301 relations: Abolitionism, Abolitionism in the United States, Abraham Darby, Abraham Darby I, Agnosticism, Allen & Hanburys, Alternatives to Violence Project, American Friends Service Committee, American Humanist Association, American Revolution, Anglicanism, Ann Austin, Anthony Benezet, Atheism, Atonement in Christianity, Auckland, Azusa Pacific University, Backhouse's Bank, Baptism, Barbados, Barbara Blaugdone, Barclay College, Barclays, BBC, Beanite Quakerism, Bible, Biblical criticism, Biblical infallibility, Birmingham, Blasphemy, Book burning, Book of Discipline (Quaker), Boston, Boston Common, Boston martyrs, Britain Yearly Meeting, British America, Brummana High School, Bryant and May, Bryn Mawr College, Buddhism, Bundelkhand Yearly Meeting, Burundi, C. & J. Clark, Cadbury, Catholic Church, Central Yearly Meeting of Friends, Charles Darwin, Charles II of England, Christian ministry, ..., Christian perfection, Christian revival, Christian state, Christian universalism, Christianity, Christmas, Chuck Fager, Church of England, Church service, Churches Together in Britain and Ireland, Clearness committee, Clergy, Clerk (Quaker), Cockermouth, Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Communion (religion), Confectionery, Congregationalist polity, Conscientious objector, Consensus decision-making, Conservative Friends, Continuous revelation, Conventicle Act 1664, Creationism, Creed, Crucifixion, D. Elton Trueblood, Daughters of Light, David Boulton (UK journalist), Declaration of Indulgence, Delaware Valley, Doctrine, Duchy of Lancaster, Earlham College, Earlham School of Religion, Easter, Eastern Christianity, Ecclesiastical polity, Ecumenism, Edward Grubb (Quaker), Edward Newman (entomologist), Elias Hicks, England and Wales, English Civil War, English Dissenters, Epistle of James, Eucharist, Evangelical Friends Church International, Evangelicalism, Evangelism, Evolution, Fasting, First Epistle of Peter, Friends Committee on National Legislation, Friends Committee on Scouting, Friends General Conference, Friends meeting house, Friends Provident, Friends United Meeting, Friends University, Friends World Committee for Consultation, Friends' Ambulance Unit, Friends' School, Hobart, Friendswood, Texas, General Register Office, George Fox, George Fox University, George School, Germantown Friends School, Gervase Bennet, God, Great Awakening, Greenleaf, Idaho, Greensboro, North Carolina, Guilford College, Gurney's Bank (Norwich), Handshake, Hannah Whitall Smith, Haverford College, Hermeneutics, Higher Life movement, Hobart, Holiness movement, Holy Spirit, Huntley & Palmers, Hypocrisy, Industrial Revolution, Infant baptism, International Voluntary Service, Inward light, Isaac Crewdson, Isaac Penington (Quaker), Islam, J. S. Fry & Sons, Jessamyn West (writer), Jesus, Jews, John Wesley, John Wilbur (Quaker minister), John Wilhelm Rowntree, John Woolman, Joseph Bevan Braithwaite, Joseph John Gurney, Judaism, Kaimosi, Katherine Milhous, Kenya, Keswick Convention, Kiss of peace, Lebanon, Lent, Levi Coffin, Liberal Christianity, Light of the World, Lloyds Bank, Lloyds Banking Group, London, Madagascar, Madhya Pradesh, Magistrate (England and Wales), Mainline Protestant, Malone University, Manchester, Margaret Fell, Mary Dyer, Mary Fisher (missionary), Mary Mollineux, Mary Penington, Massachusetts Bay Colony, Meeting for worship, Mehmed IV, Mid-India Yearly Meeting, Modern Paganism, Mombasa, Moorestown Friends School, Moses Brown, Muslim, National Association of Evangelicals, National Council of Churches, Nelson, New Zealand, New York Yearly Meeting, Newberg, Oregon, Non-Combatant Corps, Nontheism, Nontheist Quakers, Olney Friends School, On the Origin of Species, Ottoman Empire, Paganism, Pastoral care, Paul Cuffee, Peace Testimony, Peer review, Pemba Island, Penal substitution, Pendle Hill, Penn's Creek massacre, Philadelphia, Philadelphia Yearly Meeting, Pickering College, Plain dress, Plymouth Brethren, Priest, Prison reform, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Protestantism, Province of Pennsylvania, Puritans, Quaker Peace and Social Witness, Quaker United Nations Office, Quaker Universalist Fellowship, Quakers, Quakers in Ireland, Quakers in the abolition movement, Ramallah, Ramallah Friends Schools, Recorded Minister, Religious pluralism, Religious symbol, Resurrection, Revival meeting, Richmond Declaration, Richmond, Indiana, Robert Barclay, Robert Pearsall Smith, Rowntree's, Rufus Jones (writer), Rwanda, Sacrament, Salvation in Christianity, Same-sex marriage, Sampson Lloyd, Scattergood Friends School, Sea of Faith, Second Great Awakening, Seekers, Seminary, Sermon, Sermon on the Mount, Sermon on the Plain, Service Civil International, Shakers, Sin, Slave ship, Social Gospel, Social justice, Sri Lanka, State of Palestine, Sustainability, Swarthmore College, Tamanend, Tanzania, Teetotalism, Terry's, Testimony, Testimony of integrity, Testimony of simplicity, The Egg Tree, The gospel, The Guardian, Theophilus Waldmeier, Thomas Fell, Tithe, Toleration Act 1689, Uganda, Underground Railroad, United States Bill of Rights, United States Constitution, Universal priesthood, Universal reconciliation, Universalism, Valiant Sixty, Varanasi, Vision (spirituality), Walden School (Saffron Walden), Washington, D.C., Wem, West Jersey, Westtown School, Whittier College, Whittier, California, William Penn, William Penn Charter School, William Penn University, Wilmington College (Ohio), Wilmington Friends School, Woodbrooke Quaker Study Centre, World Council of Churches, World War I, World War II, Yearly Meeting. 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Abolitionism is a general term which describes the movement to end slavery.
