157 relations: Abelian group, Abrikosov vortex, Adjoint representation, AdS/CFT correspondence, AdS/QCD correspondence, Anomaly (physics), Asymptotic freedom, Atomic nucleus, Baryon number, Boris Struminsky, Boson, BRST quantization, Bubble chamber, CERN, Charge (physics), Chiral model, Chiral perturbation theory, Chirality (physics), Classical electromagnetism, Clay Mathematics Institute, Color, Color charge, Color confinement, Color vision, David Gross, Deep inelastic scattering, Degrees of freedom (physics and chemistry), Delta baryon, Drell–Yan process, Dualism, Dubna, Effective field theory, Eightfold Way (physics), Electromagnetic tensor, Electron, Elementary particle, Emil Artin, Entropic force, Entropy, Eugene Wigner, Faddeev–Popov ghost, Fermion, Fermionic condensate, Fermionic field, Feynman diagram, Finnegans Wake, Flavour (particle physics), Force carrier, Form factor (quantum field theory), Frank Wilczek, ..., Fundamental interaction, Fundamental representation, Gamma matrices, Gauge boson, Gauge theory, Geometrical frustration, George Zweig, Global symmetry, Glueball, Gluon, Gluon field, Gluon field strength tensor, Group (mathematics), Hadron, Henry Holt and Company, Hugh David Politzer, Hypercharge, Instanton, Isospin, James Bjorken, James Joyce, Jet (particle physics), Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Kaon, Kazuhiko Nishijima, Kenneth G. Wilson, Lagrangian (field theory), Large Electron–Positron Collider, Lattice QCD, Length scale, Local symmetry, Lorentz group, Meson, Metric signature, Millennium Prize Problems, Moo-Young Han, Murray Gell-Mann, Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model, Natural rubber, Neutron, Nikolay Bogolyubov, Nobel Prize, Nobel Prize in Physics, Non-perturbative, Nucleon, Numerical sign problem, Omega baryon, Operator product expansion, Oscar W. Greenberg, Particle physics, Pauli exclusion principle, Perturbation theory (quantum mechanics), Perturbative QCD, Phase (matter), Photon, Physical Review, Physical Review Letters, Pion, Polymer physics, Pomeron, Positron-Electron Tandem Ring Accelerator, Projection (linear algebra), Proton, QCD matter, QCD vacuum, QCDOC, Quantum chromodynamics, Quantum electrodynamics, Quantum field theory, Quantum gauge theory, Quark, Quark model, Quark–gluon plasma, Richard Feynman, S-matrix theory, Shoichi Sakata, Singlet state, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Soft-collinear effective theory, Spacetime, Spark chamber, Special unitary group, Spin (physics), Spin glass, Spontaneous symmetry breaking, Standard Model, Strange quark, Strangeness, String theory, Strong interaction, Structure constants, Supercomputer, Symmetry in quantum mechanics, Theoretical physics, Three-jet event, Trieste, Type-II superconductor, Unitarity gauge, Up quark, Vector boson, Weak interaction, Weak isospin, Werner Heisenberg, Wilson loop, Yoichiro Nambu, Yuval Ne'eman, 1/N expansion. Expand index (107 more) »

## Abelian group

In abstract algebra, an abelian group, also called a commutative group, is a group in which the result of applying the group operation to two group elements does not depend on the order in which they are written (the axiom of commutativity).

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## Abrikosov vortex

In superconductivity, an Abrikosov vortex is a vortex of supercurrent in a type-II superconductor theoretically predicted by Alexei Abrikosov in 1957.

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## Adjoint representation

In mathematics, the adjoint representation (or adjoint action) of a Lie group G is a way of representing the elements of the group as linear transformations of the group's Lie algebra, considered as a vector space.

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## AdS/CFT correspondence

In theoretical physics, the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence, sometimes called Maldacena duality or gauge/gravity duality, is a conjectured relationship between two kinds of physical theories.

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## AdS/QCD correspondence

In theoretical physics, the AdS/QCD correspondence is a program to describe quantum chromodynamics (QCD) in terms of a dual gravitational theory, following the principles of the AdS/CFT correspondence in a setup where the quantum field theory is not a conformal field theory.

