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# Quantum computing

Quantum computing is computing using quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement. 

## Adiabatic quantum computation

Adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) is a form of quantum computing which relies on the adiabatic theorem to do calculations and is closely related to, and may be regarded as a subclass of, quantum annealing.

## Advanced Encryption Standard

The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), also known by its original name Rijndael, is a specification for the encryption of electronic data established by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 2001.

## Algorithm

In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.

## Algorithmic efficiency

In computer science, algorithmic efficiency is a property of an algorithm which relates to the number of computational resources used by the algorithm.

## Aluminium

Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.

## Amplitude amplification

Amplitude amplification is a technique in quantum computing which generalizes the idea behind the Grover's search algorithm, and gives rise to a family of quantum algorithms.

## Anyon

In physics, an anyon is a type of quasiparticle that occurs only in ''two''-dimensional systems, with properties much less restricted than fermions and bosons.

## Application programming interface

In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building software.

## Atom

An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

## ♯P

In computational complexity theory, the complexity class ♯P (pronounced "number P" or, sometimes "sharp P" or "hash P") is the set of the counting problems associated with the decision problems in the set NP.

## Basis (linear algebra)

In mathematics, a set of elements (vectors) in a vector space V is called a basis, or a set of, if the vectors are linearly independent and every vector in the vector space is a linear combination of this set.

## BB84

BB84 is a quantum key distribution scheme developed by Charles Bennett and Gilles Brassard in 1984.

## Beam splitter

A beam splitter is an optical device that splits a beam of light in two.

## Binary number

In mathematics and digital electronics, a binary number is a number expressed in the base-2 numeral system or binary numeral system, which uses only two symbols: typically 0 (zero) and 1 (one).

## Bit

The bit (a portmanteau of binary digit) is a basic unit of information used in computing and digital communications.

## Bose–Einstein condensate

A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter of a dilute gas of bosons cooled to temperatures very close to absolute zero.

## Boson sampling

Boson sampling constitutes a restricted model of non-universal quantum computation introduced by S. Aaronson and A. Arkhipov.

## BPP (complexity)

In computational complexity theory, BPP, which stands for bounded-error probabilistic polynomial time is the class of decision problems solvable by a probabilistic Turing machine in polynomial time with an error probability bounded away from 1/2 for all instances.

## BQP

In computational complexity theory, BQP (bounded-error quantum polynomial time) is the class of decision problems solvable by a quantum computer in polynomial time, with an error probability of at most 1/3 for all instances.

## Bra–ket notation

In quantum mechanics, bra–ket notation is a standard notation for describing quantum states.

## Braid theory

In topology, a branch of mathematics, braid theory is an abstract geometric theory studying the everyday braid concept, and some generalizations.

## Cavity quantum electrodynamics

Cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity QED) is the study of the interaction between light confined in a reflective cavity and atoms or other particles, under conditions where the quantum nature of light photons is significant.

## Charles H. Bennett (computer scientist)

Charles Henry Bennett (b. 1943) is a physicist, information theorist and IBM Fellow at IBM Research.

## Chemical computer

A chemical computer, also called reaction-diffusion computer, BZ computer (stands for Belousov–Zhabotinsky computer) or gooware computer is an unconventional computer based on a semi-solid chemical "soup" where data are represented by varying concentrations of chemicals.

## Church–Turing thesis

In computability theory, the Church–Turing thesis (also known as computability thesis, the Turing–Church thesis, the Church–Turing conjecture, Church's thesis, Church's conjecture, and Turing's thesis) is a hypothesis about the nature of computable functions.

## Circulator

A circulator is a passive non-reciprocal three- or four-port device, in which a microwave or radio frequency signal entering any port is transmitted to the next port in rotation (only).

## Cluster state

In quantum information and quantum computing, a cluster state is a type of highly entangled state of multiple qubits.

## Coding theory

Coding theory is the study of the properties of codes and their respective fitness for specific applications.

## Collider

A collider is a type of particle accelerator involving directed beams of particles.

## Complex number

A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form, where and are real numbers, and is a solution of the equation.