Abolitionism in the United States was the movement before and during the American Civil War to end slavery in the United States.
Abraham Darby may refer to.
Abraham Darby, in his later life called Abraham Darby the Elder, now sometimes known for convenience as Abraham Darby I (14 April 1678 – 8 March 1717) was the first and best known of several men of that name.
Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.
Allen and Hanburys Ltd was a British pharmaceutical manufacturer, absorbed by Glaxo Laboratories in 1958.
The Alternatives to Violence Project (AVP) is a volunteer-run conflict transformation program.
The American Friends Service Committee (AFSC) is a Religious Society of Friends (Quaker) founded organization working for peace and social justice in the United States and around the world.
The American Humanist Association (AHA) is an educational organization in the United States that advances secular humanism, a philosophy of life that, without theism or other supernatural beliefs, affirms the ability and responsibility of human beings to lead personal lives of ethical fulfillment that aspire to the greater good of humanity.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
Ann Austin (? - 1665) was one of the first Quaker travelling preachers.
Anthony Benezet, born Antoine Bénézet (January 31, 1713May 3, 1784), was a French-born American abolitionist and educator who was active in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
In western Christian theology, atonement describes how human beings can be reconciled to God through Christ's sacrificial suffering and death.
Auckland is a city in New Zealand's North Island.
Azusa Pacific University (APU) is a private, evangelical Christian university in Azusa, California.
Backhouse's Bank of Darlington (James & Jonathan Backhouse and Co., from 1798 Jonathan Backhouse and Co.) was founded in 1774 by James Backhouse (1720-1798), a wealthy Quaker flax dresser and linen manufacturer, and his sons Jonathan (1747-1826) and James (1757-1804).
Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.
Barbados is an island country in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, in the Caribbean region of North America.
Barbara Blaugdone (c. 1609–1704) was an English Quaker preacher, who left an autobiographical account of her travels, evangelism, and religious and political views.
Barclay College is a four-year private Christian college in Haviland, Kansas, United States.
Barclays plc is a British multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in London.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Beanite Quakerism refers to the independent tradition of Quakerism started by Quaker ministers Joel and Hannah Bean in the western United States in the late 19th century, and in a more specific sense refers to the three Western yearly meetings that spring from that tradition.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Biblical criticism is a philosophical and methodological approach to studying the Bible, using neutral non-sectarian judgment, that grew out of the scientific thinking of the Age of Reason (1700–1789).
Biblical infallibility is the belief that what the Bible says regarding matters of faith and Christian practice is wholly useful and true.
Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,101,360, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Blasphemy is the act of insulting or showing contempt or lack of reverence to a deity, or sacred things, or toward something considered sacred or inviolable.
Book burning is the ritual destruction by fire of books or other written materials, usually carried out in a public context.
A Book of Discipline may refer to one of the various books issued by a Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends, setting out what it means to be a Quaker in that Yearly Meeting.
Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
Boston Common (also known as the Common) is a central public park in downtown Boston, Massachusetts.
The Boston martyrs is the name given in Quaker tradition to the three English members of the Society of Friends, Marmaduke Stephenson, William Robinson and Mary Dyer, and to the Friend William Leddra of Barbados, who were condemned to death and executed by public hanging for their religious beliefs under the legislature of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1659, 1660 and 1661.
The Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) in Britain, also known as the Britain Yearly Meeting (and, until 1995, the London Yearly Meeting), is a Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) in England, Scotland, Wales, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man.
British America refers to English Crown colony territories on the continent of North America and Bermuda, Central America, the Caribbean, and Guyana from 1607 to 1783.
Brummana High School (BHS, مدرسة برمانا العالية) is a private school in Lebanon.
Bryant and May was a British company created in the mid-19th century specifically to make matches.
Bryn Mawr College (Welsh) is a women's liberal arts college in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Bundelkhand Yearly Meeting (Bundelkhand Masihi Mitr Samaj) is a yearly meeting of the Religious Society of Friends in the Bundelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh state in mid-India.
Burundi, officially the Republic of Burundi (Republika y'Uburundi,; République du Burundi, or), is a landlocked country in the African Great Lakes region of East Africa, bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and south, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west.
Cadbury, formerly Cadbury's and Cadbury Schweppes, is a British multinational confectionery company wholly owned by Mondelez International (originally Kraft Foods) since 2010.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Central Yearly Meeting of Friends is a yearly meeting of Friends churches located in Indiana, North Carolina, Arkansas and Ohio.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.
In Christianity, ministry is an activity carried out by Christians to express or spread their faith, the prototype being the Great Commission.
Christian perfection is the name given to various teachings within Christianity that describe the process of achieving spiritual maturity or perfection.
Revivalism is increased spiritual interest or renewal in the life of a church congregation or society, with a local, national or global effect.
A Christian state is a country that recognizes a form of Christianity as its official religion and often has a state church, which is a Christian denomination that supports the government and is supported by the government.
Christian universalism is a school of Christian theology focused around the doctrine of universal reconciliation – the view that all human beings will ultimately be "saved" and restored to a right relationship with God.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
Charles Eugene Fager (born 1942), known as Chuck Fager, is an American activist, an author, an editor, a publisher and an outspoken and prominent member of the Religious Society of Friends or Quakers.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
A church service (also called a service of worship, or simply a service) is a formalized period of communal worship in Christian tradition.
Churches Together in Britain and Ireland (CTBI) is an ecumenical organisation.
Within the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), the clearness committee represents a process for discernment.
Clergy are some of the main and important formal leaders within certain religions.
Within the Religious Society of Friends, a clerk is someone responsible for various administrative functions within a meeting for worship for church affairs or meeting for worship for business.
Cockermouth is an ancient market town and civil parish in the Borough of Allerdale in Cumbria, England, so named because it is at the confluence of the River Cocker as it flows into the River Derwent.
The Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations was one of the original Thirteen Colonies established on the east coast of North America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean.
The bond uniting Christians as individuals and groups with each other and with Jesus is described as communion.
Confectionery is the art of making confections, which are food items that are rich in sugar and carbohydrates.
Congregationalist polity, or congregational polity, often known as congregationalism, is a system of ecclesiastical polity in which every local church congregation is independent, ecclesiastically sovereign, or "autonomous".
A conscientious objector is an "individual who has claimed the right to refuse to perform military service" on the grounds of freedom of thought, conscience, or religion.
Consensus decision-making is a group decision-making process in which group members develop, and agree to support a decision in the best interest of the whole.
Conservative Friends refers to members of a certain branch of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers).
Continuous revelation or continuing revelation is a theological belief or position that God continues to reveal divine principles or commandments to humanity.
The Conventicle Act of 1664 was an Act of the Parliament of England (16 Charles II c. 4) that forbade conventicles, defined as religious assemblies of more than five people other than an immediate family, outside the auspices of the Church of England.
Creationism is the religious belief that the universe and life originated "from specific acts of divine creation",Gunn 2004, p. 9, "The Concise Oxford Dictionary says that creationism is 'the belief that the universe and living organisms originated from specific acts of divine creation.'" as opposed to the scientific conclusion that they came about through natural processes.
A creed (also known as a confession, symbol, or statement of faith) is a statement of the shared beliefs of a religious community in the form of a fixed formula summarizing core tenets.
Crucifixion is a method of capital punishment in which the victim is tied or nailed to a large wooden beam and left to hang for several days until eventual death from exhaustion and asphyxiation.
David Elton Trueblood (December 12, 1900 – December 20, 1994), who was usually known as "Elton Trueblood" or "D.
Daughters of Light: Quaker Women Preaching and Prophesying in the Colonies and Abroad, 1700-1775 is a book by Rebecca Larson, published in 1999.
David Boulton is a British journalist, author, documentary producer and lecturer.
The Declaration of Indulgence or Declaration for Liberty of Conscience was a pair of proclamations made by James II of England and VII of Scotland in 1687.
The Delaware Valley is the valley through which the Delaware River flows.
