xuqand) was a Central Asian state in Fergana Valley that existed from 1709–1876 within the territory of modern Kyrgyzstan, eastern Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, and southeastern Kazakhstan.

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Khövsgöl Province

Khövsgöl (Хөвсгөл) is the northernmost of the 21 aimags (provinces) of Mongolia.

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Khitan scripts

The Khitan scripts were the writing systems for the now-extinct Para-Mongolic Khitan language used in the 10th-12th century by the Khitan people who had established the Liao dynasty in Northeast China.

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Khovd Province

Khovd (Ховд) is one of the 21 aimags (provinces) of Mongolia, located in the west of the country.

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Kiautschou Bay concession

The Kiautschou Bay Leased Territory was a German leased territory in Imperial and Early Republican China which existed from 1898 to 1914.

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Kingdom of Tungning

The Kingdom of Tungning or Kingdom of Formosa was a government that ruled part of southwestern Formosa (Taiwan) between 1661 and 1683.

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Kong Shangren

Kong Shangren (1648 - 1718) was a Qing dynasty dramatist and poet best known for his chuanqi play The Peach Blossom Fan"Frommer's China", Simon Foster et al., 2010, p. 383, about the last days of the Ming dynasty.

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Korea

Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.

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Koxinga

Zheng Chenggong, better known in the West by his Hokkien honorific Koxinga or Coxinga, was a Chinese Ming loyalist who resisted the Qing conquest of China in the 17th century, fighting them on China's southeastern coast.

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Kumul Khanate

The Kumul Khanate was a semi-autonomous feudal Turkic khanate within the Qing dynasty and then the Republic of China until it was abolished by Xinjiang governor Jin Shuren in 1930.

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Kunqu

Kunqu, also known as Kunju (崑劇), Kun opera or Kunqu Opera, is one of the oldest extant forms of Chinese opera.

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Kurultai

Kurultai (Mongolian:, Хуралдай, Khuruldai; Turkish: Kurultay),Kazakh: Құрылтай, Qurıltay; Корылтай, Qorıltay; Ҡоролтай, Qoroltay; Qurultay; Gurultaý was a political and military council of ancient Mongol and some Turkic chiefs and khans.

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Kwang-chih Chang

Kwang-chih Chang (1931 – January 3, 2001), commonly known as K.C. Chang, was a Chinese-American archaeologist and sinologist.

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Kwantung Leased Territory

The Kwantung Leased Territory was a Russian-leased territory (1898–1905), then a Japanese-leased territory (1905–1945) in the southern part of the Liaodong Peninsula (遼東半島) in the Republic of China that existed from 1898 to 1945.

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Later Jin (1616–1636)

Later Jin (Manju i Yargiyan Kooli (滿洲實錄). Zhonghua Book Company, p. 283.; literally: "Gold State"; 1616–1636) was a khanate established by the Jurchen khan, Nurhaci in Manchuria during 1616–1636, and was the predecessor of the Qing dynasty.

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Lhasa (prefecture-level city)

Lhasa is a prefecture-level city, formerly a prefecture until 7 January 1960, one of the main administrative divisions of the Tibet Autonomous Region of China.

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Li Hongzhang

Li Hongzhang, Marquess Suyi (also romanised as Li Hung-chang) (15 February 1823 – 7 November 1901),, was a Chinese politician, general and diplomat of the late Qing dynasty.

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Li Ruzhen

Li Ruzhen, formerly romanized as Li Ju-chen (c. 1763 - 1830), courtesy name Songshi (松石), art name Songshi Daoren (松石道人), was a Chinese novelist and phonologist of the Qing dynasty.

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Li Zicheng

Li Zicheng (22 September 1606 – 1645), born Li Hongji, also known by the nickname, "Dashing King", was a Chinese rebel leader who overthrew the Ming dynasty in 1644 and ruled over China briefly as the emperor of the short-lived Shun dynasty before his death a year later.

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Liang Qichao

Liang Qichao (Cantonese: Lèuhng Kái-chīu; 23 February 1873 – 19 January 1929), courtesy name Zhuoru, art name Rengong, was a Chinese scholar, journalist, philosopher, and reformist who lived during the late Qing dynasty and the early Republic of China.

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Liaodong Peninsula

The Liaodong Peninsula is a peninsula in Liaoning Province of Northeast China, historically known in the West as Southeastern Manchuria.

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Liaoyang

Liaoyang is a prefecture-level city of east-central Liaoning province, China, situated on the Taizi River and, together with Anshan, forms a metro area of 2,057,200 inhabitants in 2010.

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Lifan Yuan

The Lifan Yuan (Manchu: Tulergi golo be dasara jurgan; Mongolian: Гадаад Монголын төрийг засах явдлын яам, γadaγadu mongγul un törü-yi jasaqu yabudal-un yamun) was an agency in the government of the Qing dynasty which supervised the Qing Empire's frontier Inner Asia regions such as its Mongolian dependencies and oversaw the appointments of Ambans in Tibet.

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Ligdan Khan

Ligdan Khutugtu Khan (from Mongolian "Ligden Khutugt Khan"; Mongolian Cyrillic: Лигдэн Хутугт хаан; or from Chinese, Lindan Han; Chinese: 林丹汗; 1588–1634) was the last khan of the Northern Yuan dynasty based in Mongolia as well as the last in the Borjigin clan of Mongol Khans who ruled the Mongols from Chakhar.

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Lin Zexu

Lin Zexu (30 August 1785 – 22 November 1850), courtesy name Yuanfu, was a Chinese scholar-official of the Qing dynasty best known for his role in the First Opium War of 1839–42.

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List of Chinese monarchs

This list of Chinese monarchs includes rulers of China with various titles prior to the establishment of the Republic in 1912.

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List of emperors of the Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty (1644–1912) was the last imperial dynasty of China.