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## Anomaly (physics)

In quantum physics an anomaly or quantum anomaly is the failure of a symmetry of a theory's classical action to be a symmetry of any regularization of the full quantum theory.

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## Asymptotic freedom

In physics, asymptotic freedom is a property of some gauge theories that causes bonds between particles to become asymptotically weaker as energy increases and distance decreases.

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## Atomic nucleus

The nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom.

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## Baryon number

In particle physics, the baryon number is a strictly conserved additive quantum number of a system.

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## Boris Struminsky

Boris Vladimirovich Struminsky (Борис Владимирович Струминский; 14 August 1939 — 18 January 2003) was a Russian and Ukrainian physicist known for his contribution to theoretical elementary particle physics.

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## Boson

In quantum mechanics, a boson is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics.

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## BRST quantization

In theoretical physics, BRST quantization (where the BRST refers to Becchi, Rouet, Stora and Tyutin) denotes a relatively rigorous mathematical approach to quantizing a field theory with a gauge symmetry.

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## Bubble chamber

A bubble chamber is a vessel filled with a superheated transparent liquid (most often liquid hydrogen) used to detect electrically charged particles moving through it.

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## CERN

The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name "Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire"; see ''History'') is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.

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## Charge (physics)

In physics, a charge may refer to one of many different quantities, such as the electric charge in electromagnetism or the color charge in quantum chromodynamics.

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## Chiral model

In nuclear physics, the chiral model, introduced by Feza Gürsey in 1960, is a phenomenological model describing effective interactions of mesons in the chiral limit (where the masses of the quarks go to zero), but without necessarily mentioning quarks at all.

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## Chiral perturbation theory

Chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) is an effective field theory constructed with a Lagrangian consistent with the (approximate) chiral symmetry of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), as well as the other symmetries of parity and charge conjugation.

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## Chirality (physics)

A chiral phenomenon is one that is not identical to its mirror image (see the article on mathematical chirality).

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## Classical electromagnetism

Classical electromagnetism (or classical electrodynamics) is a branch of theoretical physics that studies the interactions between electric charges and currents using an extension of the classical Newtonian model.

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## Clay Mathematics Institute

The Clay Mathematics Institute (CMI) is a private, non-profit foundation, based in Providence, Rhode Island.

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## Color

Color, or coloursee spelling differencesis the visual perceptual property corresponding in humans to the categories called red, blue, yellow, etc.

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## Color charge

Color charge is a property of quarks and gluons that is related to the particles' strong interactions in the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD).

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## Color confinement

Color confinement, often simply called confinement, is the phenomenon that color charged particles (such as quarks) cannot be isolated singularly, and therefore cannot be directly observed.

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## Color vision

Color vision is the ability of an organism or machine to distinguish objects based on the wavelengths (or frequencies) of the light they reflect, emit, or transmit.

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## David Gross

David Jonathan Gross (born February 19, 1941) is an American particle physicist and string theorist.

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## Deep inelastic scattering

Deep inelastic scattering is the name given to a process used to probe the insides of hadrons (particularly the baryons, such as protons and neutrons), using electrons, muons and neutrinos.

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## Degrees of freedom (physics and chemistry)

In physics, a degree of freedom is an independent physical parameter in the formal description of the state of a physical system.

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## Delta baryon

The Delta baryons (or Δ baryons, also called Delta resonances) are a family of subatomic particle made of three up or down quarks (u or d quarks).

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## Drell–Yan process

The Drell–Yan process occurs in high energy hadron–hadron scattering.

New!!: Quantum chromodynamics and Drell–Yan process ·

## Dualism

Dualism (from the Latin word duo meaning "two") denotes the state of two parts.

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## Dubna

Dubna (p) is a town in Moscow Oblast, Russia.

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## Effective field theory

In physics, an effective field theory is a type of approximation to (or effective theory for) an underlying physical theory, such as a quantum field theory or a statistical mechanics model.