Doctrine (from doctrina, meaning "teaching", "instruction" or "doctrine") is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the essence of teachings in a given branch of knowledge or in a belief system.
The Duchy of Lancaster is, since 1399, the private estate of the British sovereign as Duke of Lancaster.
Earlham College is a private, liberal arts college in Richmond, Indiana.
Earlham School of Religion (ESR), a graduate division of Earlham College, located in Richmond, Indiana, is the oldest graduate seminary associated with the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers).
Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary 30 AD.
Eastern Christianity consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox churches, the Eastern Catholic churches (that are in communion with Rome but still maintain Eastern liturgies), and the denominations descended from the Church of the East.
Ecclesiastical polity is the operational and governance structure of a church or of a Christian denomination.
Ecumenism refers to efforts by Christians of different Church traditions to develop closer relationships and better understandings.
Edward Grubb (19 October 1854 – 23 January 1939) was an influential English Quaker who made significant contributions to revitalizing pacifism and a concern for social issues in the Religious Society of Friends in the late 19th century as a leader of the movement known as the Quaker Renaissance.
Edward Newman (13 May 1801 – 12 June 1876) was an English entomologist, botanist and writer.
Elias Hicks (March 19, 1748 – February 27, 1830) was a traveling Quaker minister from Long Island, New York.
England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom.
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.
English Dissenters or English Separatists were Protestant Christians who separated from the Church of England in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries.
The Epistle of James (Iakōbos), the Book of James, or simply James, is one of the 21 epistles (didactic letters) in the New Testament.
The Eucharist (also called Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper, among other names) is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches and an ordinance in others.
Evangelical Friends Church International (EFCI) is a branch of Quaker yearly meetings (regional associations) around the world that profess evangelical Christian beliefs.
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
In Christianity, Evangelism is the commitment to or act of publicly preaching of the Gospel with the intention of spreading the message and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Fasting is the willing abstinence or reduction from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time.
The First Epistle of Peter, usually referred to simply as First Peter and often written 1 Peter, is a book of the New Testament.
The Friends Committee on National Legislation (FCNL) is a lobbying organization in the public interest founded in 1943 by members of the Religious Society of Friends.
The Friends Committee on Scouting (FSC) of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) is responsible for developing curricula for the religious awards programs of Scout groups, and to promulgate their use.
Friends General Conference (FGC) is a North American Quaker association of 15 Quaker yearly and 12 monthly meetings in the United States and Canada that choose to be members.
A Friends meeting house is a meeting house of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), where meeting for worship is usually held.
Friends Provident was an organisation offering life insurance based in the United Kingdom.
Friends United Meeting (FUM) is an association of twenty-six yearly meetings of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) in North America, Africa, and the Caribbean.
Friends University is a private non-denominational Christian university in Wichita, Kansas.
The Friends World Committee for Consultation (FWCC) is a Quaker organisation that works to communicate between all parts of Quakerism.
The Friends' Ambulance Unit (FAU) was a volunteer ambulance service, founded by individual members of the British Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), in line with their Peace Testimony.
The Friends' School, Hobart is an independent, co-educational, Quaker, day and boarding school, located in North Hobart, a suburb of Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.
Friendswood is a city in the U.S. state of Texas.
General Register Office (GRO) is the name given to the civil registry in England and Wales, Scotland, many other Commonwealth nations and Ireland.
George Fox (July 1624 – 13 January 1691) was an English Dissenter and a founder of the Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as the Quakers or Friends.
George Fox University (GFU) is a Christian university of liberal arts and sciences and professional studies in Newberg, Oregon.
George School is a private Quaker (Society of Friends) boarding and day high school located on a rural campus near Newtown, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, United States.
Germantown Friends School (GFS) is a coeducational independent K-12 school in the Germantown neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in the United States under the supervision of Germantown Monthly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers).
Gervase Bennet (born 1612) was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons of England between 1653 and 1659.
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
The Great Awakening refers to a number of periods of religious revival in American Christian history.
Greenleaf is a city in Canyon County, Idaho, United States.
Greensboro (formerly Greensborough) is a city in the U.S. state of North Carolina.
Guilford College is a small liberal arts college in Greensboro, North Carolina.
Gurney's bank was a well-respected family-run bank founded by members of the Gurney family in 1770 and headquartered in Norwich, England.
A handshake is a short ritual in which two people grasp one of each other's like hands, in most cases accompanied by a brief up-and-down movement of the grasped hands.
Hannah Tatum Whitall Smith (February 7, 1832 – May 1, 1911) was a lay speaker and author in the Holiness movement in the United States and the Higher Life movement in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Haverford College is a private, coeducational liberal arts college in Haverford, Pennsylvania.
