334 relations: Abdus Salam, Abraham–Lorentz force, AdS/CFT correspondence, Albert Einstein, Alexander Belavin, Alexander Markovich Polyakov, Alexander Zamolodchikov, Algebraic topology, American Association of Physics Teachers, American Physical Society, Anatoly Logunov, André Petermann, Anomalous magnetic dipole moment, Anomaly (physics), Argon, Arnold Sommerfeld, Asymptotic freedom, Axiom, Basis (linear algebra), Benjamin Cummings, Beta decay, Boris Podolsky, Born rule, Boson, Bound state, Cambridge University Press, Canonical commutation relation, Canonical quantization, Causality, Charge conservation, Chen-Ning Yang, Chern–Simons theory, Classical electromagnetism, Classical field theory, Classical mechanics, Cluster decomposition theorem, Common integrals in quantum field theory, Commutative property, Commutator, Complex number, Compton scattering, Condensed matter physics, Conformal field theory, Conserved current, Constructive quantum field theory, Copenhagen interpretation, Correlation function, Correspondence principle, CPT symmetry, Creation and annihilation operators, ..., Current algebra, Cutoff (physics), David Gross, Degrees of freedom (physics and chemistry), Density, Derivative, Differential geometry, Dimension (vector space), Dirac delta function, Dirac equation, Direct product of groups, Divergent series, Dover Publications, Edward Witten, Effective field theory, Eigenmode expansion, Eigenvalues and eigenvectors, Eightfold Way (physics), Einstein notation, Einstein–Maxwell–Dirac equations, Electric field, Electromagnetic field, Electromagnetic four-potential, Electromagnetism, Electron, Electroweak interaction, Elementary particle, Enrico Fermi, Equivalence principle, Ernst Stueckelberg, Erwin Schrödinger, Euler–Heisenberg Lagrangian, Euler–Lagrange equation, Excited state, Expected value, Factorial, Fermi's interaction, Fermi–Dirac statistics, Fermion, Ferromagnetism, Feynman diagram, Field (physics), Flat (geometry), Fock space, Fock state, Form factor (quantum field theory), Fourier transform, François Englert, Francis E. Low, Frank Wilczek, Freeman Dyson, Functional analysis, Functional integration, Fundamental interaction, Gauge anomaly, Gauge boson, Gauge theory, General relativity, Generator (mathematics), Geometry, Geometry and topology, Gerard 't Hooft, Global symmetry, Gluon, Graeme Segal, Gravitational field, Gravitational potential, Graviton, Gravity, Green's function (many-body theory), Green–Kubo relations, Ground state, Haag's theorem, Hamiltonian (quantum mechanics), Hans Bethe, Heisenberg picture, Hermitian adjoint, Hierarchy problem, Higgs boson, Hilbert space, Hugh David Politzer, Huygens–Fresnel principle, Identical particles, If and only if, Infinitesimal, Interaction picture, Introduction to quantum mechanics, Ising model, James Clerk Maxwell, John Wiley & Sons, Jordan algebra, Julian Schwinger, Kenneth G. Wilson, Klein–Gordon equation, Kronecker delta, La Repubblica, Ladder operator, Lagrangian (field theory), Lamb shift, Large Hadron Collider, Lattice gauge theory, Lattice QCD, Leo Kadanoff, Lepton, Linear map, List of quantum field theories, Local quantum field theory, Longitudinal wave, Lorentz covariance, Lorentz group, Magnetic field, Magnetic monopole, Majorana fermion, Martinus J. G. Veltman, Mass, Mass–energy equivalence, Mathematical formulation of the Standard Model, Mathematical theory, Matrix mechanics, Max Planck Medal, Maxim Kontsevich, Maxwell's equations, McGraw-Hill Education, Metal, Michael Atiyah, Michael Fisher, Millennium Prize Problems, MIT Press, Momentum, Momentum operator, Murray Gell-Mann, Neutrino, Newton's law of universal gravitation, Nobel Prize in Physics, Noether's theorem, Non-perturbative, Norm (mathematics), Normal mode, Observable, Old quantum theory, Oldstone Conference, Ontology, Operator (physics), Operator algebra, Optical theorem, Oxford University Press, Pair production, Particle in a box, Particle number, Particle number operator, Particle physics, Pascual Jordan, Path integral formulation, Paul Dirac, Pauli exclusion principle, Permanent (mathematics), Permutation, Perseus Books Group, Perturbation theory, Perturbation theory (quantum mechanics), Peter Higgs, Phase (waves), Phase transition, Phonon, Photoelectric effect, Photon, Photon antibunching, Photon polarization, Physical Review, Physicist, Pion, Pocono Conference, Point particle, Position operator, Potential, Princeton University Press, Principle of locality, Probability density function, Propagator, QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter, Quantization (physics), Quantum chromodynamics, Quantum electrodynamics, Quantum field theory in curved spacetime, Quantum fluctuation, Quantum gravity, Quantum Hall effect, Quantum harmonic oscillator, Quantum hydrodynamics, Quantum mechanics, Quantum optics, Quantum superposition, Quantum triviality, Quark, Quasiparticle, Radiation, Regularization (physics), Relation between Schrödinger's equation and the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, Relationship