## Complex plane

In mathematics, the complex plane or z-plane is a geometric representation of the complex numbers established by the real axis and the perpendicular imaginary axis.

## Computation

Computation is any type of calculation that includes both arithmetical and non-arithmetical steps and follows a well-defined model, for example an algorithm.

## Computer

A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.

## Computer memory

In computing, memory refers to the computer hardware integrated circuits that store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term "primary storage".

## Coordinate vector

In linear algebra, a coordinate vector is a representation of a vector as an ordered list of numbers that describes the vector in terms of a particular ordered basis.

## Counterfactual Quantum Computation

Counterfactual Quantum Computation is a method of inferring the result of a computation without actually running a quantum computer otherwise capable of actively performing that computation.

## Cryptanalysis

Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, "hidden", and analýein, "to loosen" or "to untie") is the study of analyzing information systems in order to study the hidden aspects of the systems.

## Cryptography

Cryptography or cryptology (from κρυπτός|translit.

## D-Wave Systems

D-Wave Systems, Inc. is a quantum computing company, based in Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.

## D-Wave Two

D-Wave Two (project code name Vesuvius) is the second commercially available quantum computer, and the successor to the first commercially available quantum computer, D-Wave One.

## David Deutsch

David Elieser Deutsch (born 18 May 1953) is an Israeli-born British physicist at the University of Oxford.

## David DiVincenzo

David P. DiVincenzo (born 1959) is an American theoretical physicist.

## David J. Wineland

David Jeffrey Wineland (born February 24, 1944) is an American Nobel-laureate physicist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) physics laboratory.

## De Broglie–Bohm theory

The de Broglie–Bohm theory, also known as the pilot wave theory, Bohmian mechanics, Bohm's interpretation, and the causal interpretation, is an interpretation of quantum mechanics.

## Delft University of Technology

Delft University of Technology (Technische Universiteit Delft) also known as TU Delft, is the largest and oldest Dutch public technological university, located in Delft, Netherlands.

## Deutsch–Jozsa algorithm

The Deutsch–Jozsa algorithm is a quantum algorithm, proposed by David Deutsch and Richard Jozsa in 1992 with improvements by Richard Cleve, Artur Ekert, Chiara Macchiavello, and Michele Mosca in 1998.

## Diffie–Hellman key exchange

Diffie–Hellman key exchange (DH)Synonyms of Diffie–Hellman key exchange include.

## Digital electronic computer

In computer science, a digital electronic computer is a computer machine which is both an electronic computer and a digital computer.

## Dihedral group

In mathematics, a dihedral group is the group of symmetries of a regular polygon, which includes rotations and reflections.

## Discrete logarithm

In the mathematics of the real numbers, the logarithm logb a is a number x such that, for given numbers a and b. Analogously, in any group G, powers bk can be defined for all integers k, and the discrete logarithm logb a is an integer k such that.

## DiVincenzo's criteria

The DiVincenzo criteria are a list of conditions that are necessary for constructing a quantum computer proposed by the theoretical physicist David P. DiVincenzo in his 2000 paper "The Physical Implementation of Quantum Computation".

## DNA computing

DNA computing is a branch of computing which uses DNA, biochemistry, and molecular biology hardware, instead of the traditional silicon-based computer technologies.

## Dopant

A dopant, also called a doping agent, is a trace impurity element that is inserted into a substance (in very low concentrations) to alter the electrical or optical properties of the substance.

## Dynamical simulation

Dynamical simulation, in computational physics, is the simulation of systems of objects that are free to move, usually in three dimensions according to Newton's laws of dynamics, or approximations thereof.

## Edward Snowden

Edward Joseph Snowden (born June 21, 1983) is an American computer professional, former Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) employee, and former contractor for the United States government who copied and leaked classified information from the National Security Agency (NSA) in 2013 without authorization.

## Eight-dimensional space

In mathematics, a sequence of n real numbers can be understood as a location in n-dimensional space.

## Electron donor

An electron donor is a chemical entity that donates electrons to another compound.

## Electron paramagnetic resonance

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) or electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is a method for studying materials with unpaired electrons.

## Electronic quantum holography

Electronic quantum holography is an information storage technology which can encode and read out data at unprecedented density.