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List of largest empires

This is a list of the largest empires in world history, but the list is not and cannot be definitive since the decision about which entities to consider as "empires" is difficult and fraught with controversy.

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List of Manchu clans

This is an alphabetical list of Manchu clans.

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List of Presidents of the Republic of China

This is a list of the Presidents of the Republic of China (1912–present).

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List of rebellions in China

This is an incomplete list of some of the rebellions, revolts and revolutions that have occurred in China.

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List of recipients of tribute from China

Chinese zhongyuan state entities have paid tribute to a number states and confederations throughout history.

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List of tributaries of China

This list of tributary states of China encompasses suzerain kingdoms from China in Europe, Africa, East Asia, South Asia, Central Asia and Southeast Asia.

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Literary Inquisition

The literary inquisition or speech crime refers to official persecution of intellectuals for their writings in China.

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Manchu alphabet

The Manchu alphabet is the alphabet used to write the now nearly-extinct Manchu language; a similar script is used today by the Xibe people, who speak a language variably considered as either a dialect of Manchu or a closely related, mutually intelligible, language.

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Manchu Han Imperial Feast

Manhan Quanxi, literally Manchu Han Imperial Feast was one of the grandest meals ever documented in Chinese cuisine.

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Manchu language

Manchu (Manchu: manju gisun) is a critically endangered Tungusic language spoken in Manchuria; it was the native language of the Manchus and one of the official languages of the Qing dynasty (1636–1911) of China.

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Manchu people

The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.

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Manchu Restoration

The Manchu Restoration of July 1917 was an attempt to restore monarchy in China by General Zhang Xun, whose army seized Beijing and briefly reinstalled the last emperor of the Qing dynasty, Puyi, to the throne.

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Manchukuo

Manchukuo was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945.

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Manchuria

Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.

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Manchuria under Qing rule

Manchuria under Qing rule was the rule of the Qing dynasty over Manchuria, including today's Northeast China and Outer Manchuria.

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Mandarin (bureaucrat)

A mandarin (Chinese: 官 guān) was a bureaucrat scholar in the government of imperial China and Vietnam.

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Mandarin (late imperial lingua franca)

Mandarin was the common spoken language of administration of the Chinese empire during the Ming and Qing dynasties.

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Mandarin square

A mandarin square (traditional Chinese: 補子; simplified Chinese: 补子; pinyin: bŭzi; Wade-Giles: putzŭ; Manchu: sabirgi; Vietnamese: Bổ Tử; hangul: 흉배; hanja: 胸背; romanized: hyungbae), also known as a rank badge, was a large embroidered badge sewn onto the surcoat of an official in Imperial China, Korea and Vietnam.

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Mandate of Heaven

The Mandate of Heaven or Tian Ming is a Chinese political and religious doctrine used since ancient times to justify the rule of the King or Emperor of China.

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Manjushri

Mañjuśrī is a bodhisattva associated with prajñā (insight) in Mahayana Buddhism.

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Marquis of Extended Grace

Marquis of Extended Grace was a title held by a descendant of the imperial family of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) during the subsequent Qing dynasty (1644–1912).

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Martino Martini

Martino Martini (20 September 1614 – 6 June 1661) was an Italian Jesuit missionary, cartographer and historian, mainly working on ancient Imperial China.

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Meiji Restoration

The, also known as the Meiji Ishin, Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was an event that restored practical imperial rule to the Empire of Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji.

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Miao people

The Miao is an ethnic group belonging to South China, and is recognized by the government of China as one of the 55 official minority groups.

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Miao Rebellion (1854–73)

The Miao rebellion of 1854–1873 was an uprising of ethnic Miao and other groups in Guizhou province during the reign of the Qing dynasty.

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Military history of China before 1911

The recorded military history of China extends from about 2200 BC to the present day.

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Ming dynasty

The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.

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Ming poetry

Ming poetry refers to the poetry of or typical of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644).

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Ming tombs

The Ming tombs are a collection of mausoleums built by the emperors of the Ming dynasty of China.

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Mir of Hunza

Mir of Hunza was the title of rulers in the Hunza Valley in the Northern Areas, Pakistan.

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Mongolia

Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.

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Mongolia under Qing rule

Mongolia under Qing rule was the rule of the Qing dynasty of China over the Mongolian steppe, including the Outer Mongolian 4 aimags and Inner Mongolian 6 leagues from the 17th century to the end of the dynasty.

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Mongolian language

The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script: Moŋɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол хэл, mongol khel.) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family.

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Mongolian nobility

The Mongolian nobility (язгууртан сурвалжтан; yazgurtan survaljtan) arose between the 10th and 12th centuries, became prominent in the 13th century, and essentially governed Mongolia until the early 20th century.

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Mongolian script

The classical or traditional Mongolian script (in Mongolian script: Mongγol bičig; in Mongolian Cyrillic: Монгол бичиг Mongol bichig), also known as Hudum Mongol bichig, was the first writing system created specifically for the Mongolian language, and was the most successful until the introduction of Cyrillic in 1946.

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Mongols

The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

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Myanmar

Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.

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Names of the Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty was founded by the Jurchen Aisin Gioro clan in Manchuria (modern Northeast China) in the 17th century and became known by various names.

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Nanjing

Nanjing, formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of and a total population of 8,270,500.

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Naqshbandi

The Naqshbandi (نقشبندی) or Naqshbandiyah is a major Sunni spiritual order of Sufism.

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Neo-Confucianism

Neo-Confucianism (often shortened to lixue 理學) is a moral, ethical, and metaphysical Chinese philosophy influenced by Confucianism, and originated with Han Yu and Li Ao (772–841) in the Tang Dynasty, and became prominent during the Song and Ming dynasties.

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New Army

The New Armies (Traditional Chinese: 新軍, Simplified Chinese: 新军; Pinyin: Xīnjūn, Manchu: Ice cooha), more fully called the Newly Created Army (Xinjian LujunAlso translated as "Newly Established Army"), was the modernized army corps formed under the Qing dynasty in December 1895, following its defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War.