between string theory and quantum field theory, Renormalization, Renormalization group, Representation theory, Reviews of Modern Physics, Richard Borcherds, Richard Feynman, Rigour, Robert Brout, Robert Mills (physicist), Robert Retherford, Royal Society, S-matrix theory, Scalar field theory, Scaling limit, Schrödinger equation, Schwinger function, Schwinger–Dyson equation, ScienceDirect, Second quantization, Self-energy, Sheldon Lee Glashow, Shelter Island Conference, Shin'ichirō Tomonaga, Slater determinant, Spacetime, Special relativity, Special unitary group, Spin (physics), Spin connection, Spin–statistics theorem, Spintronics, Spontaneous symmetry breaking, Springer Publishing, Springer Science+Business Media, Standard Model, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Static forces and virtual-particle exchange, Statistical physics, Steven Weinberg, String theory, Strong interaction, Subatomic particle, Superfluidity, Supergravity, Superstring theory, Supersymmetry, Symmetry (physics), Symmetry breaking, Symmetry in quantum mechanics, The Character of Physical Law, The New York Times Magazine, Theoretical and experimental justification for the Schrödinger equation, Theoretical physics, Thermodynamics, Topological quantum computer, Topological quantum field theory, Topology, Uncertainty principle, Unitarity (physics), Vacuum state, Valence and conduction bands, Vector boson, Victor Weisskopf, Virtual particle, Vladimir Fock, W and Z bosons, Walther Bothe, Ward–Takahashi identity, Warren Siegel, Wave function, Weak interaction, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, Wendell H. Furry, Werner Heisenberg, Westview Press, Wheeler–Feynman absorber theory, Wightman axioms, Wigner's classification, Wigner's theorem, Willis Lamb, Wolfgang Pauli, World Scientific, Yang–Mills existence and mass gap, Yang–Mills theory, Yoichiro Nambu. Expand index (284 more) » « Shrink index
Mohammad Abdus Salam Salam adopted the forename "Mohammad" in 1974 in response to the anti-Ahmadiyya decrees in Pakistan, similarly he grew his beard.
In the physics of electromagnetism, the Abraham–Lorentz force (also Lorentz–Abraham force) is the recoil force on an accelerating charged particle caused by the particle emitting electromagnetic radiation.
In theoretical physics, the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence, sometimes called Maldacena duality or gauge/gravity duality, is a conjectured relationship between two kinds of physical theories.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Alexander "Sasha" Abramovich Belavin (Алекса́ндр Абрамо́вич Бела́вин, born 1942) is a Russian physicist, known for his contributions to string theory.
Alexander Markovich Polyakov (Алекса́ндр Ма́ркович Поляко́в; born 27 September 1945) is a Russian theoretical physicist, formerly at the Landau Institute in Moscow and, since 1990, at Princeton University.
Alexander Borissowitsch Zamolodchikov (Алекса́ндр Бори́сович Замоло́дчиков; born September 18, 1952) is a Russian physicist, known for his contributions to condensed matter physics, two-dimensional conformal field theory, and string theory, and is currently the C.N. Yang/Wei Deng Endowed Chair of Physics at Stony Brook University.
Algebraic topology is a branch of mathematics that uses tools from abstract algebra to study topological spaces.
The American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT) was founded in 1930 for the purpose of "dissemination of knowledge of physics, particularly by way of teaching." There are more than 10,000 members that reside in over 30 countries.
The American Physical Society (APS) is the world's second largest organization of physicists.
Anatoly Alekseyevich Logunov (Анатолий Алексеевич Логунов, December 30, 1926 – March 1, 2015) was a Soviet and Russian theoretical physicist, academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences and Russian Academy of Sciences.
André Petermann (1922 – August 2011) was a Swiss theoretical physicist.
In quantum electrodynamics, the anomalous magnetic moment of a particle is a contribution of effects of quantum mechanics, expressed by Feynman diagrams with loops, to the magnetic moment of that particle.
In quantum physics an anomaly or quantum anomaly is the failure of a symmetry of a theory's classical action to be a symmetry of any regularization of the full quantum theory.
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
Arnold Johannes Wilhelm Sommerfeld, (5 December 1868 – 26 April 1951) was a German theoretical physicist who pioneered developments in atomic and quantum physics, and also educated and mentored a large number of students for the new era of theoretical physics.
In particle physics, asymptotic freedom is a property of some gauge theories that causes interactions between particles to become asymptotically weaker as the energy scale increases and the corresponding length scale decreases.
An axiom or postulate is a statement that is taken to be true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments.