## Elliptic-curve Diffie–Hellman

Elliptic-curve Diffie–Hellman (ECDH) is an anonymous key agreement protocol that allows two parties, each having an elliptic-curve public–private key pair, to establish a shared secret over an insecure channel.

## Encryption

In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot.

## Endohedral fullerene

Endohedral fullerenes, also called endofullerenes, are fullerenes that have additional atoms, ions, or clusters enclosed within their inner spheres.

## ETH Zurich

ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich; Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich) is a science, technology, engineering and mathematics STEM university in the city of Zürich, Switzerland.

## Euclidean distance

In mathematics, the Euclidean distance or Euclidean metric is the "ordinary" straight-line distance between two points in Euclidean space.

## Fullerene

A fullerene is a molecule of carbon in the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, tube, and many other shapes.

## Gilles Brassard

Gilles Brassard, is a faculty member of the Université de Montréal, where he has been a Full Professor since 1988 and Canada Research Chair since 2001.

## Google

Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.

## Grover's algorithm

Grover's algorithm is a quantum algorithm that finds with high probability the unique input to a black box function that produces a particular output value, using just O(\sqrt) evaluations of the function, where N is the size of the function's domain.

## Halting problem

In computability theory, the halting problem is the problem of determining, from a description of an arbitrary computer program and an input, whether the program will finish running (i.e., halt) or continue to run forever.

## Hamiltonian (quantum mechanics)

In quantum mechanics, a Hamiltonian is an operator corresponding to the total energy of the system in most of the cases.

## Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

## Helium

Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.

## Hidden subgroup problem

The hidden subgroup problem (HSP) is a topic of research in mathematics and theoretical computer science.

## Holographic principle

The holographic principle is a principle of string theories and a supposed property of quantum gravity that states that the description of a volume of space can be thought of as encoded on a lower-dimensional boundary to the region—preferably a light-like boundary like a gravitational horizon.

## IBM

The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.

## IBM Q Experience

The IBM Q Experience is an online platform that gives users in the general public access to a set of IBM’s prototype quantum processors via the Cloud, an online internet forum for discussing quantum computing relevant topics, a set of tutorials on how to program the IBM Q devices, and other educational material about quantum computing.

## IBM Research

IBM Research is IBM's research and development division.

## Integer factorization

In number theory, integer factorization is the decomposition of a composite number into a product of smaller integers.

## Integrated circuit

An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.

## Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity

* The Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) is an organization within the Office of the Director of National Intelligence responsible for leading research to overcome difficult challenges relevant to the United States Intelligence Community.

## International Journal of Theoretical Physics

The International Journal of Theoretical Physics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of physics published by Springer Science+Business Media since 1968.

## Ion trap

An ion trap is a combination of electric or magnetic fields used to capture charged particles, often in a system isolated from an external environment.

## Iowa State University

Iowa State University of Science and Technology, generally referred to as Iowa State, is a public flagship land-grant and space-grant research university located in Ames, Iowa, United States.

## John Preskill

John Phillip Preskill (born January 19, 1953) is an American theoretical physicist and the Richard P. Feynman Professor of Theoretical Physics at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

## Jones polynomial

In the mathematical field of knot theory, the Jones polynomial is a knot polynomial discovered by Vaughan Jones in 1984.

## Josephson effect

The Josephson effect is the phenomenon of supercurrent—i.e. a current that flows indefinitely long without any voltage applied—across a device known as a Josephson junction (JJ), which consists of two superconductors coupled by a weak link.

## Kane quantum computer

The Kane quantum computer is a proposal for a scalable quantum computer proposed by Bruce Kane in 1998,Kane, B.E. (1998)"", Nature, 393, p133 who was then at the University of New South Wales.

## Lattice-based cryptography

Lattice-based cryptography is the generic term for constructions of cryptographic primitives that involve lattices, either in the construction itself or in the security proof.

## Light

Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

## Linear optical quantum computing

Linear Optical Quantum Computing or Linear Optics Quantum Computation (LOQC) is a paradigm of quantum computation, allowing (under certain conditions, described below) universal quantum computation.