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New Culture Movement

The New Culture Movement of the mid 1910s and 1920s sprang from the disillusionment with traditional Chinese culture following the failure of the Chinese Republic, founded in 1912 to address China’s problems.

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New Policies

The New Policies, or New Administration of the late Qing dynasty (1644-1912), also known as the Late Qing Reform, were a series of cultural, economic, educational, military, and political reforms that were implemented in the last decade of the Qing dynasty to keep the dynasty in power after the humiliating defeat in the Boxer Rebellion.

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New Qing History

The New Qing History is a school of thought that gained prominence in the United States in the mid-1990s by offering a wide-ranging revision of history of the Manchu Qing dynasty.

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New World

The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).

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Nian Rebellion

The Nian Rebellion was an armed uprising that took place in northern China from 1851 to 1868, contemporaneously with Taiping Rebellion (1851–1864) in South China.

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Ningbo

Ningbo, formerly written Ningpo, is a sub-provincial city in northeast Zhejiang province in China. It comprises the urban districts of Ningbo proper, three satellite cities, and a number of rural counties including islands in Hangzhou Bay and the East China Sea. Its port, spread across several locations, is among the busiest in the world and the municipality possesses a separate state-planning status. As of the 2010 census, the entire administrated area had a population of 7.6 million, with 3.5 million in the six urban districts of Ningbo proper. To the north, Hangzhou Bay separates Ningbo from Shanghai; to the east lies Zhoushan in the East China Sea; on the west and south, Ningbo borders Shaoxing and Taizhou respectively.

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Nomad

A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.

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Northeast China

Northeast China or Dongbei is a geographical region of China.

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Nurhaci

Nurhaci (alternatively Nurhachi; 21 February 1559 – 30 September 1626) was a Jurchen chieftain of Jianzhou, a vassal of Ming, who rose to prominence in the late 16th century in Manchuria.

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Oboi

Oboi (Manchu: ᠣᠪᠣᡳ) (c. 1610–1669) was a prominent Manchu military commander and courtier who served in various military and administrative posts under three successive emperors of the early Qing dynasty.

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Old Summer Palace

The Old Summer Palace, known in Chinese as Yuanming Yuan, and originally called the Imperial Gardens, was a complex of palaces and gardens in present-day Haidian District, Beijing, China. It is located northwest of the walls of the former Imperial City section of Beijing.

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Outer Mongolia

Outer Mongolia (Mongolian script: or , Mongolian Cyrillic: or, romanization: Gadaad Mongol or Alr Mongol)Huhbator Borjigin.

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Panthay Rebellion

The Panthay rebellion (1856–1873), known to Chinese as the Du Wenxiu Rebellion (Tu Wen-hsiu Rebellion), was a rebellion of the Muslim Hui people and other (Muslim) ethnic minorities against the Manchu rulers of the Qing Dynasty in southwestern Yunnan Province, as part of a wave of Hui-led multi-ethnic unrest.

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Peanut

The peanut, also known as the groundnut or the goober and taxonomically classified as Arachis hypogaea, is a legume crop grown mainly for its edible seeds.

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Peiwen Yunfu

The Peiwen Yunfu is a 1711 Chinese rime dictionary of literary allusions and poetic dictions.

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Peking glass

Peking glass (also known as Qianlong Glass or Tao Liao Ping) is a form of Chinese glassware that originated in 18th century Peking China.

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Peking opera

Peking opera, or Beijing opera, is a form of Chinese opera which combines music, vocal performance, mime, dance and acrobatics.

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Penghu

The Penghu or Pescadores Islands are an archipelago of 90 islands and islets in the Taiwan Strait.

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Pindale Min

Pindale Min (ပင်းတလဲမင်း,; 23 March 1608 – 3 June 1661) was king of the Toungoo dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from 1648 to 1661.

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Potato

The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.

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Prefectures of the People's Republic of China

Prefectures, formally a kind of prefecture-level divisions as a term in the context of China, are used to refer to several unrelated political divisions in both ancient and modern China.

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President of the Republic of China

The President of Taiwan, officially the President of the Republic of China, is the head of state and the head of government of Taiwan.

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Pretender

A pretender is one who is able to maintain a claim that they are entitled to a position of honour or rank, which may be occupied by an incumbent (usually more recognised), or whose powers may currently be exercised by another person or authority.

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Prime Minister of the Imperial Cabinet

The Prime Minister of the Imperial Cabinet was the office of the head of government created on 8 May 1911 in the late Qing dynasty, as part of the imperial government's unsuccessful attempts at creating a constitutional monarchy in China.

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Prince

A prince is a male ruler or member of a monarch's or former monarch's family ranked below a king and above a duke.

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Prince Gong

Yixin (11January 1833– 29May 1898), better known in English as PrinceKung or Gong, was an imperial prince of the Aisin Gioro clan and an important statesman of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty in China.

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Princess Uisun

Princess Uisun (1635-1662; birth name Yi Ae-suk) was a member of the Joseon royal family, who was adopted as a daughter by Hyojong of Joseon and Queen Inseon so that she could marry the Aisin Gioro prince Dorgon.

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Privy council

A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically, but not always, in the context of a monarchic government.

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Protectorate

A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.

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Provinces of China

Provincial-level administrative divisions or first-level administrative divisions, are the highest-level Chinese administrative divisions.

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Provincial military commander

The provincial military commander was a high military official in the Chinese provinces of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911).

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Pu Songling

Pu Songling (5 June 1640 – 25 February 1715) was a Qing Dynasty Chinese writer, best known as the author of Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio (Liaozhai zhiyi).

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Puyi

Puyi or Pu Yi (7 February 190617 October 1967), of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan, was the last Emperor of China and the twelfth and final ruler of the Qing dynasty.