Hermeneutics is the theory and methodology of interpretation, especially the interpretation of biblical texts, wisdom literature, and philosophical texts.
The Higher Life movement, also known as the Keswick movement, was a movement devoted to Christian holiness in England.
Hobart is the capital and most populous city of the Australian island state of Tasmania.
The Holiness movement involves a set of beliefs and practices which emerged within 19th-century Methodism.
Holy Spirit (also called Holy Ghost) is a term found in English translations of the Bible that is understood differently among the Abrahamic religions.
Huntley & Palmers is a British firm of biscuit makers originally based in Reading, Berkshire.
Hypocrisy is the contrivance of a false appearance of virtue or goodness, while concealing real character or inclinations, especially with respect to religious and moral beliefs; hence in a general sense, hypocrisy may involve dissimulation, pretense, or a sham.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Infant baptism is the practice of baptising infants or young children.
International Voluntary Service (IVS), is a peace organisation working for the sustainable development of local and global communities throughout the world.
Light of God, Light of Christ, Christ within, That of God, Spirit of God within us, Light within, inward light and inner light are related phrases commonly used within the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) as metaphors for Christ's light shining on or in them.
Isaac Crewdson (6 June 1780 – 8 May 1844) was a minister of the Quaker meeting at Hardshaw East, Manchester.
Isaac Penington (1616–1679) was one of the early members of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) in England.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Mary Jessamyn West (July 18, 1902 – February 23, 1984) was an American author of short stories and novels, notably The Friendly Persuasion (1945).
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
John Wesley (2 March 1791) was an English cleric and theologian who, with his brother Charles and fellow cleric George Whitefield, founded Methodism.
John Wilbur (July 17, 1774 – May 1, 1856) was a prominent American Quaker minister and religious thinker who was at the forefront of a controversy that led to "the second split" in the Religious Society of Friends in the United States.
John Wilhelm Rowntree (4 September 1868 – 9 March 1905) was a chocolate and confectionery manufacturer and Quaker religious activist and reformer.
John Woolman (October 19, 1720 (O.S.)/October 30, 1720 (N.S.)– October 7, 1772) was a North American merchant, tailor, journalist, and itinerant Quaker preacher, and an early abolitionist in the colonial era.
Joseph Bevan Braithwaite (21 June 1818 Kendal – 15 November 1905 Islington, London) was a conservative, evangelical English Quaker minister.
Joseph John Gurney (2 August 1788 – 4 January 1847) was a banker in Norwich, England and a member of the Gurney family of that city.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Kaimosi is a town in western Kenya, heavily influenced by Quakers.
Katherine Milhous (1894–1977) was an American artist, illustrator, and writer.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
The Keswick Convention is an annual gathering of evangelical Christians in Keswick, in the English county of Cumbria.
The kiss of peace is an ancient traditional Christian greeting, sometimes also called the "holy kiss", "brother kiss" (among men), or "sister kiss" (among women).
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
Lent (Latin: Quadragesima: Fortieth) is a solemn religious observance in the Christian liturgical calendar that begins on Ash Wednesday and ends approximately six weeks later, before Easter Sunday.
Levi Coffin (October 28, 1798 – September 16, 1877) was an American Quaker, abolitionist, businessman, and humanitarian.
Liberal Christianity, also known as liberal theology, covers diverse philosophically and biblically informed religious movements and ideas within Christianity from the late 18th century onward.
Light of the World (Phṓs tou kósmou) is a phrase Jesus used to describe himself and his disciples in the New Testament.
Lloyds Bank plc is a British retail and commercial bank with branches across England and Wales.
Lloyds Banking Group plc is a major British financial institution formed through the acquisition of HBOS by Lloyds TSB in 2009.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
Madhya Pradesh (MP;; meaning Central Province) is a state in central India.
In the legal system of England and Wales, there is a history of involving lay people, namely people from the local community who are not required to hold any legal qualifications, in the judicial decision-making process of the courts.
The mainline Protestant churches (also called mainstream Protestant and sometimes oldline Protestant) are a group of Protestant denominations in the United States that contrast in history and practice with evangelical, fundamentalist, and charismatic Protestant denominations.
Malone University is a private, liberal arts college located in Canton, Ohio, United States.
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.
Margaret Fell or Margaret Fox (1614 – 23 April 1702) was a founder of the Religious Society of Friends.
Mary Dyer (born Marie Barrett; c. 1611 – 1 June 1660) was an English and colonial American Puritan turned Quaker who was hanged in Boston, Massachusetts Bay Colony, for repeatedly defying a Puritan law banning Quakers from the colony.
Mary Fisher, also Mary Fisher Bayley Crosse, (c.1623 – 1698) was one of the first travelling Quaker ministers.