## List of emerging technologies

Emerging technologies are those technical innovations which represent progressive developments within a field for competitive advantage.

## List of quantum key distribution protocols

Quantum key distribution protocols are used in quantum key distribution.

## List of quantum processors

This list contains quantum processor chips.

## Lockheed Martin

Lockheed Martin is an American global aerospace, defense, security and advanced technologies company with worldwide interests.

## Loop quantum gravity

Loop quantum gravity (LQG) is a theory of quantum gravity, merging quantum mechanics and general relativity.

## Loss–DiVincenzo quantum computer

The Loss–DiVincenzo quantum computer (or spin-qubit quantum computer) is a scalable semiconductor-based quantum computer proposed by Daniel Loss and David P. DiVincenzo in 1997.

## M-theory

M-theory is a theory in physics that unifies all consistent versions of superstring theory.

## Macroscopic scale

The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visible almost practically with the naked eye, without magnifying optical instruments.

## Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.

## Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

## McEliece cryptosystem

In cryptography, the McEliece cryptosystem is an asymmetric encryption algorithm developed in 1978 by Robert McEliece.

## Measurement in quantum mechanics

The framework of quantum mechanics requires a careful definition of measurement.

## Michael Nielsen

Michael Aaron Nielsen (born January 4, 1974) is a quantum physicist, science writer, and computer programming researcher living in San Francisco.

## Microsoft

Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.

## MIT Technology Review

MIT Technology Review is a magazine published by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

## Molecule-based magnets

Molecule-based magnets are a class of materials capable of displaying ferromagnetism and other more complex magnetic phenomena.

## Moscow

Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.

## NASA

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

## National Security Agency

The National Security Agency (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence.

## Natural computing

Natural computing,G.Rozenberg, T.Back, J.Kok, Editors, Handbook of Natural Computing, Springer Verlag, 2012A.Brabazon, M.O'Neill, S.McGarraghy.

## Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

## New Scientist

New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.

## Newsweek

Newsweek is an American weekly magazine founded in 1933.

## Nitrogen-vacancy center

The nitrogen-vacancy center (N-V center) is one of numerous point defects in diamond.

## Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.

## Non-deterministic Turing machine

In theoretical computer science, a Turing machine is a theoretical machine that is used in thought experiments to examine the abilities and limitations of computers.

## Normal mode

A normal mode of an oscillating system is a pattern of motion in which all parts of the system move sinusoidally with the same frequency and with a fixed phase relation.

## NP-completeness

In computational complexity theory, an NP-complete decision problem is one belonging to both the NP and the NP-hard complexity classes.

## Nuclear magnetic resonance

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.

## Nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computer

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) quantum computing is one of the several proposed approaches for constructing a quantum computer, that uses the spin states of nuclei within molecules as qubits.

## One-way quantum computer

The one-way or measurement based quantum computer (MBQC) is a method of quantum computing that first prepares an entangled resource state, usually a cluster state or graph state, then performs single qubit measurements on it.

## Optical computing

Optical or photonic computing uses photons produced by lasers or diodes for computation.

## Optical fiber

An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.

## Optical lattice

An optical lattice is formed by the interference of counter-propagating laser beams, creating a spatially periodic polarization pattern.

## Orthogonality

In mathematics, orthogonality is the generalization of the notion of perpendicularity to the linear algebra of bilinear forms.

## P (complexity)

In computational complexity theory, P, also known as PTIME or DTIME(nO(1)), is a fundamental complexity class.

## Password cracking

In cryptanalysis and computer security, password cracking is the process of recovering passwords from data that have been stored in or transmitted by a computer system.

## Paul Benioff

Paul A. Benioff is an American physicist who helped pioneer the field of quantum computing.

## Pauli matrices

In mathematical physics and mathematics, the Pauli matrices are a set of three complex matrices which are Hermitian and unitary.

## Pell's equation

Pell's equation (also called the Pell–Fermat equation) is any Diophantine equation of the form where n is a given positive nonsquare integer and integer solutions are sought for x and y. In Cartesian coordinates, the equation has the form of a hyperbola; solutions occur wherever the curve passes through a point whose x and y coordinates are both integers, such as the trivial solution with x.

