170 relations: Abelian group, Abrikosov vortex, Adjoint representation, AdS/CFT correspondence, AdS/QCD correspondence, Albert Tavkhelidze, Ancient Greek, Anomaly (physics), Asymptotic freedom, Atomic nucleus, Baryon number, Boris Struminsky, Boson, BRST quantization, Bubble chamber, CERN, Charge (physics), Chen-Ning Yang, Chiral model, Chiral perturbation theory, Chirality (physics), Classical electromagnetism, Clay Mathematics Institute, Color, Color charge, Color confinement, Color vision, David Gross, Deep inelastic scattering, Degrees of freedom (physics and chemistry), Delta baryon, Direct photon, Drell–Yan process, Dubna, Effective field theory, Eightfold Way (physics), Electromagnetic tensor, Electron, Elementary particle, Emil Artin, Entropic force, Entropy, Eugene Wigner, Faddeev–Popov ghost, Fermion, Fermionic condensate, Fermionic field, Feynman diagram, Finnegans Wake, Flavour (particle physics), ..., Force carrier, Form factor (quantum field theory), Frank Wilczek, Fundamental representation, Gamma matrices, Gauge boson, Gauge covariant derivative, Gauge theory, Gell-Mann–Nishijima formula, Geometrical frustration, George Zweig, Global symmetry, Glueball, Gluon, Gluon field, Gluon field strength tensor, Group (mathematics), Hadron, Harald Fritzsch, Heavy quark effective theory, Henry Holt and Company, Hugh David Politzer, Hypercharge, Instanton, Isospin, James Bjorken, James Joyce, Jet (particle physics), Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Kazuhiko Nishijima, Kenneth G. Wilson, Kramers–Wannier duality, Lagrangian (field theory), Large Electron–Positron Collider, Lattice QCD, Length scale, Local symmetry, Lorentz group, Mass–energy equivalence, Meson, Metric signature, Millennium Prize Problems, Moo-Young Han, Murray Gell-Mann, Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model, Natural rubber, Neutron, Nikolay Bogolyubov, Nobel Prize in Physics, Non-perturbative, Nuclear force, Nucleon, Numerical sign problem, Nuovo Cimento, Omega baryon, Operator product expansion, Oscar W. Greenberg, Particle physics, Parton (particle physics), Pauli exclusion principle, Perturbation theory (quantum mechanics), Perturbative QCD, Phase (matter), Photon, Physical Review, Physical Review Letters, Pion, Polymer physics, Pomeron, Positron-Electron Tandem Ring Accelerator, Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Projection (linear algebra), Proton, QCD matter, QCD vacuum, QCDOC, Quantum chromodynamics, Quantum electrodynamics, Quantum field theory, Quantum gauge theory, Quark, Quark model, Quark–gluon plasma, Richard Feynman, Robert Mills (physicist), S-matrix theory, Shoichi Sakata, Singlet state, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Soft-collinear effective theory, Spacetime, Spark chamber, Special unitary group, Spin (physics), Spin glass, Spontaneous symmetry breaking, Springer Science+Business Media, Standard Model, Strange quark, Strangeness, String theory, Strong interaction, Structure constants, Supercomputer, Symmetry in quantum mechanics, Theoretical physics, Three-jet event, Trieste, Type-II superconductor, Unitarity gauge, Up quark, Vector boson, Weak interaction, Weak isospin, Werner Heisenberg, Wilson loop, Yang–Mills theory, Yoichiro Nambu, Yuval Ne'eman, 1/N expansion. Expand index (120 more) » « Shrink index
In abstract algebra, an abelian group, also called a commutative group, is a group in which the result of applying the group operation to two group elements does not depend on the order in which they are written.
In superconductivity, an Abrikosov vortex (also called a fluxon) is a vortex of supercurrent in a type-II superconductor theoretically predicted by Alexei Abrikosov in 1957.
In mathematics, the adjoint representation (or adjoint action) of a Lie group G is a way of representing the elements of the group as linear transformations of the group's Lie algebra, considered as a vector space.