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Qi Jiguang

Qi Jiguang (November 12, 1528 – January 17, 1588), courtesy name Yuanjing, art names Nantang and Mengzhu, posthumous name Wuyi, was a military general of the Ming dynasty.

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Qianlong Emperor

The Qianlong Emperor (25 September 1711 – 7 February 1799) was the sixth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China proper.

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Qin dynasty

The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.

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Qing conquest theory

The Qing conquest theory is a theory proposed by Chinese academics that attempts to explain the Great Divergence, the overtaking of China by the Western world as the major economic and industrial world power.

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Qing dynasty coinage

Qing dynasty coinage was based on a bimetallic standard of copper and silver coinage.

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Qing dynasty in Inner Asia

The Qing dynasty in Inner Asia was the expansion of the Qing dynasty's realm in Inner Asia in the 17th and the 18th century AD, including both Inner and Outer Mongolia, Manchuria, Tibet, Qinghai and Xinjiang.

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Qing invasion of Joseon

The Qing invasion of Joseon occurred in the winter of 1636 when the newly established Manchu Qing dynasty invaded Korea's Joseon kingdom, establishing its status as the center of the Imperial Chinese tributary system and formally severing Joseon's relationship with the Ming dynasty.

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Qing official headwear

Qing Guanmao (清代官帽) was the headwear of officials during the Qing dynasty (1644–1912) in China.

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Qing poetry

Qing poetry refers to the poetry of or typical of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911).

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Qinghai

Qinghai, formerly known in English as Kokonur, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest of the country.

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Quan Tangshi

Quan Tangshi (Complete Tang Poems), commissioned in 1705 at the direction and published under the name of the Qing dynasty Kangxi Emperor, is the largest collection of Tang poetry, containing some 49,000 lyric poems by more than twenty-two hundred poets.

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Queue (hairstyle)

The queue or cue is a Qing dynasty hairstyle most often worn by Chinese men.

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Regent

A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.

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Religion in China

China has long been a cradle and host to a variety of the most enduring religio-philosophical traditions of the world.

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Republic of China (1912–1949)

The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.

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Republic of China Army

The Republic of China Army (ROCA) is the largest branch of the Republic of China Armed Forces.

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Revolt of the Three Feudatories

The Revolt of the Three Feudatories was a rebellion lasting from 1673 to 1681 in the Qing dynasty (1644–1912) during the early reign of the Kangxi Emperor (r. 1661–1722).

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Royal and noble ranks of the Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty (1644–1912) of China developed a complicated peerage system for royal and noble ranks.

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Royal Navy

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.

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Rulin waishi

Rulin waishi, or Unofficial History of the Scholars, is a Chinese novel authored by Wu Jingzi and completed in 1750 during the Qing dynasty.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Sacred Edict of the Kangxi Emperor

In 1670, when the Kangxi Emperor was sixteen years old, he issued the Sacred Edict 聖諭 (Sheng Yu), consisting of sixteen maxims, each seven characters long, to instruct the average citizen in the basic principles of Confucian orthodoxy.

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Scholar-official

Scholar-officials, also known as Literati, Scholar-gentlemen, Scholar-bureaucrats or Scholar-gentry were politicians and government officials appointed by the emperor of China to perform day-to-day political duties from the Han dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty in 1912, China's last imperial dynasty.

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Second Opium War

The Second Opium War (第二次鴉片戰爭), the Second Anglo-Chinese War, the Second China War, the Arrow War, or the Anglo-French expedition to China, was a war pitting the United Kingdom and the French Empire against the Qing dynasty of China, lasting from 1856 to 1860.

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Self-Strengthening Movement

The Self-Strengthening Movement, c. 1861 – 1895, was a period of institutional reforms initiated in China during the late Qing dynasty following a series of military defeats and concessions to foreign powers.

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Seven Grievances

The Seven Grievances (Manchu: nadan koro) was a manifesto announced by Nurhaci on the Thirteenth day of the Fourth lunar month in the Third year of Tianming era (7 May 1618).

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Shaanxi

Shaanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China.

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Shamanism

Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.

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Shamian

Shamian (also romanized as Shameen or Shamin, both from its Cantonese pronunciation) is a sandbank island in the Liwan District of Guangzhou, Guangdong province, China.

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Shandong

Shandong (formerly romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the East China region.

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Shang Kexi

Shang Kexi (尚可喜; Shang Ko-hsi; August 25, 1604 – November 12, 1676) was a Han Chinese general of the Ming and Qing Dynasties.

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Shang Zhixin

Shang Zhixin (died 1680) was a major figure in the early Qing Dynasty, known for his role in the Revolt of the Three Feudatories.

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Shanghai

Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.

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Shanhai Pass

Shanhai Pass is one of the major passes in the Great Wall of China.

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Shanxi

Shanxi (postal: Shansi) is a province of China, located in the North China region.

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Shen Fu

Shen Fu (1763–1825?), courtesy name Sanbai (三白), was a Chinese writer of the Qing Dynasty, best known for his autobiography Six Records of a Floating Life.

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Shenyang

Shenyang, formerly known by its Manchu name Mukden or Fengtian, is the provincial capital and the largest city of Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China, as well as the largest city in Northeast China by urban population.

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Shitao

Shitao or Shi Tao (1642–1707), born into the Ming dynasty imperial clan as Zhu Ruoji (朱若極), was a Chinese landscape painter in the early Qing Dynasty (1644–1911).

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Shun dynasty

The Shun dynasty, or Great Shun, was a short-lived dynasty created in the Ming-Qing transition from Ming to Qing rule in Chinese history.

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Shuntian Prefecture

Shuntian Prefecture was an administrative region of China during the Ming and Qing dynasties, equivalent to Beijing Municipality in today's People's Republic of China.

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Shunzhi Emperor

The Shunzhi Emperor; Manchu: ijishūn dasan hūwangdi; ᠡᠶ ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ |translit.

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Sichuan

Sichuan, formerly romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south.