## Phase shift module

A phase shift module is a microwave network module which provides a controllable phase shift of the RF signal.

## Phenomenon

A phenomenon (Greek: φαινόμενον, phainómenon, from the verb phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural phenomena) is any thing which manifests itself.

## Phosphorus

Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.

## Photolithography

Photolithography, also termed optical lithography or UV lithography, is a process used in microfabrication to pattern parts of a thin film or the bulk of a substrate.

## Polariton

In physics, polaritons are quasiparticles resulting from strong coupling of electromagnetic waves with an electric or magnetic dipole-carrying excitation.

## Post-quantum cryptography

Post-quantum cryptography (sometimes referred to as quantum-proof, quantum-safe or quantum-resistant) refers to cryptographic algorithms (usually public-key algorithms) that are thought to be secure against an attack by a quantum computer.

## Prime number

A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that cannot be formed by multiplying two smaller natural numbers.

## Probabilistic Turing machine

In computability theory, a probabilistic Turing machine is a non-deterministic Turing machine which chooses between the available transitions at each point according to some probability distribution.

## Probability distribution

In probability theory and statistics, a probability distribution is a mathematical function that provides the probabilities of occurrence of different possible outcomes in an experiment.

## Problem of time

In theoretical physics, the problem of time is a conceptual conflict between general relativity and quantum mechanics in that quantum mechanics regards the flow of time as universal and absolute, whereas general relativity regards the flow of time as malleable and relative.

## Processor register

In computer architecture, a processor register is a quickly accessible location available to a computer's central processing unit (CPU).

## PSPACE

In computational complexity theory, PSPACE is the set of all decision problems that can be solved by a Turing machine using a polynomial amount of space.

## Public-key cryptography

Public-key cryptography, or asymmetric cryptography, is any cryptographic system that uses pairs of keys: public keys which may be disseminated widely, and private keys which are known only to the owner.

## Pulse shaping

In electronics and telecommunications, pulse shaping is the process of changing the waveform of transmitted pulses.

## Quantum algorithm

In quantum computing, a quantum algorithm is an algorithm which runs on a realistic model of quantum computation, the most commonly used model being the quantum circuit model of computation.

## Quantum annealing

Quantum annealing (QA) is a metaheuristic for finding the global minimum of a given objective function over a given set of candidate solutions (candidate states), by a process using quantum fluctuations.

## Quantum Artificial Intelligence Lab

The Quantum Artificial Intelligence Lab (also called the Quantum AI Lab or QuAIL) is a joint initiative of NASA, Universities Space Research Association, and Google (specifically, Google Research) whose goal is to pioneer research on how quantum computing might help with machine learning and other difficult computer science problems.

## Quantum bus

A quantum bus is a device which can be used to store or transfer information between independent qubits in a quantum computer, or combine two qubits into a superposition.

## Quantum circuit

In quantum information theory, a quantum circuit is a model for quantum computation in which a computation is a sequence of quantum gates, which are reversible transformations on a quantum mechanical analog of an n-bit register.

## Quantum cognition

Quantum cognition is an emerging field which applies the mathematical formalism of quantum theory to model cognitive phenomena such as information processing by the human brain, language, decision making, human memory, concepts and conceptual reasoning, human judgment, and perception.

## Quantum Computation and Quantum Information (book)

Quantum Computation and Quantum Information is a textbook about quantum information science written by Michael Nielsen and Isaac Chuang, regarded as a standard text on the subject.

## Quantum cryptography

Quantum cryptography is the science of exploiting quantum mechanical properties to perform cryptographic tasks.

## Quantum decoherence

Quantum decoherence is the loss of quantum coherence.

## Quantum dot

Quantum dots (QD) are very small semiconductor particles, only several nanometres in size, so small that their optical and electronic properties differ from those of larger particles.

## Quantum entanglement

Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon which occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated, interact, or share spatial proximity in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently of the state of the other(s), even when the particles are separated by a large distance—instead, a quantum state must be described for the system as a whole.

## Quantum error correction

Quantum error correction (QEC) is used in quantum computing to protect quantum information from errors due to decoherence and other quantum noise.