In mathematics, a set of elements (vectors) in a vector space V is called a basis, or a set of, if the vectors are linearly independent and every vector in the vector space is a linear combination of this set.
Benjamin Cummings specializes in science and is a publishing imprint of Pearson Education, the world's largest education publishing and technology company, which is part of Pearson PLC, the global publisher and former owner of Penguin Books and the Financial Times.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
Boris Yakovlevich Podolsky (Бори́с Я́ковлевич Подо́льский; 29 June 1896 – 28 November 1966) was a Russian-American physicist of Russian Jewish descent, noted for his work with Albert Einstein and Nathan Rosen on entangled wave functions and the EPR paradox.
The Born rule (also called the Born law, Born's rule, or Born's law) formulated by German physicist Max Born in 1926, is a law of quantum mechanics giving the probability that a measurement on a quantum system will yield a given result.
In quantum mechanics, a boson is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics.
In quantum physics, a bound state is a special quantum state of a particle subject to a potential such that the particle has a tendency to remain localised in one or more regions of space.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
In quantum mechanics (physics), the canonical commutation relation is the fundamental relation between canonical conjugate quantities (quantities which are related by definition such that one is the Fourier transform of another).
In physics, canonical quantization is a procedure for quantizing a classical theory, while attempting to preserve the formal structure, such as symmetries, of the classical theory, to the greatest extent possible.
Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.
In physics, charge conservation is the principle that the total electric charge in an isolated system never changes.
Chen-Ning Yang or Yang Zhenning (born October 1, 1922) is a Chinese physicist who works on statistical mechanics and particle physics.
The Chern–Simons theory, named after Shiing-Shen Chern and James Harris Simons, is a 3-dimensional topological quantum field theory of Schwarz type, developed by Edward Witten.
Classical electromagnetism or classical electrodynamics is a branch of theoretical physics that studies the interactions between electric charges and currents using an extension of the classical Newtonian model.
A classical field theory is a physical theory that predicts how one or more physical fields interact with matter through field equations.
Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies.
In physics, the cluster decomposition property is related to locality in quantum field theory.
There are common integrals in quantum field theory that appear repeatedly.
In mathematics, a binary operation is commutative if changing the order of the operands does not change the result.
In mathematics, the commutator gives an indication of the extent to which a certain binary operation fails to be commutative.
A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form, where and are real numbers, and is a solution of the equation.
Compton scattering, discovered by Arthur Holly Compton, is the scattering of a photon by a charged particle, usually an electron.
Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic and microscopic physical properties of matter.
A conformal field theory (CFT) is a quantum field theory that is invariant under conformal transformations.
In physics a conserved current is a current, j^\mu, that satisfies the continuity equation \partial_\mu j^\mu.
In mathematical physics, constructive quantum field theory is the field devoted to showing that quantum theory is mathematically compatible with special relativity.
The Copenhagen interpretation is an expression of the meaning of quantum mechanics that was largely devised in the years 1925 to 1927 by Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg.
A correlation function is a function that gives the statistical correlation between random variables, contingent on the spatial or temporal distance between those variables.
In physics, the correspondence principle states that the behavior of systems described by the theory of quantum mechanics (or by the old quantum theory) reproduces classical physics in the limit of large quantum numbers.
Charge, parity, and time reversal symmetry is a fundamental symmetry of physical laws under the simultaneous transformations of charge conjugation (C), parity transformation (P), and time reversal (T).
Creation and annihilation operators are mathematical operators that have widespread applications in quantum mechanics, notably in the study of quantum harmonic oscillators and many-particle systems.
Certain commutation relations among the current density operators in quantum field theories define an infinite-dimensional Lie algebra called a current algebra.
In theoretical physics, cutoff is an arbitrary maximal or minimal value of energy, momentum, or length, used in order that objects with larger or smaller values than these physical quantities are ignored in some calculation.
David Jonathan Gross (born February 19, 1941) is an American theoretical physicist and string theorist.
In physics, a degree of freedom is an independent physical parameter in the formal description of the state of a physical system.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
The derivative of a function of a real variable measures the sensitivity to change of the function value (output value) with respect to a change in its argument (input value).
Differential geometry is a mathematical discipline that uses the techniques of differential calculus, integral calculus, linear algebra and multilinear algebra to study problems in geometry.
In mathematics, the dimension of a vector space V is the cardinality (i.e. the number of vectors) of a basis of V over its base field.
In mathematics, the Dirac delta function (function) is a generalized function or distribution introduced by the physicist Paul Dirac.
In particle physics, the Dirac equation is a relativistic wave equation derived by British physicist Paul Dirac in 1928.
In group theory, the direct product is an operation that takes two groups and and constructs a new group, usually denoted.
In mathematics, a divergent series is an infinite series that is not convergent, meaning that the infinite sequence of the partial sums of the series does not have a finite limit.
Dover Publications, also known as Dover Books, is an American book publisher founded in 1941 by Hayward Cirker and his wife, Blanche.