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Sikh Empire

The Sikh Empire (also Sikh Khalsa Raj, Sarkar-i-Khalsa or Pañjab (Punjab) Empire) was a major power in the Indian subcontinent, formed under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who established a secular empire based in the Punjab.

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Siku Quanshu

The Siku Quanshu, variously translated as the Complete Library in Four Sections, Imperial Collection of Four, Emperor's Four Treasuries, Complete Library in Four Branches of Literature, or Complete Library of the Four Treasuries, is the largest collection of books in Chinese history.

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Sino-French War

The Sino-French War (Guerre franco-chinoise, សង្គ្រាមបារាំង-ចិន, Chiến tranh Pháp-Thanh), also known as the Tonkin War and Tonquin War, was a limited conflict fought from August 1884 through April 1885, to decide whether France would supplant China's control of Tonkin (northern Vietnam).

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Sino-Russian border conflicts

The Sino-Russian border conflicts (1652–1689) were a series of intermittent skirmishes between the Qing dynasty, with assistance from the Joseon dynasty of Korea, and the Tsardom of Russia by the Cossacks in which the latter tried and failed to gain the land north of the Amur River with disputes over the Amur region.The hostilities culminated in the Qing siege of the Cossack fort of Albazin (1686) and resulted in the Treaty of Nerchinsk in 1689 which gave the land to China.

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Sino-Sikh War

The Sino-Sikh War (also referred to as the Invasion of Tibet or the Dogra War) was fought from May 1841 to August 1842, between the forces of Qing China and the Sikh Empire after General Zorawar Singh Kahluria invaded western Tibet.

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Six Records of a Floating Life

Six Records of a Floating Life (Chinese: 浮生六記; pinyin: Fú Shēng Liù Jì) is an autobiography by Shen Fu (沈復, 1763–1825) who lived in Changzhou (now known as Suzhou) during the Qing Dynasty.

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Smallpox

Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.

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Society of Jesus

The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.

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Son of Heaven

Son of Heaven, or Tian Zi, was the sacred imperial title of the Chinese emperor.

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Song dynasty

The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.

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Songshan, Liaoning

Songshan is a town of Taihe District, in the southern suburbs of Jinzhou, Liaoning, People's Republic of China, situated from downtown and located along China National Highway 102.

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Sonin (regent)

Soni (1601–1667), also known as Sonin, and rarely Sony (Manchu), was a Manchu of the Hešeri clan who served as one of the Four Regents of the Kangxi Emperor (r. 1661–1722) during the Qing dynasty (1644–1912).

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Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.

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Southern Ming

The Southern Ming was a loyalist movement that was active in southern China following the Ming dynasty's collapse in 1644.

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Soviet invasion of Manchuria

The Soviet invasion of Manchuria, formally known as the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation (Манчжурская стратегическая наступательная операция, lit. Manchzhurskaya Strategicheskaya Nastupatelnaya Operatsiya) or simply the Manchurian Operation (Маньчжурская операция), began on 9 August 1945 with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Standard Tibetan

Standard Tibetan is the most widely spoken form of the Tibetic languages.

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Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio

Liaozhai Zhiyi (Liaozhai), translated variously as Strange Tales from a Chinese Studio or Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio is a collection of Classical Chinese stories by Pu Songling comprising close to five hundred "marvel tales" in the zhiguai and chuanqi styles which serve to implicitly criticise societal issues then.

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Subprefecture

Subprefecture is an administrative division of a country that is below prefecture or province.

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Suiyuan shidan

The Suiyuan Shidan (隨園食單/随园食单) is a work on cooking and gastronomy written by the Qing dynasty poet and scholar Yuan Mei, known in English as either the Food Lists of the Garden of Contentment, Menus from the Garden of Contentment, or Recipes from Sui Garden.

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Suksaha

Suksaha (Manchu) was one of the Four Regents during the early reign of the Kangxi Emperor (r. 1661–1722) in the Qing dynasty (1644–1912).

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Summer Palace

The Summer Palace, is a vast ensemble of lakes, gardens and palaces in Beijing.

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Sun Yat-sen

Sun Yat-sen (12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925)Singtao daily.

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Tael

Tael (at the OED Online.) or tahil can refer to any one of several weight measures of the Far East.

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Taghdumbash Pamir

Taghdumbash Pamir or Taxkorgan Valley is a pamir or high valley in the south west of Tashkurgan Tajik Autonomous County, in Xinjiang, China.

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Taiping Heavenly Kingdom

The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, officially the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace, was an oppositional state in China from 1851 to 1864, supporting the overthrow of the Qing dynasty by Hong Xiuquan and his followers.

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Taiping Rebellion

The Taiping Rebellion, also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution, was a massive rebellion or total civil war in China that was waged from 1850 to 1864 between the established Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom under Hong Xiuquan.

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Taiwan

Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.

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Taiwan Prefecture

Taiwan Prefecture was a prefecture of Taiwan under Qing rule.

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Taiwan Province

Taiwan Province is one of the two administrative divisions of the Republic of China (ROC) that are officially referred to as "provinces".

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Taiwan under Qing rule

Taiwan under Qing rule refers to the rule of the Qing dynasty over Formosa (modern-day Taiwan) and the Pescadores (Penghu) from 1683 to 1895.

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Tannu Uriankhai

Tannu Uriankhai (Таңды Урянхай, Tangdy Uryankhai,; Тагна Урианхай, Tagna Urianhai; Урянхайский край, ' Urjanchajskij kraj) is a historic region of the Mongol Empire and, later, the Qing dynasty.

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Taoism

Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').

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Tarim Basin

The Tarim Basin is an endorheic basin in northwest China occupying an area of about.

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Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County

Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County (sometimes spelled Tashkurgan or Tashkorgan) is a county of Kashgar Prefecture in western Xinjiang, China.

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Ten Great Campaigns

The Ten Great Campaigns were a series of military campaigns launched by the Qing Empire of China in the mid–late 18th century during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor (r. 1735–96).