## Quantum Fourier transform

In quantum computing, the quantum Fourier transform (for short: QFT) is a linear transformation on quantum bits, and is the quantum analogue of the discrete Fourier transform.

## Quantum gravity

Quantum gravity (QG) is a field of theoretical physics that seeks to describe gravity according to the principles of quantum mechanics, and where quantum effects cannot be ignored, such as near compact astrophysical objects where the effects of gravity are strong.

## Quantum logic gate

In quantum computing and specifically the quantum circuit model of computation, a quantum logic gate (or simply quantum gate) is a basic quantum circuit operating on a small number of qubits.

## Quantum machine learning

Quantum machine learning is an emerging interdisciplinary research area at the intersection of quantum physics and machine learning.

## Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

## Quantum optics

Quantum optics (QO) is a field of research that uses semi-classical and quantum-mechanical physics to investigate phenomena involving light and its interactions with matter at submicroscopic levels.

## Quantum simulator

Quantum simulators permit the study of quantum systems that are difficult to study in the laboratory and impossible to model with a supercomputer.

## Quantum superposition

Quantum superposition is a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics.

## Quantum teleportation

Quantum teleportation is a process by which quantum information (e.g. the exact state of an atom or photon) can be transmitted (exactly, in principle) from one location to another, with the help of classical communication and previously shared quantum entanglement between the sending and receiving location.

## Quantum threshold theorem

In quantum computing, the (quantum) threshold theorem (or quantum fault-tolerance theorem), proved by Michael Ben-Or and Dorit Aharonov (along with other groups), states that a quantum computer with a physical error rate below a certain threshold can, through application of Quantum error correction schemes, suppress the logical error rate to arbitrarily low levels.

## Quantum Turing machine

A quantum Turing machine (QTM), also a universal quantum computer, is an abstract machine used to model the effect of a quantum computer.

## Qubit

In quantum computing, a qubit or quantum bit (sometimes qbit) is a unit of quantum information—the quantum analogue of the classical binary bit.

## Randomized algorithm

A randomized algorithm is an algorithm that employs a degree of randomness as part of its logic.

## Reversible computing

Reversible computing is a model of computing where the computational process to some extent is reversible, i.e., time-invertible.

## Reviews of Modern Physics

Reviews of Modern Physics is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Physical Society.

## Richard Feynman

Richard Phillips Feynman (May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) was an American theoretical physicist, known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model.

## RSA (cryptosystem)

RSA (Rivest–Shamir–Adleman) is one of the first public-key cryptosystems and is widely used for secure data transmission.

## Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

## Scientific American

Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.

## Scott Aaronson

Scott Joel Aaronson (born May 21, 1981) is an American theoretical computer scientist and David J. Bruton Jr.

## Serge Haroche

Serge Haroche (born 11 September 1944) is a French physicist who was awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize for Physics jointly with David J. Wineland for "ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems", a study of the particle of light, the photon.

## Shor's algorithm

Shor's algorithm, named after mathematician Peter Shor, is a quantum algorithm (an algorithm that runs on a quantum computer) for integer factorization formulated in 1994.

## SIAM Journal on Computing

The SIAM Journal on Computing is a scientific journal focusing on the mathematical and formal aspects of computer science.

## Silicon

Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.

## Simon's problem

In computational complexity theory and quantum computing, Simon's problem is a computational problem that can be solved exponentially faster on a quantum computer than on a classical (or traditional) computer.

## Soliton

In mathematics and physics, a soliton is a self-reinforcing solitary wave packet that maintains its shape while it propagates at a constant velocity.

## Spacetime

In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum.

## Spin (physics)

In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.

## Spin-½

In quantum mechanics, spin is an intrinsic property of all elementary particles.

## Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.

## Stochastic matrix

In mathematics, a stochastic matrix (also termed probability matrix, transition matrix, substitution matrix, or Markov matrix) is a square matrix used to describe the transitions of a Markov chain.

## Superconducting quantum computing

Superconducting quantum computing is an implementation of a quantum computer in superconducting electronic circuits.

## Superconductivity

Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.