Edward Witten (born August 26, 1951) is an American theoretical physicist and professor of mathematical physics at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey.
In physics, an effective field theory is a type of approximation, or effective theory, for an underlying physical theory, such as a quantum field theory or a statistical mechanics model.
Eigenmode expansion (EME) is a computational electrodynamics modelling technique.
In linear algebra, an eigenvector or characteristic vector of a linear transformation is a non-zero vector that changes by only a scalar factor when that linear transformation is applied to it.
In physics, the Eightfold Way is a theory organizing subatomic hadrons.
In mathematics, especially in applications of linear algebra to physics, the Einstein notation or Einstein summation convention is a notational convention that implies summation over a set of indexed terms in a formula, thus achieving notational brevity.
The Einstein–Maxwell–Dirac equations (EMD) are a classical field theory defined in the setting of general relativity.
An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.
An electromagnetic field (also EMF or EM field) is a physical field produced by electrically charged objects.
An electromagnetic four-potential is a relativistic vector function from which the electromagnetic field can be derived.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In particle physics, the electroweak interaction is the unified description of two of the four known fundamental interactions of nature: electromagnetism and the weak interaction.
In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle with no substructure, thus not composed of other particles.
Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian-American physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.
In the theory of general relativity, the equivalence principle is any of several related concepts dealing with the equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass, and to Albert Einstein's observation that the gravitational "force" as experienced locally while standing on a massive body (such as the Earth) is the same as the pseudo-force experienced by an observer in a non-inertial (accelerated) frame of reference.
Ernst Carl Gerlach Stueckelberg (full name after 1911: Baron Ernst Carl Gerlach Stueckelberg von Breidenbach zu Breidenstein und Melsbach; February 1, 1905 – September 4, 1984) was a Swiss mathematician and physicist, regarded as one of the most eminent physicists of the 20th century.
Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (12 August 1887 – 4 January 1961), sometimes written as or, was a Nobel Prize-winning Austrian physicist who developed a number of fundamental results in the field of quantum theory, which formed the basis of wave mechanics: he formulated the wave equation (stationary and time-dependent Schrödinger equation) and revealed the identity of his development of the formalism and matrix mechanics.
In physics, the Euler–Heisenberg Lagrangian describes the non-linear dynamics of electromagnetic fields in vacuum.
In the calculus of variations, the Euler–Lagrange equation, Euler's equation, or Lagrange's equation (although the latter name is ambiguous—see disambiguation page), is a second-order partial differential equation whose solutions are the functions for which a given functional is stationary.
In quantum mechanics, an excited state of a system (such as an atom, molecule or nucleus) is any quantum state of the system that has a higher energy than the ground state (that is, more energy than the absolute minimum).
In probability theory, the expected value of a random variable, intuitively, is the long-run average value of repetitions of the experiment it represents.
In mathematics, the factorial of a non-negative integer n, denoted by n!, is the product of all positive integers less than or equal to n. For example, The value of 0! is 1, according to the convention for an empty product.
In particle physics, Fermi's interaction (also the Fermi theory of beta decay) is an explanation of the beta decay, proposed by Enrico Fermi in 1933.
In quantum statistics, a branch of physics, Fermi–Dirac statistics describe a distribution of particles over energy states in systems consisting of many identical particles that obey the Pauli exclusion principle.
In particle physics, a fermion is a particle that follows Fermi–Dirac statistics.
Ferromagnetism is the basic mechanism by which certain materials (such as iron) form permanent magnets, or are attracted to magnets.
In theoretical physics, Feynman diagrams are pictorial representations of the mathematical expressions describing the behavior of subatomic particles.
In physics, a field is a physical quantity, represented by a number or tensor, that has a value for each point in space and time.
In geometry, a flat is a subset of n-dimensional space that is congruent to a Euclidean space of lower dimension.
The Fock space is an algebraic construction used in quantum mechanics to construct the quantum states space of a variable or unknown number of identical particles from a single particle Hilbert space.
In quantum mechanics, a Fock state or number state is a quantum state that is an element of a Fock space with a well-defined number of particles (or quanta).
In elementary particle physics and mathematical physics, in particular in effective field theory, a form factor is a function that encapsulates the properties of a certain particle interaction without including all of the underlying physics, but instead, providing the momentum dependence of suitable matrix elements.
The Fourier transform (FT) decomposes a function of time (a signal) into the frequencies that make it up, in a way similar to how a musical chord can be expressed as the frequencies (or pitches) of its constituent notes.
François Baron Englert (born 6 November 1932) is a Belgian theoretical physicist and 2013 Nobel prize laureate (shared with Peter Higgs).
Francis Eugene Low (October 27, 1921 – February 16, 2007) was an American theoretical physicist.
Frank Anthony Wilczek (born May 15, 1951) is an American theoretical physicist, mathematician and a Nobel laureate.
Freeman John Dyson (born 15 December 1923) is an English-born American theoretical physicist and mathematician.