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## Eightfold Way (physics)

In physics, the Eightfold Way is a term coined by American physicist Murray Gell-Mann for a theory organizing subatomic baryons and mesons into octets (alluding to the Noble Eightfold Path of Buddhism).

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## Electromagnetic tensor

In electromagnetism, the electromagnetic tensor or electromagnetic field tensor (sometimes called the field strength tensor, Faraday tensor or Maxwell bivector) is a mathematical object that describes the electromagnetic field of a physical system.

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## Electron

The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, with a negative elementary electric charge.

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## Elementary particle

In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle whose substructure is unknown, thus it is unknown whether it is composed of other particles.

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## Emil Artin

Emil Artin (March 3, 1898 – December 20, 1962) was an Austrian mathematician.

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## Entropic force

In physics, an entropic force acting in a system is a phenomenological force resulting from the entire system's statistical tendency to increase its entropy, rather than from a particular underlying microscopic force.

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## Entropy

In thermodynamics, entropy (usual symbol S) is a measure of the number of specific ways in which a thermodynamic system may be arranged, commonly understood as a measure of disorder.

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## Eugene Wigner

Eugene Paul "E.

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## Faddeev–Popov ghost

In physics, Faddeev–Popov ghosts (also called gauge ghosts or ghost fields) are additional fields which are introduced into gauge quantum field theories to maintain the consistency of the path integral formulation.

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## Fermion

In particle physics, a fermion (a name coined by Paul Dirac from the surname of Enrico Fermi) is any particle characterized by Fermi–Dirac statistics.

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## Fermionic condensate

A fermionic condensate is a superfluid phase formed by fermionic particles at low temperatures.

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## Fermionic field

In quantum field theory, a fermionic field is a quantum field whose quanta are fermions; that is, they obey Fermi–Dirac statistics.

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## Feynman diagram

In theoretical physics, Feynman diagrams are pictorial representations of the mathematical expressions describing the behavior of subatomic particles.

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## Finnegans Wake

Finnegans Wake is a novel by Irish writer James Joyce.

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## Flavour (particle physics)

In particle physics, flavour or flavor refers to a species of an elementary particle.

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## Force carrier

In particle physics, force carriers are particles that give rise to forces between other particles.

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## Form factor (quantum field theory)

In mathematical physics, in particular in effective field theory, a form factor is a function that gives the properties of a certain particle interaction without including all of the underlying physics.

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## Frank Wilczek

Frank Anthony Wilczek (born May 15, 1951) is an American theoretical physicist, mathematician and a Nobel laureate.

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## Fundamental interaction

Fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces, are the interactions in physical systems that don't appear to be reducible to more basic interactions.

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## Fundamental representation

In representation theory of Lie groups and Lie algebras, a fundamental representation is an irreducible finite-dimensional representation of a semisimple Lie group or Lie algebra whose highest weight is a fundamental weight.

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## Gamma matrices

In mathematical physics, the gamma matrices, \, also known as the Dirac matrices, are a set of conventional matrices with specific anticommutation relations that ensure they generate a matrix representation of the Clifford algebra Cℓ1,3(R).

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## Gauge boson

In particle physics, a gauge boson is a force carrier, a bosonic particle that carries any of the fundamental interactions of nature.

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## Gauge theory

In physics, a gauge theory is a type of field theory in which the Lagrangian is invariant under a continuous group of local transformations.

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## Geometrical frustration

In condensed matter physics, the term geometrical frustration (or in short: frustration) refers to a phenomenon, where atoms tend to stick to non-trivial positions or where, on a regular crystal lattice, conflicting inter-atomic forces (each one favoring rather simple, but different structures) lead to quite complex structures.

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## George Zweig

George Zweig (born May 30, 1937) is an American physicist.

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## Global symmetry

In physics, a global symmetry is a symmetry that holds at all points in the spacetime under consideration, as opposed to a local symmetry which varies from point to point.

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## Glueball

In particle physics, a glueball is a hypothetical composite particle.

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## Gluon

No description.