Mary Mollineux (born Mary Southworth, 1651–1696) was a Quaker poet who differed from many of her Quaker contemporaries because of an early education in Latin, Greek, science, and arithmetic.
Mary Penington (1623–1682) was one of the early members of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers).
The Massachusetts Bay Colony (1628–1691) was an English settlement on the east coast of North America in the 17th century around the Massachusetts Bay, the northernmost of the several colonies later reorganized as the Province of Massachusetts Bay.
A meeting for worship is a practice of the Religious Society of Friends (or "Quakers") in many ways comparable to a church service.
Mehmed IV (Ottoman Turkish: محمد رابع Meḥmed-i rābiʿ; Modern Turkish: IV. Mehmet; also known as Avcı Mehmet, Mehmed the Hunter; 2 January 1642 – 6 January 1693) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1648 to 1687.
Mid-India Yearly Meeting is a yearly meeting of the Religious Society of Friends in Madhya Pradesh state in mid-India.
Modern Paganism, also known as Contemporary Paganism and Neopaganism, is a collective term for new religious movements influenced by or claiming to be derived from the various historical pagan beliefs of pre-modern Europe, North Africa and the Near East.
Mombasa is a city on the coast of Kenya.
Moorestown Friends School (also known as MFS) is a private, coeducational Quaker day school located in Moorestown Township, in Burlington County, New Jersey, United States.
Moses Brown (September 23, 1738 – September 6, 1836) was an American abolitionist and industrialist from New England, who funded the design and construction of some of the first factory houses for spinning machines during the American industrial revolution, including Slater Mill.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The National Association of Evangelicals (NAE) is an association of evangelical denominations, organizations, schools, churches and individuals.
The National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA, usually identified as the National Council of Churches (NCC), is the largest ecumenical body in the United States.
Nelson (Whakatū) is a city on the eastern shores of Tasman Bay.
New York Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends, or simply New York Yearly Meeting or NYYM, is the central organizing body for Quaker meetings and worship groups in New York State, northern and central New Jersey, and southwestern Connecticut.
Newberg is a city in Yamhill County, Oregon, United States.
The Non-Combatant Corps (NCC) was a corps of the British Army composed of conscientious objectors as privates, with NCOs and officers seconded from other corps or regiments.
Nontheism or non-theism is a range of both religious and nonreligious attitudes characterized by the absence of espoused belief in a God or gods.
Nontheist Quakers (also known as nontheist Friends or NtFs) are those who affiliate with, identify with, engage in, or affirm Quaker practices and processes, but who do not necessarily believe in a theistic God, a Supreme Being, the divine, the soul or the supernatural.
Olney Friends School is a small, co-educational boarding and day school affiliated with the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers).
On the Origin of Species (or more completely, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life),The book's full original title was On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
Pastoral care is an ancient model of emotional and spiritual support that can be found in all cultures and traditions.
For the Episcopalian Reverend missionary, see Paul Cuffee (1754-1812). Paul Cuffee or Paul Cuffe (January 17, 1759 – September 7, 1817) was a Quaker businessman, sea captain, patriot, and abolitionist.
Peace testimony, or testimony against war, is a shorthand description of the action generally taken by members of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) for peace and against participation in war.
Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people of similar competence to the producers of the work (peers).
Pemba Island (الجزيرة الخضراء al-Jazīra al-khadrā, literally "The Green Island"), is an island forming part of the Zanzibar Archipelago, lying within the Swahili Coast in the Indian Ocean.
Penal substitution (sometimes, esp. in older writings, called forensic theory)D.
Pendle Hill is in the east of Lancashire, England, near the towns of Burnley, Nelson, Colne, Clitheroe and Padiham.
The Penn's Creek massacre was a massacre and Indian raid on October 16, 1755 near Penn's Creek where it flows through Selinsgrove, Pennsylvania, US.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
Philadelphia Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends, or simply Philadelphia Yearly Meeting, or PYM, is the central organizing body for Quaker meetings in the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, area.
Pickering College is an independent, co-educational school for children in grades from Junior Kindergarten through grade 12.
Plain dress is a practice among some religious groups, primarily some Christian churches in which people dress in clothes of traditional modest design, sturdy fabric, and conservative cut.
The Plymouth Brethren are a conservative, low church, nonconformist, evangelical Christian movement whose history can be traced to Dublin, Ireland, in the late 1820s, originating from Anglicanism.
A priest or priestess (feminine) is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities.
Prison reform is the attempt to improve conditions inside prisons, establish a more effective penal system, or implement alternatives to incarceration.
ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (PQDT) is an online database that indexes, abstracts, and provides full-text access to dissertations and theses.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The Province of Pennsylvania, also known as the Pennsylvania Colony, was founded in English North America by William Penn on March 4, 1681 as dictated in a royal charter granted by King Charles II.
