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Quadratic reciprocity

Index Quadratic reciprocity

In number theory, the law of quadratic reciprocity is a theorem about modular arithmetic that gives conditions for the solvability of quadratic equations modulo prime numbers. [1]

55 relations: Adrien-Marie Legendre, Algebraic number field, Algebraic number theory, Artin reciprocity law, Carl Friedrich Gauss, Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi, Chinese remainder theorem, Class field theory, Completion (algebra), Cubic reciprocity, Cyclotomic field, David Hilbert, Disquisitiones Arithmeticae, Eisenstein integer, Eisenstein reciprocity, Emil Artin, Ernst Kummer, Euler's criterion, Finite field, Gauss sum, Gauss's lemma (number theory), Gaussian integer, Global field, Gotthold Eisenstein, Helmut Hasse, Hilbert symbol, Hilbert's ninth problem, Hilbert's problems, Irreducible polynomial, Jacobi symbol, Langlands program, Legendre symbol, Leonhard Euler, Mathematical proof, MathWorld, Michael Rosen, MIT Press, Modular arithmetic, Number theory, Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet, Philipp Furtwängler, Polynomial ring, Prime number, Proofs of quadratic reciprocity, Quadratic equation, Quadratic field, Quadratic residue, Quartic reciprocity, Richard Dedekind, Ring (mathematics), ..., Ring of integers, Robert Langlands, Springer Science+Business Media, Teiji Takagi, Zolotarev's lemma. Expand index (5 more) »

Adrien-Marie Legendre

Adrien-Marie Legendre (18 September 1752 – 10 January 1833) was a French mathematician.

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Algebraic number field

In mathematics, an algebraic number field (or simply number field) F is a finite degree (and hence algebraic) field extension of the field of rational numbers Q. Thus F is a field that contains Q and has finite dimension when considered as a vector space over Q. The study of algebraic number fields, and, more generally, of algebraic extensions of the field of rational numbers, is the central topic of algebraic number theory.

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Algebraic number theory

Algebraic number theory is a branch of number theory that uses the techniques of abstract algebra to study the integers, rational numbers, and their generalizations.

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Artin reciprocity law

The Artin reciprocity law, which was established by Emil Artin in a series of papers (1924; 1927; 1930), is a general theorem in number theory that forms a central part of global class field theory.

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Carl Friedrich Gauss

Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (Gauß; Carolus Fridericus Gauss; 30 April 177723 February 1855) was a German mathematician and physicist who made significant contributions to many fields, including algebra, analysis, astronomy, differential geometry, electrostatics, geodesy, geophysics, magnetic fields, matrix theory, mechanics, number theory, optics and statistics.

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Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi

Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi (10 December 1804 – 18 February 1851) was a German mathematician, who made fundamental contributions to elliptic functions, dynamics, differential equations, and number theory.

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Chinese remainder theorem

The Chinese remainder theorem is a theorem of number theory, which states that if one knows the remainders of the Euclidean division of an integer by several integers, then one can determine uniquely the remainder of the division of by the product of these integers, under the condition that the divisors are pairwise coprime.

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Class field theory

In mathematics, class field theory is a major branch of algebraic number theory that studies abelian extensions of local fields (one-dimensional local fields) and "global fields" (one-dimensional global fields) such as number fields and function fields of curves over finite fields in terms of abelian topological groups associated to the fields.

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Completion (algebra)

In abstract algebra, a completion is any of several related functors on rings and modules that result in complete topological rings and modules.

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Cubic reciprocity

Cubic reciprocity is a collection of theorems in elementary and algebraic number theory that state conditions under which the congruence x3 ≡ p (mod q) is solvable; the word "reciprocity" comes from the form of the main theorem, which states that if p and q are primary numbers in the ring of Eisenstein integers, both coprime to 3, the congruence x3 ≡ p (mod q) is solvable if and only if x3 ≡ q (mod p) is solvable.

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Cyclotomic field

In number theory, a cyclotomic field is a number field obtained by adjoining a complex primitive root of unity to, the field of rational numbers.

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David Hilbert

David Hilbert (23 January 1862 – 14 February 1943) was a German mathematician.

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Disquisitiones Arithmeticae

The Disquisitiones Arithmeticae (Latin for "Arithmetical Investigations") is a textbook of number theory written in Latin by Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1798 when Gauss was 21 and first published in 1801 when he was 24.

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Eisenstein integer

In mathematics, Eisenstein integers (named after Gotthold Eisenstein), occasionally also known as Eulerian integers (after Leonhard Euler), are complex numbers of the form where and are integers and is a primitive (hence non-real) cube root of unity.

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Eisenstein reciprocity

In algebraic number theory Eisenstein's reciprocity law is a reciprocity law that extends the law of quadratic reciprocity and the cubic reciprocity law to residues of higher powers.

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Emil Artin

Emil Artin (March 3, 1898 – December 20, 1962) was an Austrian mathematician of Armenian descent.

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Ernst Kummer

Ernst Eduard Kummer (29 January 1810 – 14 May 1893) was a German mathematician.

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Euler's criterion

In number theory Euler's criterion is a formula for determining whether an integer is a quadratic residue modulo a prime.

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Finite field

In mathematics, a finite field or Galois field (so-named in honor of Évariste Galois) is a field that contains a finite number of elements.

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Gauss sum

In algebraic number theory, a Gauss sum or Gaussian sum is a particular kind of finite sum of roots of unity, typically where the sum is over elements of some finite commutative ring, is a group homomorphism of the additive group into the unit circle, and is a group homomorphism of the unit group into the unit circle, extended to non-unit where it takes the value 0.

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Gauss's lemma (number theory)

Gauss's lemma in number theory gives a condition for an integer to be a quadratic residue.