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## Gluon field

In theoretical particle physics, the gluon field is a four vector field characterizing the propagation of gluons in the strong interaction between quarks.

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## Gluon field strength tensor

In theoretical particle physics, the gluon field strength tensor is a second order tensor field characterizing the gluon interaction between quarks.

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## Group (mathematics)

In mathematics, a group is an algebraic structure consisting of a set of elements together with an operation that combines any two elements to form a third element.

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## Hadron

In particle physics, a hadron (ἁδρός, hadrós, "stout, thick") is a composite particle made of quarks held together by the strong force (in a similar way as molecules are held together by the electromagnetic force).

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## Henry Holt and Company

Henry Holt and Company is an American book publishing company, in New York City.

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## Hugh David Politzer

Hugh David Politzer (born August 31, 1949) is an American theoretical physicist at the California Institute of Technology.

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## Hypercharge

In particle physics, the hypercharge (from '''hyper'''onic + charge) Y of a particle is related to the strong interaction, and is distinct from the similarly named weak hypercharge, which has an analogous role in the electroweak interaction.

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## Instanton

An instanton (or pseudoparticle) is a notion appearing in theoretical and mathematical physics.

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## Isospin

In nuclear physics and particle physics, isospin (isotopic spin, isobaric spin) is a quantum number related to the strong interaction.

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## James Bjorken

James Daniel "BJ" Bjorken (born 1934) is an American theoretical physicist.

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## James Joyce

James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish novelist and poet, considered to be one of the most influential writers in the modernist avant-garde of the early 20th century.

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## Jet (particle physics)

A jet is a narrow cone of hadrons and other particles produced by the hadronization of a quark or gluon in a particle physics or heavy ion experiment.

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## Joint Institute for Nuclear Research

The Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, JINR (Объединённый институт ядерных исследований, ОИЯИ), in Dubna, Moscow Oblast (110 km north of Moscow), Russia, is an international research centre for nuclear sciences, with 5500 staff members, 1200 researchers including 1000 Ph.D's from eighteen member states (including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus and Kazakhstan).

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## Kaon

In particle physics, a kaon, also called a K meson and denoted,The positively charged kaon used to be called τ+ and θ+, as it was supposed to be two different particles until the 1960s.

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## Kazuhiko Nishijima

(4 October 1926 – 15 February 2009) was a Japanese physicist who made significant contributions to particle physics.

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## Kenneth G. Wilson

Kenneth Geddes Wilson (June 8, 1936 – June 15, 2013) was an American theoretical physicist and a pioneer in leveraging computers for studying particle physics.

New!!: Quantum chromodynamics and Kenneth G. Wilson ·

## Lagrangian (field theory)

Lagrangian field theory is a formalism in classical field theory.

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## Large Electron–Positron Collider

The Large Electron–Positron Collider (LEP) was one of the largest particle accelerators ever constructed.

New!!: Quantum chromodynamics and Large Electron–Positron Collider ·

## Lattice QCD

Lattice QCD is a well-established non-perturbative approach to solving the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) theory of quarks and gluons.

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## Length scale

In physics, length scale is a particular length or distance determined with the precision of one order (or a few orders) of magnitude.

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## Local symmetry

In physics, a local symmetry is symmetry of some physical quantity, which smoothly depends on the point of the base manifold.

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## Lorentz group

In physics and mathematics, the Lorentz group is the group of all Lorentz transformations of Minkowski spacetime, the classical setting for all (nongravitational) physical phenomena.

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## Meson

In particle physics, mesons are hadronic subatomic particles composed of one quark and one antiquark, bound together by the strong interaction.

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## Metric signature

The signature of a metric tensor g (or equivalently, a real quadratic form thought of as a real symmetric bilinear form on a finite-dimensional vector space) is the number (counted with multiplicity) of positive, negative and zero eigenvalues of the real symmetric matrix of the metric tensor with respect to a basis.

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## Millennium Prize Problems

The Millennium Prize Problems are seven problems in mathematics that were stated by the Clay Mathematics Institute in 2000.