Functional analysis is a branch of mathematical analysis, the core of which is formed by the study of vector spaces endowed with some kind of limit-related structure (e.g. inner product, norm, topology, etc.) and the linear functions defined on these spaces and respecting these structures in a suitable sense.
Functional integration is a collection of results in mathematics and physics where the domain of an integral is no longer a region of space, but a space of functions.
In physics, the fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces, are the interactions that do not appear to be reducible to more basic interactions.
In theoretical physics, a gauge anomaly is an example of an anomaly: it is a feature of quantum mechanics—usually a one-loop diagram—that invalidates the gauge symmetry of a quantum field theory; i.e. of a gauge theory.
In particle physics, a gauge boson is a force carrier, a bosonic particle that carries any of the fundamental interactions of nature, commonly called forces.
In physics, a gauge theory is a type of field theory in which the Lagrangian is invariant under certain Lie groups of local transformations.
General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.
In mathematics and physics, the term generator or generating set may refer to any of a number of related concepts.
Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.
In mathematics, geometry and topology is an umbrella term for the historically distinct disciplines of geometry and topology, as general frameworks allow both disciplines to be manipulated uniformly, most visibly in local to global theorems in Riemannian geometry, and results like the Gauss–Bonnet theorem and Chern–Weil theory.
Gerardus (Gerard) 't Hooft (born July 5, 1946) is a Dutch theoretical physicist and professor at Utrecht University, the Netherlands.
In physics, a global symmetry is a symmetry that holds at all points in the spacetime under consideration, as opposed to a local symmetry which varies from point to point.
A gluon is an elementary particle that acts as the exchange particle (or gauge boson) for the strong force between quarks.
Graeme Bryce Segal FRS (born 21 December 1941) is an Australian mathematician, and professor at the University of Oxford.
In physics, a gravitational field is a model used to explain the influence that a massive body extends into the space around itself, producing a force on another massive body.
In classical mechanics, the gravitational potential at a location is equal to the work (energy transferred) per unit mass that would be needed to move the object from a fixed reference location to the location of the object.
In theories of quantum gravity, the graviton is the hypothetical elementary particle that mediates the force of gravity.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
In many-body theory, the term Green's function (or Green function) is sometimes used interchangeably with correlation function, but refers specifically to correlators of field operators or creation and annihilation operators.
The Green–Kubo relations (Melville S. Green 1954, Ryogo Kubo 1957) give the exact mathematical expression for transport coefficients \gamma in terms of integrals of time correlation functions.
The ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system.
Rudolf Haag postulated that the interaction picture does not exist in an interacting, relativistic quantum field theory (QFT), something now commonly known as Haag's theorem.
In quantum mechanics, a Hamiltonian is an operator corresponding to the total energy of the system in most of the cases.
Hans Albrecht Bethe (July 2, 1906 – March 6, 2005) was a German-American nuclear physicist who made important contributions to astrophysics, quantum electrodynamics and solid-state physics, and won the 1967 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis.
In physics, the Heisenberg picture (also called the Heisenberg representation) is a formulation (largely due to Werner Heisenberg in 1925) of quantum mechanics in which the operators (observables and others) incorporate a dependency on time, but the state vectors are time-independent, an arbitrary fixed basis rigidly underlying the theory.
In mathematics, specifically in functional analysis, each bounded linear operator on a complex Hilbert space has a corresponding adjoint operator.
In theoretical physics, the hierarchy problem is the large discrepancy between aspects of the weak force and gravity.
The Higgs boson is an elementary particle in the Standard Model of particle physics.
The mathematical concept of a Hilbert space, named after David Hilbert, generalizes the notion of Euclidean space.
Hugh David Politzer (born August 31, 1949) is an American theoretical physicist at the California Institute of Technology.
The Huygens–Fresnel principle (named after Dutch physicist Christiaan Huygens and French physicist Augustin-Jean Fresnel) is a method of analysis applied to problems of wave propagation both in the far-field limit and in near-field diffraction.
Identical particles, also called indistinguishable or indiscernible particles, are particles that cannot be distinguished from one another, even in principle.
In logic and related fields such as mathematics and philosophy, if and only if (shortened iff) is a biconditional logical connective between statements.
In mathematics, infinitesimals are things so small that there is no way to measure them.
In quantum mechanics, the interaction picture (also known as the Dirac picture after Paul Dirac) is an intermediate representation between the Schrödinger picture and the Heisenberg picture.
Quantum mechanics is the science of the very small.
The Ising model, named after the physicist Ernst Ising, is a mathematical model of ferromagnetism in statistical mechanics.
James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
In abstract algebra, a Jordan algebra is an nonassociative algebra over a field whose multiplication satisfies the following axioms.
Julian Seymour Schwinger (February 12, 1918 – July 16, 1994) was a Nobel Prize winning American theoretical physicist.