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The Cambridge History of China

The Cambridge History of China is an ongoing series of books published by Cambridge University Press (CUP) covering the history of China from the founding of the Qin dynasty in 221 BC to 1982.

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The Great Game

"The Great Game" was a political and diplomatic confrontation that existed for most of the nineteenth century between the British Empire and the Russian Empire over Afghanistan and neighbouring territories in Central and Southern Asia.

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The Journal of Asian Studies

The Journal of Asian Studies is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Association for Asian Studies, covering Asian studies, ranging from history, the arts, social sciences, to philosophy of East, South, and Southeast Asia.

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The Peach Blossom Fan

The Peach Blossom Fan is a musical play and historical drama in 44 scenes that was completed in 1699 by the early Qing dynasty playwright Kong Shangren after more than 10 years of effort.

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The Rise and Fall of Qing Dynasty

The Rise and Fall of Qing Dynasty is a long-running four part television series about the history of the Qing dynasty.

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Thomas Pereira

Thomas Pereira or Tomás Pereira (1 November, 1645 – 1708), also known as Tomé Pereira, was a Portuguese Jesuit, mathematician and scientist who worked as a missionary in Qing China.

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Three Hundred Tang Poems

The Three Hundred Tang Poems is an anthology of poems from the Chinese Tang dynasty (618 - 907) first compiled around 1763 by Sun Zhu (1722-1778Yu, 64-65), the Qing Dynasty scholar, also known as Hengtang Tuishi (衡塘退士 "Retired Master of Hengtang").

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Tian Shan

The Tian Shan,, also known as the Tengri Tagh, meaning the Mountains of Heaven or the Heavenly Mountain, is a large system of mountain ranges located in Central Asia.

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Tianjin

Tianjin, formerly romanized as Tientsin, is a coastal metropolis in northern China and one of the four national central cities of the People's Republic of China (PRC), with a total population of 15,469,500, and is also the world's 11th-most populous city proper.

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Tianjin Massacre

The Tientsin Massacre, one of the most important "missionary incidents" of the late Qing dynasty, involved attacks on French Catholic priests and nuns, violent belligerence from French diplomats, and armed foreign intervention in Tianjin (Tientsin) in 1870.

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Tibet

Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.

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Tibet Autonomous Region

The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province-level autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

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Tibet under Qing rule

Tibet under Qing rule refers to the Qing dynasty's rule over Tibet from 1720 to 1912.

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Tibetan Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism is the form of Buddhist doctrine and institutions named after the lands of Tibet, but also found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas and much of Central Asia.

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Timeline of Chinese history

This is a timeline of Chinese history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in China and its predecessor states.

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Timeline of late anti-Qing rebellions

Numerous rebellions against China's Qing Dynasty took place during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, prior to the abdication of the last Emperor of China, Puyi, in February 1912.

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Tongzhi Emperor

The Tongzhi Emperor (27 April 185612 January 1875), born Zaichun of the Aisin Gioro clan, was the tenth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the eighth Qing emperor to rule over China.

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Tongzhi Restoration

The Tongzhi Restoration (c. 1860–1874) was an attempt to arrest the dynastic decline of the Qing dynasty of China by restoring the traditional order.

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Transition from Ming to Qing

The transition from Ming to Qing or the Ming–Qing transition, also known as the Manchu conquest of China, was a period of conflict between the Qing dynasty, established by Manchu clan Aisin Gioro in Manchuria (contemporary Northeastern China), and the Ming dynasty of China in the south (various other regional or temporary powers were also associated with events, such as the short-lived Shun dynasty).

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Treaty of Kyakhta (1727)

The Treaty of Kyakhta (or Kiakhta) (Кяхтинский договор, Kjahtinskij dogovor;, Wade-Giles: Pu4lien2ssŭ1ch‘i2 / Ch‘ia4k‘o4tu2 t‘iao2yüeh1, Xiao'erjing: بُلِيًاصِٿِ / ٿِاكْتُ تِيَوْيُؤ; Хиагтын гэрээ, Xiagtın gerê; Manchu:, Wylie: chuwan emu hatsin-i pitghe, Möllendorff: juwan emu hacin-i bithe), along with the Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689), regulated the relations between Imperial Russia and the Qing Empire of China until the mid-19th century.

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Treaty of Nanking

The Treaty of Nanking or Nanjing was a peace treaty which ended the First Opium War (1839–42) between the United Kingdom and the Qing dynasty of China on 29 August 1842.

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Treaty of Nerchinsk

The Treaty of Nerchinsk of 1689 (Нерчинский договор, Nerčinskij dogovor; Manchu:,Möllendorff: nibcoo-i bade bithe;, Xiao'erjing: نِبُچُ تِيَوْيُؤ) was the first treaty between Russia and China.

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Treaty of Shimonoseki

The was a treaty signed at the Shunpanrō hotel, Shimonoseki, Japan on 17 April 1895, between the Empire of Japan and the Qing Empire, ending the First Sino-Japanese War.

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Treaty of Tientsin

The Treaty of Tientsin, now also known as the Treaty of Tianjin, is a collective name for several documents signed at Tianjin (then romanized as Tientsin) in June 1858.

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Treaty of Tientsin (1885)

The Treaty of Tientsin, signed on 9 June 1885, officially ended the Sino-French War.

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Treaty ports

The treaty ports was the name given to the port cities in China and Japan that were opened to foreign trade by the unequal treaties with the Western powers.

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Triple Intervention

The was a diplomatic intervention by Russia, Germany, and France on 23 April 1895 over the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki signed between Japan and Qing Dynasty China that ended the First Sino-Japanese War.

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Tsardom of Russia

The Tsardom of Russia (Русское царство, Russkoye tsarstvo or Российское царство, Rossiyskoye tsarstvo), also known as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the name of the centralized Russian state from assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721.