New!!: Quantum chromodynamics and Millennium Prize Problems ·

## Moo-Young Han

Moo-Young Han (born 1934) is a professor of physics at Duke University.

New!!: Quantum chromodynamics and Moo-Young Han ·

## Murray Gell-Mann

Murray Gell-Mann (born September 15, 1929) is an American physicist who received the 1969 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on the theory of elementary particles.

New!!: Quantum chromodynamics and Murray Gell-Mann ·

## Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model

In quantum field theory, the Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model (or more precisely: the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model) is a complicated effective theory of nucleons and mesons constructed from interacting Dirac fermions with chiral symmetry, paralleling the construction of Cooper pairs from electrons in the BCS theory of superconductivity.

New!!: Quantum chromodynamics and Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model ·

## Natural rubber

Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds plus water.

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## Neutron

The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, with no net electric charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton.

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## Nikolay Bogolyubov

Nikolay Nikolayevich Bogolyubov (Никола́й Никола́евич Боголю́бов; 21 August 1909 – 13 February 1992), also transliterated as Bogoliubov and Bogolubov, was a Soviet mathematician and theoretical physicist known for a significant contribution to quantum field theory, classical and quantum statistical mechanics, and to the theory of dynamical systems; a recipient of the Dirac Prize (1992).

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## Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Norwegian: Nobelprisen) is a set of annual international awards bestowed in a number of categories by Swedish and Norwegian committees in recognition of academic, cultural and/or scientific advances.

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## Nobel Prize in Physics

The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.

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## Non-perturbative

In mathematics and physics, a non-perturbative function or process is one that cannot be accurately described by perturbation theory.

New!!: Quantum chromodynamics and Non-perturbative ·

## Nucleon

In chemistry and physics, a nucleon is one of the particles that makes up the atomic nucleus.

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## Numerical sign problem

The numerical sign problem in applied mathematics refers to the difficulty of numerically evaluating the integral of a highly oscillatory function of a large number of variables.

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## Omega baryon

The Omega baryons are a family of subatomic hadron particles that are represented by the symbol and are either neutral or have a +2, +1 or −1 elementary charge.

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## Operator product expansion

In quantum field theory, the operator product expansion (OPE) is used as an axiom to define the product of fields as a sum over the same fields.

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## Oscar W. Greenberg

Oscar Wallace Greenberg (born February 18, 1932) is an American physicist and professor at University of Maryland, College Park.

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## Particle physics

Particle physics is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter (particles with mass) and radiation (massless particles).

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## Pauli exclusion principle

The Pauli exclusion principle is the quantum mechanical principle that states that two identical fermions (particles with half-integer spin) cannot occupy the same quantum state simultaneously.

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## Perturbation theory (quantum mechanics)

In quantum mechanics, perturbation theory is a set of approximation schemes directly related to mathematical perturbation for describing a complicated quantum system in terms of a simpler one.

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## Perturbative QCD

Perturbative QCD is a subfield of particle physics in which the theory of strong interactions, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), is studied by using the fact that the strong coupling constant \alpha_s is small in high energy or short distance interactions, thus allowing Perturbation theory techniques to be applied.

New!!: Quantum chromodynamics and Perturbative QCD ·

## Phase (matter)

In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.

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## Photon

No description.

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## Physical Review

Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.

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## Physical Review Letters

Physical Review Letters (PRL), established in 1958, is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that is published 52 times per year by the American Physical Society.

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## Pion

In particle physics, a pion (or a pi meson, denoted with the Greek letter pi) is any of three subatomic particles:,, and.

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## Polymer physics

Polymer physics is the field of physics that studies polymers, their fluctuations, mechanical properties, as well as the kinetics of reactions involving degradation and polymerisation of polymers and monomers respectively.

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## Pomeron

In physics, the pomeron is a Regge trajectory, a family of particles with increasing spin, postulated in 1961 to explain the slowly rising cross section of hadronic collisions at high energies.

New!!: Quantum chromodynamics and Pomeron ·

## Positron-Electron Tandem Ring Accelerator

The Positron-Electron Tandem Ring Accelerator (PETRA) is one of the particle accelerators at DESY in Hamburg, Germany.