Kenneth Geddes "Ken" Wilson (June 8, 1936 – June 15, 2013) was an American theoretical physicist and a pioneer in leveraging computers for studying particle physics.
The Klein–Gordon equation (Klein–Fock–Gordon equation or sometimes Klein–Gordon–Fock equation) is a relativistic wave equation, related to the Schrödinger equation.
In mathematics, the Kronecker delta (named after Leopold Kronecker) is a function of two variables, usually just non-negative integers.
la Repubblica (the Republic) is an Italian daily general-interest newspaper.
In linear algebra (and its application to quantum mechanics), a raising or lowering operator (collectively known as ladder operators) is an operator that increases or decreases the eigenvalue of another operator.
Lagrangian field theory is a formalism in classical field theory.
In physics, the Lamb shift, named after Willis Lamb, is a difference in energy between two energy levels 2S1/2 and 2P1/2 (in term symbol notation) of the hydrogen atom which was not predicted by the Dirac equation, according to which these states should have the same energy.
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and most powerful particle collider, the most complex experimental facility ever built and the largest single machine in the world.
In physics, lattice gauge theory is the study of gauge theories on a spacetime that has been discretized into a lattice.
Lattice QCD is a well-established non-perturbative approach to solving the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) theory of quarks and gluons.
Leo Philip Kadanoff (January 14, 1937 – October 26, 2015) was an American physicist.
In particle physics, a lepton is an elementary particle of half-integer spin (spin) that does not undergo strong interactions.
In mathematics, a linear map (also called a linear mapping, linear transformation or, in some contexts, linear function) is a mapping between two modules (including vector spaces) that preserves (in the sense defined below) the operations of addition and scalar multiplication.
This is a list of quantum field theories.
The Haag–Kastler axiomatic framework for quantum field theory, introduced by, is an application to local quantum physics of C*-algebra theory.
Longitudinal waves are waves in which the displacement of the medium is in the same direction as, or the opposite direction to, the direction of propagation of the wave.
In relativistic physics, Lorentz symmetry, named for Hendrik Lorentz, is an equivalence of observation or observational symmetry due to special relativity implying that the laws of physics stay the same for all observers that are moving with respect to one another within an inertial frame.
In physics and mathematics, the Lorentz group is the group of all Lorentz transformations of Minkowski spacetime, the classical and quantum setting for all (nongravitational) physical phenomena.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
A magnetic monopole is a hypothetical elementary particle in particle physics that is an isolated magnet with only one magnetic pole (a north pole without a south pole or vice versa).
A Majorana fermion (uploaded 19 April 2013, retrieved 5 October 2014; and also based on the physicist's name's pronunciation.), also referred to as a Majorana particle, is a fermion that is its own antiparticle.
Martinus Justinus Godefriedus "Tini" Veltman (born 27 June 1931) is a Dutch theoretical physicist.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
In physics, mass–energy equivalence states that anything having mass has an equivalent amount of energy and vice versa, with these fundamental quantities directly relating to one another by Albert Einstein's famous formula: E.
This article describes the mathematics of the Standard Model of particle physics, a gauge quantum field theory containing the internal symmetries of the unitary product group.
A mathematical theory is a subfield of mathematics that is an area of mathematical research.
Matrix mechanics is a formulation of quantum mechanics created by Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, and Pascual Jordan in 1925.
The Max Planck medal is the highest award of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft, the world's largest organization of physicists, for extraordinary achievements in theoretical physics.
Maxim Lvovich Kontsevich (Макси́м Льво́вич Конце́вич;; born 25 August 1964) is a Russian and French mathematician.
Maxwell's equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetism, classical optics, and electric circuits.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Sir Michael Francis Atiyah (born 22 April 1929) is an English mathematician specialising in geometry.
Michael Ellis Fisher (born 3 September 1931) is an English physicist, as well as chemist and mathematician, known for his many seminal contributions to statistical physics, including but not restricted to the theory of phase transitions and critical phenomena.
The Millennium Prize Problems are seven problems in mathematics that were stated by the Clay Mathematics Institute in 2000.
The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).
In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.
In quantum mechanics, the momentum operator is an operator which maps the wave function in a Hilbert space representing a quantum state to another function.
Murray Gell-Mann (born September 15, 1929) is an American physicist who received the 1969 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on the theory of elementary particles.
A neutrino (denoted by the Greek letter ν) is a fermion (an elementary particle with half-integer spin) that interacts only via the weak subatomic force and gravity.
Newton's law of universal gravitation states that a particle attracts every other particle in the universe with a force which is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers.
The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.
Noether's (first) theorem states that every differentiable symmetry of the action of a physical system has a corresponding conservation law.
In mathematics and physics, a non-perturbative function or process is one that cannot be accurately described by perturbation theory.
In linear algebra, functional analysis, and related areas of mathematics, a norm is a function that assigns a strictly positive length or size to each vector in a vector space—save for the zero vector, which is assigned a length of zero.