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Tungusic peoples

Tungusic peoples are the peoples who speak Tungusic languages.

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Unequal treaty

Unequal treaty is the name given by the Chinese to a series of treaties signed with Western powers during the 19th and early 20th centuries by Qing dynasty China after suffering military defeat by the West or when there was a threat of military action by those powers.

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Uyghurs

The Uyghurs or Uygurs (as the standard romanisation in Chinese GB 3304-1991) are a Turkic ethnic group who live in East and Central Asia.

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Varieties of Chinese

Chinese, also known as Sinitic, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible.

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Viceroy of Huguang

The Viceroy of Huguang, fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of Hubei and Hunan Provinces and the Surrounding Areas; Overseeing Military Affairs, Food Production; Director of Civil Affairs, was one of eight regional Viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty.

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Viceroy of Liangguang

The Viceroy of Liangguang or Viceroy of the Two Guangs, fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General, Commander and Quartermaster, Supervisor of Waterways, and Inspector-General of the Two Expanses and Surrounding Areas, was one of eight regional Viceroys in China proper during the Ming and Qing dynasties.

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Viceroy of Liangjiang

The Viceroy of Liangjiang or Viceroy of the Two Jiangs, fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of the Two Yangtze Provinces and Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs, Provisions and Funds, Manager of Waterways, Director of Civil Affairs, was one of eight regional Viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty.

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Viceroy of Min-Zhe

The Viceroy of Min-Zhe, fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of Taiwan, Fujian and Zhejiang Provinces and Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs and Food Production, Manager of Waterways, Director of Civil Affairs, was one of eight Viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty.

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Viceroy of Shaan-Gan

The Viceroy of Shaan-Gan, fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of Shaanxi and Gansu Provinces and the Surrounding Areas; Overseeing Military Affairs and Food Production, Manager of Waterways, Director of Civil Affairs, was one of eight regional viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty.

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Viceroy of Sichuan

The Viceroy of Sichuan, fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of Sichuan Province and the Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs and Food Production, Director of Civil Affairs, was one of eight regional viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty.

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Viceroy of the Three Northeast Provinces

The Viceroy of the Three Northeast Provinces, fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of the Three Northeast Provinces and Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Generals of the Three Provinces, Director of Civil Affairs of Fengtian (Manchu: dergi ilan goloi uheri kadalara amban), sometimes referred to as the Viceroy of Manchuria, was a regional viceroy in China during the Qing dynasty.

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Viceroy of Yun-Gui

The Viceroy of Yun-Gui, fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of Yunnan and Guizhou Provinces and the Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs and Food Production, Director of Civil Affairs, was one of eight regional viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty.

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Viceroy of Zhili

The Viceroy of Zhili, fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of Zhili and Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs and Food Production, Manager of Waterways, Director of Civil Affairs, was one of eight regional Viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty.

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Viceroys in China

Zongdu (Tsung-tu;; Manchu: Uheri kadalara amban), usually translated as Viceroy or Governor-General, governed one or more provinces of China during the Ming and Qing dynasties.

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Vietnam

Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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W. W. Norton & Company

W.

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Wade–Giles

Wade–Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese.

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Wang Guowei

Wang Guowei (2 December 18772 June 1927), courtesy name Jing'an (靜安) or Boyu (伯隅), was a Chinese scholar, writer and poet.

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Warlord Era

The Warlord Era (19161928) was a period in the history of the Republic of China when the control of the country was divided among former military cliques of the Beiyang Army and other regional factions, which was spread across in the mainland regions of Sichuan, Shanxi, Qinghai, Ningxia, Guangdong, Guangxi, Gansu, Yunnan, and Xinjiang.

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Wei Yuan

Wei Yuan (April23, 1794March26, 1857), born Wei Yuanda, courtesy names Moshen (默深) and Hanshi (漢士), was a Chinese scholar from Shaoyang, Hunan.

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Western world

The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.

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Westphalian sovereignty

Westphalian sovereignty, or state sovereignty, is the principle of international law that each nation-state has exclusive sovereignty over its territory.

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White Lotus

The White Lotus was a religious and political movement that appealed to many Han Chinese who found solace in worship of Wusheng Laomu ("Unborn Venerable Mother"), who was to gather all her children at the millennium into one family.

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White Lotus Rebellion

The White Lotus Rebellion (1796–1804) was a rebellion initiated by followers of the White Lotus movement during the Qing dynasty of China.

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William McKinley

William McKinley (January 29, 1843 – September 14, 1901) was the 25th President of the United States, serving from March 4, 1897 until his assassination in September 1901, six months into his second term.

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Willow Palisade

Willow Palisade (ᠪᡳᡵᡝᡤᡝᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᡝ|v.

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Wokou

Wokou (Japanese: Wakō; Korean: 왜구 Waegu), which literally translates to "Japanese pirates" or "dwarf pirates", were pirates who raided the coastlines of China, Japan and Korea.

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Written vernacular Chinese

Written Vernacular Chinese is the forms of written Chinese based on the varieties of Chinese spoken throughout China, in contrast to Classical Chinese, the written standard used during imperial China up to the early twentieth century.

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Wu Jingzi

Wu Jingzi (1701—January 11, 1754) was a Chinese scholar and writer who was born in the city now known as Quanjiao, Anhui and who died in Yangzhou, Jiangsu.

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Wu Sangui

Wu Sangui (courtesy name Changbai (長白) or Changbo (長伯); 1612 – 2 October 1678) was a Chinese military general who was instrumental in the fall of the Ming Dynasty and the establishment of the Qing Dynasty in 1644.

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Wu Xing

The Wu Xing, also known as the Five Elements, Five Phases, the Five Agents, the Five Movements, Five Processes, the Five Steps/Stages and the Five Planets of significant gravity: Jupiter-木, Saturn-土, Mercury-水, Venus-金, Mars-火Dr Zai, J..