New!!: Quantum chromodynamics and Positron-Electron Tandem Ring Accelerator ·

## Projection (linear algebra)

In linear algebra and functional analysis, a projection is a linear transformation P from a vector space to itself such that.

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## Proton

| magnetic_moment.

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## QCD matter

Quark matter or QCD matter refers to any of a number of theorized phases of matter whose degrees of freedom include quarks and gluons.

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## QCD vacuum

The QCD vacuum is the vacuum state of quantum chromodynamics (QCD).

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## QCDOC

The QCDOC, Quantum ChromoDynamics On a Chip, is a supercomputer technology focusing on using relatively cheap low power processing elements to produce a massively parallel machine.

New!!: Quantum chromodynamics and QCDOC ·

## Quantum chromodynamics

In theoretical physics, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of strong interactions, a fundamental force describing the interactions between quarks and gluons which make up hadrons such as the proton, neutron and pion.

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## Quantum electrodynamics

In particle physics, quantum electrodynamics (QED) is the relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics.

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## Quantum field theory

In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is a theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics.

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## Quantum gauge theory

In quantum physics, in order to quantize a gauge theory, like for example Yang-Mills theory, Chern-Simons or BF model, one method is to perform a gauge fixing.

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## Quark

A quark is an elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.

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## Quark model

In particle physics, the quark model is a classification scheme for hadrons in terms of their valence quarks—the quarks and antiquarks which give rise to the quantum numbers of the hadrons.

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## Quark–gluon plasma

A quark–gluon plasma (QGP) or quark soup is a state of matter in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) which is hypothesized to exist at extremely high temperature, density, or both temperature and density.

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## Richard Feynman

Richard Phillips Feynman, (May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) was an American theoretical physicist known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model.

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## S-matrix theory

S-matrix theory was a proposal for replacing local quantum field theory as the basic principle of elementary particle physics.

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## Shoichi Sakata

Dr.

New!!: Quantum chromodynamics and Shoichi Sakata ·

## Singlet state

In quantum mechanics, a singlet is a quantum state of a system with a spin of 0, such that there is only one allowed value of the spin component, 0.

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## SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, originally named Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, is a United States Department of Energy National Laboratory operated by Stanford University under the programmatic direction of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science and located in Menlo Park, California.

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## Soft-collinear effective theory

In quantum field theory, soft-collinear effective theory (or SCET) is a theoretical framework for doing calculations that involve interacting particles carrying widely different energies.

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## Spacetime

In physics, spacetime (also space–time, space time or space–time continuum) is any mathematical model that combines space and time into a single interwoven continuum.

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## Spark chamber

A spark chamber is a particle detector, a device used in particle physics for detecting electrically charged particles.

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## Special unitary group

In mathematics, the special unitary group of degree, denoted, is the Lie group of unitary matrices with determinant 1 (i.e., real-valued determinant, not complex as for general unitary matrices).

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## Spin (physics)

In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.

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## Spin glass

A spin glass is a disordered magnet, where the magnetic spin of the component atoms (the orientation of the north and south magnetic poles in three-dimensional space) are not aligned in a regular pattern. The term "glass" comes from an analogy between the magnetic disorder in a spin glass and the positional disorder of a conventional, chemical glass, e.g., a window glass. In window glass or any amorphous solid the atomic bond structure is highly irregular; in contrast, a crystal has a uniform pattern of atomic bonds. In ferromagnetic solid, magnetic spins all align in the same direction; this would be analogous to a crystal. The individual atomic bonds in a spin glass are a mixture of roughly equal numbers of ferromagnetic bonds (where neighbors have the same orientation) and antiferromagnetic bonds (where neighbors have exactly the opposite orientation: north and south poles are flipped 180 degrees). These patterns of aligned and misaligned atomic magnets create what are known as frustrated interactions - distortions in the geometry of atomic bonds compared to what would be seen in a regular, fully aligned solid. They may also create situations where more than one geometric arrangement of atoms is stable. Spin glasses and the complex internal structures that arise within them are termed "metastable" because they are "stuck" in stable configurations other than the lowest-energy configuration (which would be aligned and ferromagnetic). The mathematical complexity of these structures are difficult but fruitful to study experimentally or in simulations, with applications to artificial neural networks in computer science in addition to physics, chemistry, and materials science.