A normal mode of an oscillating system is a pattern of motion in which all parts of the system move sinusoidally with the same frequency and with a fixed phase relation.
In physics, an observable is a dynamic variable that can be measured.
The old quantum theory is a collection of results from the years 1900–1925 which predate modern quantum mechanics.
The Oldstone Conference of 11 to 14 April 1949 was the third of three postwar conferences held to discuss quantum physics; arranged for the National Academy of Sciences by J. Robert Oppenheimer, who was again chairman.
Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
In physics, an operator is a function over a space of physical states to another space of physical states.
In functional analysis, an operator algebra is an algebra of continuous linear operators on a topological vector space with the multiplication given by the composition of mappings.
In physics, the optical theorem is a general law of wave scattering theory, which relates the forward scattering amplitude to the total cross section of the scatterer.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pair production is the creation of an elementary particle and its antiparticle from a neutral boson.
In quantum mechanics, the particle in a box model (also known as the infinite potential well or the infinite square well) describes a particle free to move in a small space surrounded by impenetrable barriers.
The particle number (or number of particles) of a thermodynamic system, conventionally indicated with the letter N, is the number of constituent particles in that system.
In quantum mechanics, for systems where the total number of particles may not be preserved, the number operator is the observable that counts the number of particles.
Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.
Ernst Pascual Jordan (18 October 1902 – 31 July 1980) was a theoretical and mathematical physicist who made significant contributions to quantum mechanics and quantum field theory.
The path integral formulation of quantum mechanics is a description of quantum theory that generalizes the action principle of classical mechanics.
Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (8 August 1902 – 20 October 1984) was an English theoretical physicist who is regarded as one of the most significant physicists of the 20th century.
The Pauli exclusion principle is the quantum mechanical principle which states that two or more identical fermions (particles with half-integer spin) cannot occupy the same quantum state within a quantum system simultaneously.
In linear algebra, the permanent of a square matrix is a function of the matrix similar to the determinant.
In mathematics, the notion of permutation relates to the act of arranging all the members of a set into some sequence or order, or if the set is already ordered, rearranging (reordering) its elements, a process called permuting.
Perseus Books Group was an American publishing company founded in 1996 by investor Frank Pearl.
Perturbation theory comprises mathematical methods for finding an approximate solution to a problem, by starting from the exact solution of a related, simpler problem.
In quantum mechanics, perturbation theory is a set of approximation schemes directly related to mathematical perturbation for describing a complicated quantum system in terms of a simpler one.
Peter Ware Higgs (born 29 May 1929) is a British theoretical physicist, emeritus professor in the University of Edinburgh,Griggs, Jessica (Summer 2008) Edit the University of Edinburgh Alumni Magazine, p. 17 and Nobel Prize laureate for his work on the mass of subatomic particles.
Phase is the position of a point in time (an instant) on a waveform cycle.
The term phase transition (or phase change) is most commonly used to describe transitions between solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter, and, in rare cases, plasma.
In physics, a phonon is a collective excitation in a periodic, elastic arrangement of atoms or molecules in condensed matter, like solids and some liquids.
The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons or other free carriers when light shines on a material.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Photon antibunching generally refers to a light field with photons more equally spaced than a coherent laser field, a signature being signals at appropriate detectors which are anticorrelated.
Photon polarization is the quantum mechanical description of the classical polarized sinusoidal plane electromagnetic wave.
Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.
A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.
In particle physics, a pion (or a pi meson, denoted with the Greek letter pi) is any of three subatomic particles:,, and.
The Pocono Conference of 30 March to 2 April 1948 was the second of three postwar conferences held to discuss quantum physics; arranged by Robert Oppenheimer for the National Academy of Sciences.
A point particle (ideal particle or point-like particle, often spelled pointlike particle) is an idealization of particles heavily used in physics.
In quantum mechanics, the position operator is the operator that corresponds to the position observable of a particle.
Potential generally refers to a currently unrealized ability.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
In physics, the principle of locality states that an object is only directly influenced by its immediate surroundings.
In probability theory, a probability density function (PDF), or density of a continuous random variable, is a function, whose value at any given sample (or point) in the sample space (the set of possible values taken by the random variable) can be interpreted as providing a relative likelihood that the value of the random variable would equal that sample.
In quantum mechanics and quantum field theory, the propagator is a function that specifies the probability amplitude for a particle to travel from one place to another in a given time, or to travel with a certain energy and momentum.
QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter is an adaptation for the general reader of four lectures on quantum electrodynamics (QED) published in 1985 by American physicist and Nobel laureate Richard Feynman.
In physics, quantization is the process of transition from a classical understanding of physical phenomena to a newer understanding known as quantum mechanics.
In theoretical physics, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction between quarks and gluons, the fundamental particles that make up composite hadrons such as the proton, neutron and pion.
In particle physics, quantum electrodynamics (QED) is the relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics.
In particle physics, quantum field theory in curved spacetime is an extension of standard, Minkowski space quantum field theory to curved spacetime.