The Puritans were English Reformed Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to "purify" the Church of England from its "Catholic" practices, maintaining that the Church of England was only partially reformed.
Quaker Peace & Social Witness (QPSW), previously known as the Friends Service Council, and then as Quaker Peace and Service, is one of the central committees of Britain Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends - the national organisation of Quakers in Britain.
The Quaker United Nations Office (QUNO) is a non-governmental organisation representing the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) at the United Nations.
The Quaker Universalist Fellowship is a religious organization serving predominantly individuals with an ongoing association with the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), a universalist understanding of Quaker teachings and traditions, and a commitment to religious pluralism.
Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.
Quakers in Ireland, The Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) have a long history in Ireland their first recorded Meeting for Worship in Ireland was in 1654 at the home of William Edmundson in Lurgan, Co.
The Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) played a major role in the abolition movement against slavery in both the United Kingdom and in the United States of America.
Ramallah (رام الله) is a Palestinian city in the central West Bank located north of Jerusalem at an average elevation of above sea level, adjacent to al-Bireh. It currently serves as the de facto administrative capital of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA). Ramallah was historically an Arab Christian town. Today Muslims form the majority of the population of nearly 27,092 in 2007, with Christians making up a significant minority.
The Ramallah Friends Schools are two private schools founded by Quakers in the city of Ramallah, in the West Bank.
A Recorded Minister was originally a male or female Quaker who was acknowledged to have a gift of spoken ministry.
Religious pluralism is an attitude or policy regarding the diversity of religious belief systems co-existing in society.
A religious symbol is an iconic representation intended to represent a specific religion, or a specific concept within a given religion.
Resurrection is the concept of coming back to life after death.
A revival meeting is a series of Christian religious services held to inspire active members of a church body to gain new converts.
The Richmond Declaration was made by 95 Quakers (representatives of all Orthodox Gurneyite Friends Yearly Meetings) in September 1887, at a conference in Richmond, Indiana.
Richmond is a city in east central Indiana, United States, bordering on Ohio.
Robert Barclay (23 December 16483 October 1690) was a Scottish Quaker, one of the most eminent writers belonging to the Religious Society of Friends and a member of the Clan Barclay.
Robert Pearsall Smith (1827–1898) was a lay leader in the Holiness movement in the United States and the Higher Life movement in Great Britain.
Rowntree was an English confectionery business based in York.
Rufus Matthew Jones (January 25, 1863 – June 16, 1948) was an American religious leader, writer, magazine editor, philosopher, and college professor.
Rwanda (U Rwanda), officially the Republic of Rwanda (Repubulika y'u Rwanda; République du Rwanda), is a sovereign state in Central and East Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland.
A sacrament is a Christian rite recognized as of particular importance and significance.
Salvation in Christianity, or deliverance, is the saving of the soul from sin and its consequences.
Same-sex marriage (also known as gay marriage) is the marriage of a same-sex couple, entered into in a civil or religious ceremony.
Sampson Lloyd (1699–1779) was an English iron manufacturer and banker, who co-founded Lloyds Bank.
Scattergood Friends School in Cedar County, Iowa, educates students in grades nine through twelve.
The Sea of Faith Network (SoF) is an organisation with the stated aim to explore and promote religious faith as a human creation.
The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant religious revival during the early 19th century in the United States.
The Seekers, or Legatine-Arians as they were sometimes known, were an English Protestant dissenting group that emerged around the 1620s, probably inspired by the preaching of three brothers – Walter, Thomas, and Bartholomew Legate.
Seminary, school of theology, theological seminary, Early-Morning Seminary, and divinity school are educational institutions for educating students (sometimes called seminarians) in scripture, theology, generally to prepare them for ordination as clergy, academia, or ministry.
A sermon is an oration, lecture, or talk by a member of a religious institution or clergy.
The Sermon on the Mount (anglicized from the Matthean Vulgate Latin section title: Sermo in monte) is a collection of sayings and teachings of Jesus, which emphasizes his moral teaching found in the Gospel of Matthew (chapters 5, 6, and 7).
In Christianity, the Sermon on the Plain refers to a set of teachings by Jesus in the Gospel of Luke, in 6:17–49.
Service Civil International (SCI) is an international non-governmental voluntary service organisation and peace movement with 43 branches and groups worldwide.
The United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing, more commonly known as the Shakers, is a millenarian restorationist Christian sect founded in the 18th century in England.
In a religious context, sin is the act of transgression against divine law.
Slave ships were large cargo ships specially converted for the purpose of transporting slaves.
The Social Gospel was a movement in North American Protestantism which applied Christian ethics to social problems, especially issues of social justice such as economic inequality, poverty, alcoholism, crime, racial tensions, slums, unclean environment, child labor, inadequate labor unions, poor schools, and the danger of war.