In theoretical physics, the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence, sometimes called Maldacena duality or gauge/gravity duality, is a conjectured relationship between two kinds of physical theories.
In theoretical physics, the anti-de Sitter/quantum chromodynamics correspondence is a program to describe quantum chromodynamics (QCD) in terms of a dual gravitational theory, following the principles of the AdS/CFT correspondence in a setup where the quantum field theory is not a conformal field theory.
Albert Nikiforovich Tavkhelidze (Russian: Альберт Никифорович Тавхелидзе) (1930–2010) was President of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences (1986–2005).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
In quantum physics an anomaly or quantum anomaly is the failure of a symmetry of a theory's classical action to be a symmetry of any regularization of the full quantum theory.
In particle physics, asymptotic freedom is a property of some gauge theories that causes interactions between particles to become asymptotically weaker as the energy scale increases and the corresponding length scale decreases.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
In particle physics, the baryon number is a strictly conserved additive quantum number of a system.
Boris Vladimirovich Struminsky (Борис Владимирович Струминский; 14 August 1939 – 18 January 2003) was a Russian and Ukrainian physicist known for his contribution to theoretical elementary particle physics.
In quantum mechanics, a boson is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics.
In theoretical physics, the BRST formalism, or BRST quantization (where the BRST refers to Becchi, Rouet, Stora and Tyutin) denotes a relatively rigorous mathematical approach to quantizing a field theory with a gauge symmetry.
A bubble chamber is a vessel filled with a superheated transparent liquid (most often liquid hydrogen) used to detect electrically charged particles moving through it.
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.
In physics, a charge may refer to one of many different quantities, such as the electric charge in electromagnetism or the color charge in quantum chromodynamics.
Chen-Ning Yang or Yang Zhenning (born October 1, 1922) is a Chinese physicist who works on statistical mechanics and particle physics.
In nuclear physics, the chiral model, introduced by Feza Gürsey in 1960, is a phenomenological model describing effective interactions of mesons in the chiral limit (where the masses of the quarks go to zero), but without necessarily mentioning quarks at all.
Chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) is an effective field theory constructed with a Lagrangian consistent with the (approximate) chiral symmetry of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), as well as the other symmetries of parity and charge conjugation.
A chiral phenomenon is one that is not identical to its mirror image (see the article on mathematical chirality).
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Classical electromagnetism or classical electrodynamics is a branch of theoretical physics that studies the interactions between electric charges and currents using an extension of the classical Newtonian model.
The Clay Mathematics Institute (CMI) is a private, non-profit foundation, based in Peterborough, New Hampshire, United States.
Color (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or purple.
Color charge is a property of quarks and gluons that is related to the particles' strong interactions in the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD).
In quantum chromodynamics (QCD), color confinement, often simply called confinement, is the phenomenon that color charged particles (such as quarks and gluons) cannot be isolated, and therefore cannot be directly observed in normal conditions below the Hagedorn temperature of approximately 2 trillion kelvin (corresponding to energies of approximately 130–140 MeV per particle).
Color vision is the ability of an organism or machine to distinguish objects based on the wavelengths (or frequencies) of the light they reflect, emit, or transmit.
David Jonathan Gross (born February 19, 1941) is an American theoretical physicist and string theorist.
Deep inelastic scattering is the name given to a process used to probe the insides of hadrons (particularly the baryons, such as protons and neutrons), using electrons, muons and neutrinos.
In physics, a degree of freedom is an independent physical parameter in the formal description of the state of a physical system.
The Delta baryons (or Δ baryons, also called Delta resonances) are a family of subatomic particle made of three up or down quarks (u or d quarks).
Produced in hadronic collisions, a direct photon is any real photon which originates directly from an electromagnetic vertex in a quark-quark, quark-gluon or gluon-gluon scattering subprocess (as opposed to "indirect" photons which arise from the decays of fragmentation products).
The Drell–Yan process occurs in high energy hadron–hadron scattering.
Dubna (p) is a town in Moscow Oblast, Russia.
In physics, an effective field theory is a type of approximation, or effective theory, for an underlying physical theory, such as a quantum field theory or a statistical mechanics model.