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Wuchang Uprising

The Wuchang Uprising was an armed rebellion against the ruling Qing dynasty that took place in Wuchang, Hubei, in China.

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Xi'an

Xi'an is the capital of Shaanxi Province, China.

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Xiamen

Xiamen, formerly romanized as Amoy, is a sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian province, People's Republic of China, beside the Taiwan Strait.

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Xianfeng Emperor

The Xianfeng Emperor (17 July 183122 August 1861), personal name I-ju (or Yizhu), was the ninth Emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the seventh Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1850 to 1861.

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Xiang Army

Zeng Guofan, the leader of the Xiang Army The Xiang Army was a standing army organized by Zeng Guofan from existing regional and village militia forces called tuanlian to contain the Taiping rebellion in Qing China (1850 to 1864).

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Xinbin Manchu Autonomous County

Xinbin Manchu Autonomous County (Manchu:; Mölendroff: sinbin manju beye dasangga siyan), or simply Xinbin County (postal: Sinpin), is one of the three counties under the administration of Fushun City, in the east of Liaoning Province, Northeast China.

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Xinhai Revolution

The Xinhai Revolution, also known as the Chinese Revolution or the Revolution of 1911, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty (the Qing dynasty) and established the Republic of China (ROC).

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Xinjiang

Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.

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Xinjiang under Qing rule

Xinjiang under Qing rule refers to the Qing dynasty's rule over Xinjiang from the late 1750s to 1912.

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Yangtze

The Yangtze, which is 6,380 km (3,964 miles) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.

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Yaqub Beg

Muhammad Yaqub Bek (محمد یعقوب بیگ) (Яъқуб-бек, Ya’qub-bek) (182030 May 1877) was an adventurer of Tajik or Uzbek descent who was master of the Tarim Basin from 1865 to 1877.

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Yìhéquán

The Yihequan, or Fists of Harmony and Justice (also named Yihetuan, League of Harmony and Justice), was a Chinese secret society known for having triggered the Boxer Rebellion.

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Yikuang, Prince Qing

Yikuang (Manchu: I-kuwang; 16 November 1838 – 28 January 1917), formally known as Prince Qing (or Prince Ch'ing), was a Manchu noble and politician of the Qing dynasty.

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Yong Ying

Yong Ying (literally "brave camps") were a type of regional army that emerged in the 19th century in the Qing dynasty army, which fought in most of China's wars after the Opium War and numerous rebellions exposed the ineffectiveness of the Manchu Eight Banners and Green Standard Army.

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Yongzheng Emperor

The Yongzheng Emperor (13 December 1678 – 8 October 1735), born Yinzhen, was the fifth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the third Qing emperor to rule over China proper.

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Yuan Chonghuan

Yuan Chonghuan (6 June 1584 – 22 September 1630), courtesy name Yuansu or Ziru, was a politician, military general and writer who served under the Ming dynasty.

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Yuan Shikai

Yuan Shikai (16 September 1859 – 6 June 1916) was a Chinese warlord, famous for his influence during the late Qing dynasty, his role in the events leading up to the abdication of the last Qing Emperor, his autocratic rule as the first formal President of the Republic of China, and his short-lived attempt to restore monarchy in China, with himself as the Hongxian Emperor.

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Yunnan

Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.

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Zaifeng, Prince Chun

Zaifeng (Manchu: dzai-feng; 12 February 1883 – 3 February 1951), formally known by his title Prince Chun, was a Manchu prince and regent of the late Qing dynasty.

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Zeng Guofan

Zeng Guofan, Marquis Yiyong (26 November 1811 – 12 March 1872), birth name Zeng Zicheng, courtesy name Bohan, was a Chinese statesman, military general, and Confucian scholar of the late Qing dynasty.

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Zhang Xun

Zhang Xun (September 16, 1854 – September 11, 1923), courtesy name Shaoxuan, was a Qing loyalist general who attempted to restore the abdicated emperor Puyi in the Manchu Restoration of 1917.

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Zhang Zeduan

Zhang Zeduan (1085–1145), alias Zheng Dao, was a Chinese painter of the Song Dynasty.

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Zhang Zhidong

Zhang Zhidong (4 September 18375 October 1909) was a Chinese official who lived the late Qing dynasty.

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Zhejiang

, formerly romanized as Chekiang, is an eastern coastal province of China.

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Zheng Keshuang

Zheng Keshuang, Prince of Yanping 鄭克塽 (13 August 1670 – 22 September 1707), courtesy name Shihong, art name Huitang, was the third and last ruler of the Kingdom of Tungning in Taiwan in the 17th century.

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Zhili

Zhili, formerly romanized as Chihli, was a northern province of China from the 14th-century Ming Dynasty until the province was dissolved in 1928 during the Warlord Era.

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Zhou (country subdivision)

Zhou were historical political divisions of China.

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Zhu Shugui

Zhu Shugui (1617 – 21 July 1683), courtesy name Tianqiu and art name Yiyuanzi, formally known as the Prince of Ningjing, was a Ming dynasty prince and the last of the pretenders to the Ming throne after the fall of the Ming Empire in 1644.

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Zhu Yihai

The Gengyin Emperor (1618–1662), personal name Zhu Yihai, was an emperor of the Southern Ming Dynasty, reigning from 1645 to 1655.

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Zhu Youlang

The Yongli Emperor (1623–1662; reigned 18 November 1646 – 1 June 1662), personal name Zhu Youlang, was the fourth and last emperor of the Southern Ming dynasty of China.

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Zongli Yamen

The Zongli Yamen was the government body in charge of foreign policy in imperial China during the late Qing dynasty.

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Zuo Zongtang

Zuo Zongtang, Marquis Kejing (also romanised as Tso Tsung-t'ang;; 10 November 1812 – 5 September 1885), sometimes referred to as General Tso, was a Chinese statesman and military leader of the late Qing dynasty.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qing_dynasty

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