Social justice is a concept of fair and just relations between the individual and society.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Palestine (فلسطين), officially the State of Palestine (دولة فلسطين), is a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East claiming the West Bank (bordering Israel and Jordan) and Gaza Strip (bordering Israel and Egypt) with East Jerusalem as the designated capital, although its administrative center is currently located in Ramallah.
Sustainability is the process of change, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations.
Swarthmore College is a private liberal arts college located in Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, southwest of Philadelphia.
Tamanend or Tammany or Tammamend, the "affable", (c. 1625–c. 1701) was a chief of one of the clans that made up the Lenni-Lenape nation in the Delaware Valley at the time Philadelphia was established.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
Teetotalism is the practice or promotion of complete personal abstinence from alcoholic beverages.
Terry's was a British chocolate and confectionery maker based in York, England.
In law and in religion, testimony is a solemn attestation as to the truth of a matter.
Testimony to integrity and truth refers to the way many members of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) testify or bear witness to their belief that one should live a life that is true to God, true to oneself, and true to others.
The testimony of simplicity is a shorthand description of the actions generally taken by members of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) to testify or bear witness to their beliefs that a person ought to live a simple life in order to focus on what is most important and ignore or play down what is least important.
The Egg Tree is a 1950 book by Katherine Milhous that won the 1951 Caldecott Medal,American Library Association:.
In Christianity, the gospel (euangélion; gospel), or the Good News, is the news of the coming of the Kingdom of God.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
Theophilus Waldmeier (1832 in Basel – 1915) was a Swiss Quaker missionary.
Thomas Fell (1598–1658), was a lawyer, member of parliament and vice-chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster.
A tithe (from Old English: teogoþa "tenth") is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a contribution to a religious organization or compulsory tax to government.
The Toleration Act 1689 (1 Will & Mary c 18), also referred to as the Act of Toleration, was an Act of the Parliament of England, which received the royal assent on 24 May 1689.
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
The Underground Railroad was a network of secret routes and safe houses established in the United States during the early to mid-19th century, and used by African-American slaves to escape into free states and Canada with the aid of abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause.
The Bill of Rights is the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The universal priesthood or the priesthood of all believers is a foundational concept of Christianity.
In Christian theology, universal reconciliation (also called universal salvation, Christian universalism, or in context simply universalism) is the doctrine that all sinful and alienated human souls—because of divine love and mercy—will ultimately be reconciled to God.
Universalism is a theological and philosophical concept that some ideas have universal application or applicability.
The Valiant Sixty were a group of early leaders and activists in the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers).
Varanasi, also known as Benares, Banaras (Banāras), or Kashi (Kāśī), is a city on the banks of the Ganges in the Uttar Pradesh state of North India, south-east of the state capital, Lucknow, and east of Allahabad.
A vision is something seen in a dream, trance, or religious ecstasy, especially a supernatural appearance that usually conveys a revelation.
Walden School (previously known as Friends' School) was a Quaker independent school located in Saffron Walden, Essex, situated approximately 12 miles south of the city of Cambridge, England.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Wem is a small market town in Shropshire, England.
West Jersey and East Jersey were two distinct parts of the Province of New Jersey.
Westtown School is a Quaker, coeducational, college preparatory day and boarding school for students in pre-kindergarten through twelfth grade, located in eastern Pennsylvania.
Whittier College is a private liberal arts college in Whittier, California, United States.
Whittier is a city in Southern California located within Los Angeles County, California.
William Penn (14 October 1644 – 30 July 1718) was the son of Sir William Penn, and was an English real estate entrepreneur, philosopher, early Quaker, and founder of the English North American colony the Province of Pennsylvania.
William Penn Charter School (commonly known as Penn Charter or simply PC) is an independent school in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, founded in 1689 at the urging of William Penn as the "Public Grammar School" and chartered in 1698 to be operated by the "Overseers of the public School, founded by Charter in the town & County of Philadelphia" in Pennsylvania.
For other educational establishments with a similar name please see William Penn School William Penn University is a private, liberal arts university in Oskaloosa, Iowa, United States.
Wilmington College is a private career-oriented liberal arts institution established by Quakers in 1870 in Wilmington, Ohio, United States.
Wilmington Friends School is a preschool-12th grade, Quaker school, in Wilmington, Delaware.
Woodbrooke Study Centre is a Quaker college in Selly Oak, Birmingham, England.
The World Council of Churches (WCC) is a worldwide inter-church organization founded in 1948.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yearly Meeting is a term used by members of the Religious Society of Friends, or Quaker, to refer to an organization composed of constituent meetings or churches within a geographical area.
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