In physics, the Eightfold Way is a theory organizing subatomic hadrons.
In electromagnetism, the electromagnetic tensor or electromagnetic field tensor (sometimes called the field strength tensor, Faraday tensor or Maxwell bivector) is a mathematical object that describes the electromagnetic field in spacetime.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle with no substructure, thus not composed of other particles.
Emil Artin (March 3, 1898 – December 20, 1962) was an Austrian mathematician of Armenian descent.
In physics, an entropic force acting in a system is a force resulting from the entire system's thermodynamical tendency to increase its entropy, rather than from a particular underlying microscopic force.
In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.
Eugene Paul "E.
In physics, Faddeev–Popov ghosts (also called Faddeev–Popov gauge ghosts or Faddeev–Popov ghost fields) are extraneous fields which are introduced into gauge quantum field theories to maintain the consistency of the path integral formulation.
In particle physics, a fermion is a particle that follows Fermi–Dirac statistics.
A fermionic condensate is a superfluid phase formed by fermionic particles at low temperatures.
In quantum field theory, a fermionic field is a quantum field whose quanta are fermions; that is, they obey Fermi–Dirac statistics.
In theoretical physics, Feynman diagrams are pictorial representations of the mathematical expressions describing the behavior of subatomic particles.
Finnegans Wake is a work of fiction by Irish writer James Joyce.
In particle physics, flavour or flavor refers to the species of an elementary particle.
In particle physics, force carriers or messenger particles or intermediate particles are particles that give rise to forces between other particles.
In elementary particle physics and mathematical physics, in particular in effective field theory, a form factor is a function that encapsulates the properties of a certain particle interaction without including all of the underlying physics, but instead, providing the momentum dependence of suitable matrix elements.
Frank Anthony Wilczek (born May 15, 1951) is an American theoretical physicist, mathematician and a Nobel laureate.
In representation theory of Lie groups and Lie algebras, a fundamental representation is an irreducible finite-dimensional representation of a semisimple Lie group or Lie algebra whose highest weight is a fundamental weight.
In mathematical physics, the gamma matrices, \, also known as the Dirac matrices, are a set of conventional matrices with specific anticommutation relations that ensure they generate a matrix representation of the Clifford algebra Cℓ1,3(R).
In particle physics, a gauge boson is a force carrier, a bosonic particle that carries any of the fundamental interactions of nature, commonly called forces.
The gauge covariant derivative is a variation of the covariant derivative used in general relativity.
In physics, a gauge theory is a type of field theory in which the Lagrangian is invariant under certain Lie groups of local transformations.
The Gell-Mann–Nishijima formula (sometimes known as the NNG formula) relates the baryon number B, the strangeness S, the isospin I3 of quarks and hadrons to the electric charge Q. It was originally given by Kazuhiko Nishijima and Tadao Nakano in 1953, and led to the proposal of strangeness as a concept, which Nishijima originally called "eta-charge" after the eta meson.
In condensed matter physics, the term geometrical frustration (or in short: frustration) refers to a phenomenon, where atoms tend to stick to non-trivial positions or where, on a regular crystal lattice, conflicting inter-atomic forces (each one favoring rather simple, but different structures) lead to quite complex structures.
George Zweig (born May 30, 1937) is a Russian-American physicist.
In physics, a global symmetry is a symmetry that holds at all points in the spacetime under consideration, as opposed to a local symmetry which varies from point to point.
In particle physics, a glueball (also gluonium, gluon-ball) is a hypothetical composite particle.
A gluon is an elementary particle that acts as the exchange particle (or gauge boson) for the strong force between quarks.
In theoretical particle physics, the gluon field is a four vector field characterizing the propagation of gluons in the strong interaction between quarks.
In theoretical particle physics, the gluon field strength tensor is a second order tensor field characterizing the gluon interaction between quarks.
In mathematics, a group is an algebraic structure consisting of a set of elements equipped with an operation that combines any two elements to form a third element and that satisfies four conditions called the group axioms, namely closure, associativity, identity and invertibility.