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Gaussian integer

In number theory, a Gaussian integer is a complex number whose real and imaginary parts are both integers.

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Global field

In mathematics, a global field is a field that is either.

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Gotthold Eisenstein

Ferdinand Gotthold Max Eisenstein (16 April 1823 – 11 October 1852) was a German mathematician.

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Helmut Hasse

Helmut Hasse (25 August 1898 – 26 December 1979) was a German mathematician working in algebraic number theory, known for fundamental contributions to class field theory, the application of p-adic numbers to local class field theory and diophantine geometry (Hasse principle), and to local zeta functions.

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Hilbert symbol

In mathematics, the Hilbert symbol or norm-residue symbol is a function (–, –) from K× × K× to the group of nth roots of unity in a local field K such as the fields of reals or p-adic numbers.

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Hilbert's ninth problem

Hilbert's ninth problem, from the list of 23 Hilbert's problems (1900), asked to find the most general reciprocity law for the norm residues of k-th order in a general algebraic number field, where k is a power of a prime.

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Hilbert's problems

Hilbert's problems are twenty-three problems in mathematics published by German mathematician David Hilbert in 1900.

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Irreducible polynomial

In mathematics, an irreducible polynomial is, roughly speaking, a non-constant polynomial that cannot be factored into the product of two non-constant polynomials.

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Jacobi symbol

Jacobi symbol for various k (along top) and n (along left side).

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Langlands program

In mathematics, the Langlands program is a web of far-reaching and influential conjectures about connections between number theory and geometry.

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Legendre symbol

No description.

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Leonhard Euler

Leonhard Euler (Swiss Standard German:; German Standard German:; 15 April 170718 September 1783) was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, logician and engineer, who made important and influential discoveries in many branches of mathematics, such as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory, while also making pioneering contributions to several branches such as topology and analytic number theory.

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Mathematical proof

In mathematics, a proof is an inferential argument for a mathematical statement.

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MathWorld

MathWorld is an online mathematics reference work, created and largely written by Eric W. Weisstein.

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Michael Rosen

Michael Wayne Rosen (born 7 May 1946) is an English children's novelist, rapper, poet, and the author of 140 books.

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MIT Press

The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).

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Modular arithmetic

In mathematics, modular arithmetic is a system of arithmetic for integers, where numbers "wrap around" upon reaching a certain value—the modulus (plural moduli).

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Number theory

Number theory, or in older usage arithmetic, is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers.

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Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet

Johann Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet (13 February 1805 – 5 May 1859) was a German mathematician who made deep contributions to number theory (including creating the field of analytic number theory), and to the theory of Fourier series and other topics in mathematical analysis; he is credited with being one of the first mathematicians to give the modern formal definition of a function.

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Philipp Furtwängler

Friederich Pius Philipp Furtwängler (April 21, 1869 – May 19, 1940) was a German number theorist.

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Polynomial ring

In mathematics, especially in the field of abstract algebra, a polynomial ring or polynomial algebra is a ring (which is also a commutative algebra) formed from the set of polynomials in one or more indeterminates (traditionally also called variables) with coefficients in another ring, often a field.

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Prime number

A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that cannot be formed by multiplying two smaller natural numbers.

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Proofs of quadratic reciprocity

In number theory, the law of quadratic reciprocity, like the Pythagorean theorem, has lent itself to an unusual number of proofs.

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Quadratic equation

In algebra, a quadratic equation (from the Latin quadratus for "square") is any equation having the form where represents an unknown, and,, and represent known numbers such that is not equal to.

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Quadratic field

In algebraic number theory, a quadratic field is an algebraic number field K of degree two over Q, the rational numbers.

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Quadratic residue

In number theory, an integer q is called a quadratic residue modulo n if it is congruent to a perfect square modulo n; i.e., if there exists an integer x such that: Otherwise, q is called a quadratic nonresidue modulo n. Originally an abstract mathematical concept from the branch of number theory known as modular arithmetic, quadratic residues are now used in applications ranging from acoustical engineering to cryptography and the factoring of large numbers.

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Quartic reciprocity

Quartic or biquadratic reciprocity is a collection of theorems in elementary and algebraic number theory that state conditions under which the congruence x4 ≡ p (mod q) is solvable; the word "reciprocity" comes from the form of some of these theorems, in that they relate the solvability of the congruence x4 ≡ p (mod q) to that of x4 ≡ q (mod p).

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Richard Dedekind

Julius Wilhelm Richard Dedekind (6 October 1831 – 12 February 1916) was a German mathematician who made important contributions to abstract algebra (particularly ring theory), axiomatic foundation for the natural numbers, algebraic number theory and the definition of the real numbers.

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Ring (mathematics)

In mathematics, a ring is one of the fundamental algebraic structures used in abstract algebra.

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Ring of integers

In mathematics, the ring of integers of an algebraic number field is the ring of all integral elements contained in.

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Robert Langlands

Robert Phelan Langlands (born October 6, 1936) is an American-Canadian mathematician.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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Teiji Takagi

Teiji Takagi (高木 貞治 Takagi Teiji, April 21, 1875 – February 28, 1960) was a Japanese mathematician, best known for proving the Takagi existence theorem in class field theory.

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Zolotarev's lemma

In number theory, Zolotarev's lemma states that the Legendre symbol for an integer a modulo an odd prime number p, where p does not divide a, can be computed as the sign of a permutation: where ε denotes the signature of a permutation and πa is the permutation of the nonzero residue classes mod p induced by multiplication by a. For example, take a.

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Aureum Theorema, Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, Law of quadratic reciprocity, Law of reciprocity, Qr theorem, Quadratic Reciprocity, Quadratic reciprocity law, Quadratic reciprocity rule, Quadratic reciprocity theorem.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quadratic_reciprocity

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