65 relations: A priori and a posteriori, Argument of a function, Aristotle, Calculus, Cambridge University Press, Circle, Class (philosophy), Classification of discontinuities, Collective noun, Continuous or discrete variable, Continuum (measurement), Counting, Density, Dimensionless quantity, Distance, Empirical research, Encyclopædia Britannica, Energy, English language, Euclid, Euclid's Elements, Euclidean vector, Expression (mathematics), Gérard Debreu, Gender, Geometry, Grammatical number, Heat, Infinitesimal, Integer, Intensive and extensive properties, Isaac Newton, John Tukey, John Wallis, Litre, Magnitude (mathematics), Mass, Mass noun, Mathematics, MIT Press, Noun, Number theory, Observable, Observable variable, Ontology, Otto Hölder, Person, Philosophy of mathematics, Pressure, Quality (philosophy), ..., Quantification (science), Quantum, R. Duncan Luce, Radius, Real number, Scalar (mathematics), Set (mathematics), Stochastic, Substance theory, Syntactic category, Tensor, Theory of conjoint measurement, Time, Variable (mathematics), Volume. Expand index (15 more) » « Shrink index
The Latin phrases a priori ("from the earlier") and a posteriori ("from the latter") are philosophical terms of art popularized by Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (first published in 1781, second edition in 1787), one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy.
In mathematics, an argument of a function is a specific input in the function, also known as an independent variable.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Calculus (from Latin calculus, literally 'small pebble', used for counting and calculations, as on an abacus), is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A circle is a simple closed shape.
In at least one source, a class is a set in which an individual member can be recognized in one or both of two ways: a) it is included in an extensional definition of the whole set (a list of set members) b) it matches an Intensional definition of one set member. By contrast, a "type" is an intensional definition; it is a description that is sufficiently generalized to fit every member of a set. Philosophers sometimes distinguish classes from types and kinds. We can talk about the class of human beings, just as we can talk about the type (or natural kind), human being, or humanity. How, then, might classes differ from types? One might well think they are not actually different categories of being, but typically, while both are treated as abstract objects, classes are not usually treated as universals, whereas types usually are. Whether natural kinds ought to be considered universals is vexed; see natural kind. There is, in any case, a difference in how we talk about types or kinds. We say that Socrates is a token of a type, or an instance of the natural kind, human being. But notice that we say instead that Socrates is a member of the class of human beings. We would not say that Socrates is a "member" of the type or kind, human beings. Nor would we say he is a type (or kind) of a class. He is a token (instance) of the type (kind). So the linguistic difference is: types (or kinds) have tokens (or instances); classes, on the other hand, have members. The concept of a class is similar to the concept of a set defined by its members. Here, the class is extensional. If, however, a set is defined intensionally, then it is a set of things that meet some requirement to be a member. Thus, such a set can be seen as creating a type. Note that it also creates a class from the extension of the intensional set. A type always has a corresponding class (though that class might have no members), but a class does not necessarily have a corresponding type.
Continuous functions are of utmost importance in mathematics, functions and applications.
In linguistics, a collective noun refers to a collection of things taken as a whole.
In mathematics, a variable may be continuous or discrete.
Continuum theories or models explain variation as involving gradual quantitative transitions without abrupt changes or discontinuities.
Counting is the action of finding the number of elements of a finite set of objects.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
In dimensional analysis, a dimensionless quantity is a quantity to which no physical dimension is assigned.
Distance is a numerical measurement of how far apart objects are.
Empirical research is research using empirical evidence.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Euclid (Εὐκλείδης Eukleidēs; fl. 300 BC), sometimes given the name Euclid of Alexandria to distinguish him from Euclides of Megara, was a Greek mathematician, often referred to as the "founder of geometry" or the "father of geometry".
The Elements (Στοιχεῖα Stoicheia) is a mathematical treatise consisting of 13 books attributed to the ancient Greek mathematician Euclid in Alexandria, Ptolemaic Egypt c. 300 BC.
In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector, or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction.
In mathematics, an expression or mathematical expression is a finite combination of symbols that is well-formed according to rules that depend on the context.
Gérard Debreu (4 July 1921 – 31 December 2004) was a French-born American economist and mathematician.
Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity.
Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.
In mathematics, infinitesimals are things so small that there is no way to measure them.
An integer (from the Latin ''integer'' meaning "whole")Integer 's first literal meaning in Latin is "untouched", from in ("not") plus tangere ("to touch").
Physical properties of materials and systems can often be categorized as being either intensive or extensive quantities, according to how the property changes when the size (or extent) of the system changes.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
John Wilder Tukey (June 16, 1915 – July 26, 2000) was an American mathematician best known for development of the FFT algorithm and box plot.
John Wallis (3 December 1616 – 8 November 1703) was an English clergyman and mathematician who is given partial credit for the development of infinitesimal calculus.
The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l, sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,, p. 124. ("Days" and "hours" are examples of other non-SI units that SI accepts.) although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). The spelling used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is "litre", a spelling which is shared by almost all English-speaking countries. The spelling "liter" is predominantly used in American English. One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, because the kilogram was originally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic decimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice. Subsequent redefinitions of the metre and kilogram mean that this relationship is no longer exact.
In mathematics, magnitude is the size of a mathematical object, a property which determines whether the object is larger or smaller than other objects of the same kind.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
In linguistics, a mass noun, uncountable noun, or non-count noun is a noun with the syntactic property that any quantity of it is treated as an undifferentiated unit, rather than as something with discrete subsets.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
Number theory, or in older usage arithmetic, is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers.
In physics, an observable is a dynamic variable that can be measured.
In statistics, observable variable or observable quantity (also manifest variables), as opposed to latent variable, is a variable that can be observed and directly measured.
Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
Otto Ludwig Hölder (December 22, 1859 – August 29, 1937) was a German mathematician born in Stuttgart.
A person is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousness, and being a part of a culturally established form of social relations such as kinship, ownership of property, or legal responsibility.
The philosophy of mathematics is the branch of philosophy that studies the assumptions, foundations, and implications of mathematics, and purports to provide a viewpoint of the nature and methodology of mathematics, and to understand the place of mathematics in people's lives.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
In philosophy, a quality is an attribute or a property characteristic of an object.
In mathematics and empirical science, quantification (or quantitation) is the act of counting and measuring that maps human sense observations and experiences into quantities.
In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity (physical property) involved in an interaction.
Robert Duncan Luce (May 16, 1925 – August 11, 2012) was an American mathematician and social scientist, and one of the most preeminent figures in the field of mathematical psychology.
In classical geometry, a radius of a circle or sphere is any of the line segments from its center to its perimeter, and in more modern usage, it is also their length.
In mathematics, a real number is a value of a continuous quantity that can represent a distance along a line.
A scalar is an element of a field which is used to define a vector space.
In mathematics, a set is a collection of distinct objects, considered as an object in its own right.
The word stochastic is an adjective in English that describes something that was randomly determined.
Substance theory, or substance attribute theory, is an ontological theory about objecthood, positing that a substance is distinct from its properties.
A syntactic category is a type of syntactic unit that theories of syntax assume.
In mathematics, tensors are geometric objects that describe linear relations between geometric vectors, scalars, and other tensors.
The theory of conjoint measurement (also known as conjoint measurement or additive conjoint measurement) is a general, formal theory of continuous quantity.
Time is the indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future.
In elementary mathematics, a variable is a symbol, commonly an alphabetic character, that represents a number, called the value of the variable, which is either arbitrary, not fully specified, or unknown.
Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by a closed surface, for example, the space that a substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) or shape occupies or contains.