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## Spontaneous symmetry breaking

Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a mode of realization of symmetry breaking in a physical system, where the underlying laws are invariant under a symmetry transformation, but the system as a whole changes under such transformations, in contrast to explicit symmetry breaking.

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## Standard Model

The Standard Model of particle physics is a theory concerning the electromagnetic, weak, and strong nuclear interactions, as well as classifying all the subatomic particles known.

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## Strange quark

The strange quark or s quark (from its symbol, s) is the third-lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle.

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## Strangeness

In particle physics, strangeness ("S") is a property of particles, expressed as a quantum number, for describing decay of particles in strong and electromagnetic reactions, which occur in a short period of time.

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## String theory

In physics, string theory is a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings.

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## Strong interaction

In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force, nuclear strong force or colour force), one of the four fundamental interactions of nature, the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction and gravitation.

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## Structure constants

In group theory, a discipline within mathematics, the structure constants of a Lie group determine the commutation relations between its generators in the associated Lie algebra.

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## Supercomputer

A supercomputer is a computer with a high-level computational capacity compared to a general-purpose computer.

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## Symmetry in quantum mechanics

Symmetries in quantum mechanics describe features of spacetime and particles which are unchanged under some transformation, in the context of quantum mechanics, relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum field theory, with applications in the mathematical formulation of the standard model and condensed matter physics.

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## Theoretical physics

Theoretical physics is a branch of physics which employs mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena.

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## Three-jet event

In particle physics, a three-jet event is an event with many particles in final state that appear to be clustered in three jets.

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## Trieste

Trieste (Triestine Trièst; Slovene, Trst;Spezialortsrepertorium der österreichischen Länder. Bearbeiten auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Volkszälung vom 31. Dezember 1910, vol. 7: Österreichisch-Illyrisches Küstenland. 1918. Vienna: K. k. Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, pp. 1, 3. Triest) is a city and seaport in northeastern Italy.

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## Type-II superconductor

In superconductivity, a type-II superconductor is characterized by the formation of magnetic vortices in an applied magnetic field.

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## Unitarity gauge

In theoretical physics, the unitarity gauge or unitary gauge is a particular choice of a gauge fixing in a gauge theory with a spontaneous symmetry breaking.

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## Up quark

The up quark or u quark (symbol: u) is the lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle, and a major constituent of matter.

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## Vector boson

In particle physics, a vector boson is a boson with the spin equal to 1.

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## Weak interaction

In particle physics, the weak interaction is the mechanism responsible for the weak force or weak nuclear force, one of the four known fundamental interactions of nature, alongside the strong interaction, electromagnetism, and gravitation.

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## Weak isospin

In particle physics, weak isospin is a quantum number relating to the weak interaction, and parallels the idea of isospin under the strong interaction.

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## Werner Heisenberg

Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics.

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## Wilson loop

In gauge theory, a Wilson loop (named after Kenneth G. Wilson) is a gauge-invariant observable obtained from the holonomy of the gauge connection around a given loop.

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## Yoichiro Nambu

was a Japanese-born American physicist, a professor at the University of Chicago.

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## Yuval Ne'eman

Yuval Ne'eman (יובל נאמן, 14 May 1925 – 26 April 2006) was an Israeli theoretical physicist, military scientist, and politician.

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## 1/N expansion

In quantum field theory and statistical mechanics, the 1/N expansion (also known as the large-N expansion) is a particular perturbative analysis of quantum field theories with an internal symmetry group such as SO(N) or SU(N).

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## Redirects here:

Chromodynamic, Chromodynamics, Color field (quantum chromodynamics), Gluonics, QCD theory, Quantum Chromodynamics, Quantum chromodynamic, QuantumChromodynamics.

## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_chromodynamics