In particle physics, a hadron (ἁδρός, hadrós, "stout, thick") is a composite particle made of quarks held together by the strong force in a similar way as molecules are held together by the electromagnetic force.
Harald Fritzsch (born 10 February 1943 in Zwickau, Germany) is a German theoretical physicist known for his contributions to the theory of quarks, the development of Quantum Chromodynamics and the great unification of the standard model of particle physics.
In quantum chromodynamics, heavy quark effective theory (HQET) is an effective field theory describing the physics of heavy (that is, of mass far greater than the QCD scale) quarks.
Henry Holt and Company is an American book publishing company based in New York City.
Hugh David Politzer (born August 31, 1949) is an American theoretical physicist at the California Institute of Technology.
In particle physics, the hypercharge (from '''hyper'''onic + charge) Y of a particle is related to the strong interaction, and is distinct from the similarly named weak hypercharge, which has an analogous role in the electroweak interaction.
An instanton (or pseudoparticle) is a notion appearing in theoretical and mathematical physics.
In nuclear physics and particle physics, isospin is a quantum number related to the strong interaction.
James Daniel "BJ" Bjorken (born 1934) is an American theoretical physicist.
James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish novelist, short story writer, and poet.
A jet is a narrow cone of hadrons and other particles produced by the hadronization of a quark or gluon in a particle physics or heavy ion experiment.
The Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Объединённый институт ядерных исследований, ОИЯИ), in Dubna, Moscow Oblast (110 km north of Moscow), Russia, is an international research center for nuclear sciences, with 5500 staff members, 1200 researchers including 1000 Ph.Ds from eighteen member states (including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus and Kazakhstan).
(4 October 1926 – 15 February 2009) was a Japanese physicist who made significant contributions to particle physics.
Kenneth Geddes "Ken" Wilson (June 8, 1936 – June 15, 2013) was an American theoretical physicist and a pioneer in leveraging computers for studying particle physics.
The Kramers–Wannier duality is a symmetry in statistical physics.
Lagrangian field theory is a formalism in classical field theory.
The Large Electron–Positron Collider (LEP) was one of the largest particle accelerators ever constructed.
Lattice QCD is a well-established non-perturbative approach to solving the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) theory of quarks and gluons.
In physics, length scale is a particular length or distance determined with the precision of one order of magnitude.
In physics, a local symmetry is symmetry of some physical quantity, which smoothly depends on the point of the base manifold.
In physics and mathematics, the Lorentz group is the group of all Lorentz transformations of Minkowski spacetime, the classical and quantum setting for all (nongravitational) physical phenomena.
In physics, mass–energy equivalence states that anything having mass has an equivalent amount of energy and vice versa, with these fundamental quantities directly relating to one another by Albert Einstein's famous formula: E.
In particle physics, mesons are hadronic subatomic particles composed of one quark and one antiquark, bound together by strong interactions.
The signature of a metric tensor g (or equivalently, a real quadratic form thought of as a real symmetric bilinear form on a finite-dimensional vector space) is the number (counted with multiplicity) of positive and zero eigenvalues of the real symmetric matrix of the metric tensor with respect to a basis.
The Millennium Prize Problems are seven problems in mathematics that were stated by the Clay Mathematics Institute in 2000.
Moo-Young Han (born 1934, died 2016) was a professor of physics at Duke University.
Murray Gell-Mann (born September 15, 1929) is an American physicist who received the 1969 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on the theory of elementary particles.
In quantum field theory, the Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model (or more precisely: the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model) is a complicated effective theory of nucleons and mesons constructed from interacting Dirac fermions with chiral symmetry, paralleling the construction of Cooper pairs from electrons in the BCS theory of superconductivity.
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Nikolay Nikolayevich Bogolyubov (Никола́й Никола́евич Боголю́бов; 21 August 1909 – 13 February 1992), also transliterated as Bogoliubov and Bogolubov, was a Soviet mathematician and theoretical physicist known for a significant contribution to quantum field theory, classical and quantum statistical mechanics, and the theory of dynamical systems; He was the recipient of the 1992 Dirac Prize.
The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.
In mathematics and physics, a non-perturbative function or process is one that cannot be accurately described by perturbation theory.