## Symmetric-key algorithm

Symmetric-key algorithms are algorithms for cryptography that use the same cryptographic keys for both encryption of plaintext and decryption of ciphertext.

## Taxicab geometry

A taxicab geometry is a form of geometry in which the usual distance function or metric of Euclidean geometry is replaced by a new metric in which the distance between two points is the sum of the absolute differences of their Cartesian coordinates.

## The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

## Theoretical computer science

Theoretical computer science, or TCS, is a subset of general computer science and mathematics that focuses on more mathematical topics of computing and includes the theory of computation.

## There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom

"There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom" was a lecture given by physicist Richard Feynman at an American Physical Society meeting at Caltech on December 29, 1959.

## Time complexity

In computer science, the time complexity is the computational complexity that describes the amount of time it takes to run an algorithm.

## Timeline of quantum computing

This is a timeline of quantum computing.

## Topological insulator

A topological insulator is a material with non-trivial symmetry-protected topological order that behaves as an insulator in its interior but whose surface contains conducting states, meaning that electrons can only move along the surface of the material.

## Topological quantum computer

A topological quantum computer is a theoretical quantum computer that employs two-dimensional quasiparticles called anyons, whose world lines pass around one another to form braids in a three-dimensional spacetime (i.e., one temporal plus two spatial dimensions).

## Transistor

A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.

## Trapped ion quantum computer

A trapped ion quantum computer is one proposed approach to a large-scale quantum computer.

## Triple DES

In cryptography, Triple DES (3DES), officially the Triple Data Encryption Algorithm (TDEA or Triple DEA), is a symmetric-key block cipher, which applies the DES cipher algorithm three times to each data block.

## Turing machine

A Turing machine is a mathematical model of computation that defines an abstract machine, which manipulates symbols on a strip of tape according to a table of rules.

## Undecidable problem

In computability theory and computational complexity theory, an undecidable problem is a decision problem for which it is known to be impossible to construct a single algorithm that always leads to a correct yes-or-no answer.

## Unit vector

In mathematics, a unit vector in a normed vector space is a vector (often a spatial vector) of length 1.

## Unitary matrix

In mathematics, a complex square matrix is unitary if its conjugate transpose is also its inverse—that is, if where is the identity matrix.

## University of Basel

The University of Basel (German: Universität Basel) is located in Basel, Switzerland.

## University of Bristol

The University of Bristol (simply referred to as Bristol University and abbreviated as Bris. in post-nominal letters, or UoB) is a red brick research university located in Bristol, United Kingdom.

## University of California, Santa Barbara

The University of California, Santa Barbara (commonly referred to as UC Santa Barbara or UCSB) is a public research university and one of the 10 campuses of the University of California system.

## University of Maryland, College Park

The University of Maryland, College Park (commonly referred to as the University of Maryland, UMD, or simply Maryland) is a public research university located in the city of College Park in Prince George's County, Maryland, approximately from the northeast border of Washington, D.C. Founded in 1856, the university is the flagship institution of the University System of Maryland.

## University of Michigan

The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.

## University of New South Wales

The University of New South Wales (UNSW; branded as UNSW Sydney) is an Australian public research university located in the Sydney suburb of Kensington.

## University of Science and Technology of China

The University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) is a national research university in Hefei, Anhui, China, under the direct leadership of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS).

## University of Southern California

The University of Southern California (USC or SC) is a private research university in Los Angeles, California.

## Valleytronics

Valleytronics is a portmanteau combining the terms valley and electronics.

## Von Neumann architecture

The von Neumann architecture, which is also known as the von Neumann model and Princeton architecture, is a computer architecture based on the 1945 description by the mathematician and physicist John von Neumann and others in the First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC.

## Yale University

Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.

## Yuri Manin

Yuri Ivanovitch Manin (Ю́рий Ива́нович Ма́нин; born 1937) is a Soviet/Russian/German CURRICULUM VITAE at Max-Planck-Institut für Mathematik website mathematician, known for work in algebraic geometry and diophantine geometry, and many expository works ranging from mathematical logic to theoretical physics.

## 1QBit

1QB Information Technologies, Inc. (1QBit) is a quantum computing software company, based in Vancouver, British Columbia.

## References

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