The nuclear force (or nucleon–nucleon interaction or residual strong force) is a force that acts between the protons and neutrons of atoms.
In chemistry and physics, a nucleon is either a proton or a neutron, considered in its role as a component of an atomic nucleus.
In applied mathematics, the numerical sign problem is the problem of numerically evaluating the integral of a highly oscillatory function of a large number of variables.
Nuovo Cimento is a series of peer-reviewed scientific journals of physics.
The omega baryons are a family of subatomic hadron (a baryon) particles that are represented by the symbol and are either neutral or have a +2, +1 or −1 elementary charge.
In quantum field theory, the operator product expansion (OPE) is used as an axiom to define the product of fields as a sum over the same fields.
Oscar Wallace Greenberg (born February 18, 1932) is an American physicist and professor at University of Maryland College of Computer, Mathematical, and Natural Sciences.
Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.
In particle physics, the parton model is a model of hadrons, such as protons and neutrons, proposed by Richard Feynman.
The Pauli exclusion principle is the quantum mechanical principle which states that two or more identical fermions (particles with half-integer spin) cannot occupy the same quantum state within a quantum system simultaneously.
In quantum mechanics, perturbation theory is a set of approximation schemes directly related to mathematical perturbation for describing a complicated quantum system in terms of a simpler one.
Perturbative QCD is a subfield of particle physics in which the theory of strong interactions, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), is studied by using the fact that the strong coupling constant \alpha_s is small in high energy or short distance interactions, thus allowing perturbation theory techniques to be applied.
In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.
Physical Review Letters (PRL), established in 1958, is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that is published 52 times per year by the American Physical Society.
In particle physics, a pion (or a pi meson, denoted with the Greek letter pi) is any of three subatomic particles:,, and.
Polymer physics is the field of physics that studies polymers, their fluctuations, mechanical properties, as well as the kinetics of reactions involving degradation and polymerisation of polymers and monomers respectively.
In physics, the pomeron is a Regge trajectory — a family of particles with increasing spin — postulated in 1961 to explain the slowly rising cross section of hadronic collisions at high energies.
The Positron-Electron Tandem Ring Accelerator (PETRA) is one of the particle accelerators at DESY in Hamburg, Germany.
Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Physical Society of Japan.
In linear algebra and functional analysis, a projection is a linear transformation P from a vector space to itself such that.
Quark matter or QCD matter refers to any of a number of theorized phases of matter whose degrees of freedom include quarks and gluons.
Th Quantum Chromodynamic Vacuum or QCD vacuum is the vacuum state of quantum chromodynamics (QCD).
The QCDOC (quantum chromodynamics on a chip) is a supercomputer technology focusing on using relatively cheap low power processing elements to produce a massively parallel machine.
In theoretical physics, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction between quarks and gluons, the fundamental particles that make up composite hadrons such as the proton, neutron and pion.
In particle physics, quantum electrodynamics (QED) is the relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics.
In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is the theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics.
In quantum physics, in order to quantize a gauge theory, for example the Yang–Mills theory, Chern–Simons theory or the BF model, one method is to perform gauge fixing.
A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.
In particle physics, the quark model is a classification scheme for hadrons in terms of their valence quarks—the quarks and antiquarks which give rise to the quantum numbers of the hadrons.
A quark–gluon plasma (QGP) or quark soup is a state of matter in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) which exists at extremely high temperature and/or density.
Richard Phillips Feynman (May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) was an American theoretical physicist, known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model.
Robert Laurence Mills (April 15, 1927 – October 27, 1999) was a physicist, specializing in quantum field theory, the theory of alloys, and many-body theory.
S-matrix theory was a proposal for replacing local quantum field theory as the basic principle of elementary particle physics.
was a Japanese physicist who was internationally known for theoretical work on the subatomic particles.
In quantum mechanics, a singlet state usually refers to a system in which all electrons are paired.
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, originally named Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, is a United States Department of Energy National Laboratory operated by Stanford University under the programmatic direction of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science and located in Menlo Park, California.
In quantum field theory, soft-collinear effective theory (or SCET) is a theoretical framework for doing calculations that involve interacting particles carrying widely different energies.
In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum.
A spark chamber is a particle detector.
In mathematics, the special unitary group of degree, denoted, is the Lie group of unitary matrices with determinant 1.
In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.
A spin glass is a disordered magnet, where the magnetic spins of the component atoms (the orientation of the north and south magnetic poles in three-dimensional space) are not aligned in a regular pattern. The term "glass" comes from an analogy between the magnetic disorder in a spin glass and the positional disorder of a conventional, chemical glass, e.g., a window glass. In window glass or any amorphous solid the atomic bond structure is highly irregular; in contrast, a crystal has a uniform pattern of atomic bonds. In ferromagnetic solid, magnetic spins all align in the same direction; this would be analogous to a crystal. The individual atomic bonds in a spin glass are a mixture of roughly equal numbers of ferromagnetic bonds (where neighbors have the same orientation) and antiferromagnetic bonds (where neighbors have exactly the opposite orientation: north and south poles are flipped 180 degrees). These patterns of aligned and misaligned atomic magnets create what are known as frustrated interactions - distortions in the geometry of atomic bonds compared to what would be seen in a regular, fully aligned solid. They may also create situations where more than one geometric arrangement of atoms is stable. Spin glasses and the complex internal structures that arise within them are termed "metastable" because they are "stuck" in stable configurations other than the lowest-energy configuration (which would be aligned and ferromagnetic). The mathematical complexity of these structures is difficult but fruitful to study experimentally or in simulations, with applications to artificial neural networks in computer science, in addition to physics, chemistry, and materials science.
Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a spontaneous process of symmetry breaking, by which a physical system in a symmetric state ends up in an asymmetric state.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.
The strange quark or s quark (from its symbol, s) is the third lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle.
In particle physics, strangeness ("S") is a property of particles, expressed as a quantum number, for describing decay of particles in strong and electromagnetic interactions which occur in a short period of time.
In physics, string theory is a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings.
In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force or nuclear strong force), and is one of the four known fundamental interactions, with the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction, and gravitation.
In mathematics, the structure constants or structure coefficients of an algebra over a field are used to explicitly specify the product of two basis vectors in the algebra as a linear combination.
A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer.
Symmetries in quantum mechanics describe features of spacetime and particles which are unchanged under some transformation, in the context of quantum mechanics, relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum field theory, and with applications in the mathematical formulation of the standard model and condensed matter physics.
Theoretical physics is a branch of physics that employs mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena.
In particle physics, a three-jet event is an event with many particles in final state that appear to be clustered in three jets.
Trieste (Trst) is a city and a seaport in northeastern Italy.
In superconductivity, a type-II superconductor is characterized by the formation of magnetic vortices in an applied magnetic field.
In theoretical physics, the unitarity gauge or unitary gauge is a particular choice of a gauge fixing in a gauge theory with a spontaneous symmetry breaking.
The up quark or u quark (symbol: u) is the lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle, and a major constituent of matter.
In particle physics, a vector boson is a boson with the spin equal to 1.
In particle physics, the weak interaction (the weak force or weak nuclear force) is the mechanism of interaction between sub-atomic particles that causes radioactive decay and thus plays an essential role in nuclear fission.
In particle physics, weak isospin is a quantum number relating to the weak interaction, and parallels the idea of isospin under the strong interaction.
Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics.
In gauge theory, a Wilson loop (named after Kenneth G. Wilson) is a gauge-invariant observable obtained from the holonomy of the gauge connection around a given loop.
Yang–Mills theory is a gauge theory based on the SU(''N'') group, or more generally any compact, reductive Lie algebra.
was a Japanese-American physicist and professor at the University of Chicago.
Yuval Ne'eman (יובל נאמן, 14 May 1925 – 26 April 2006) was an Israeli theoretical physicist, military scientist, and politician.
In quantum field theory and statistical mechanics, the 1/N expansion (also known as the "large N" expansion) is a particular perturbative analysis of quantum field theories with an internal symmetry group such as SO(N) or SU(N).
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.