In quantum physics, a quantum fluctuation (or vacuum state fluctuation or vacuum fluctuation) is the temporary change in the amount of energy in a point in space, as explained in Werner Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.
Quantum gravity (QG) is a field of theoretical physics that seeks to describe gravity according to the principles of quantum mechanics, and where quantum effects cannot be ignored, such as near compact astrophysical objects where the effects of gravity are strong.
The quantum Hall effect (or integer quantum Hall effect) is a quantum-mechanical version of the Hall effect, observed in two-dimensional electron systems subjected to low temperatures and strong magnetic fields, in which the Hall conductance undergoes quantum Hall transitions to take on the quantized values where is the channel current, is the Hall voltage, is the elementary charge and is Planck's constant.
The quantum harmonic oscillator is the quantum-mechanical analog of the classical harmonic oscillator.
Quantum hydrodynamics is most generally the study of hydrodynamic systems which demonstrate behavior implicit in quantum subsystems (usually quantum tunnelling).
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Quantum optics (QO) is a field of research that uses semi-classical and quantum-mechanical physics to investigate phenomena involving light and its interactions with matter at submicroscopic levels.
Quantum superposition is a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics.
In a quantum field theory, charge screening can restrict the value of the observable "renormalized" charge of a classical theory.
A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.
In physics, quasiparticles and collective excitations (which are closely related) are emergent phenomena that occur when a microscopically complicated system such as a solid behaves as if it contained different weakly interacting particles in free space.
In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
In physics, especially quantum field theory, regularization is a method of modifying observables which have singularities in order to make them finite by the introduction of a suitable parameter called regulator.
This article relates the Schrödinger equation with the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics using a simple nonrelativistic one-dimensional single-particle Hamiltonian composed of kinetic and potential energy.
Many first principles in quantum field theory are explained, or get further insight, in string theory.
Renormalization is a collection of techniques in quantum field theory, the statistical mechanics of fields, and the theory of self-similar geometric structures, that are used to treat infinities arising in calculated quantities by altering values of quantities to compensate for effects of their self-interactions.
In theoretical physics, the renormalization group (RG) refers to a mathematical apparatus that allows systematic investigation of the changes of a physical system as viewed at different scales.
Representation theory is a branch of mathematics that studies abstract algebraic structures by representing their elements as linear transformations of vector spaces, and studies modules over these abstract algebraic structures.
Reviews of Modern Physics is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Physical Society.
Richard Ewen Borcherds (born 29 November 1959) is a British-American mathematician currently working in quantum field theory.
Richard Phillips Feynman (May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) was an American theoretical physicist, known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model.
Rigour (British English) or rigor (American English; see spelling differences) describes a condition of stiffness or strictness.
Robert Brout (June 14, 1928 – May 3, 2011) was a Belgian theoretical physicist who made significant contributions in elementary particle physics.
Robert Laurence Mills (April 15, 1927 – October 27, 1999) was a physicist, specializing in quantum field theory, the theory of alloys, and many-body theory.
Robert Curtis Retherford (1912 – 1981) was an American physicist.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
S-matrix theory was a proposal for replacing local quantum field theory as the basic principle of elementary particle physics.
In theoretical physics, scalar field theory can refer to a relativistically invariant classical or quantum theory of scalar fields.
In physics or mathematics, the scaling limit is a term applied to the behaviour of a lattice model in the limit of the lattice spacing going to zero.
In quantum mechanics, the Schrödinger equation is a mathematical equation that describes the changes over time of a physical system in which quantum effects, such as wave–particle duality, are significant.
In quantum field theory, the Wightman distributions can be analytically continued to analytic functions in Euclidean space with the domain restricted to the ordered set of points in Euclidean space with no coinciding points.
The Schwinger–Dyson equations (SDEs), or Dyson–Schwinger equations, named after Julian Schwinger and Freeman Dyson, are general relations between Green functions in quantum field theories (QFTs).
ScienceDirect is a website which provides subscription-based access to a large database of scientific and medical research.
Second quantization, also referred to as occupation number representation, is a formalism used to describe and analyze quantum many-body systems.
In most theoretical physics such as quantum field theory, the energy that a particle has as a result of changes that it itself causes in its environment defines self-energy \Sigma, and represents the contribution to the particle's energy, or effective mass, due to interactions between the particle and its system.
Sheldon Lee Glashow (born December 5, 1932) is a Nobel Prize winning American theoretical physicist.
The first Shelter Island Conference on the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics was held from June 2–4, 1947 at the Ram's Head Inn in Shelter Island, New York.
, usually cited as Sin-Itiro Tomonaga in English, was a Japanese physicist, influential in the development of quantum electrodynamics, work for which he was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1965 along with Richard Feynman and Julian Schwinger.
In quantum mechanics, a Slater determinant is an expression that describes the wave function of a multi-fermionic system that satisfies anti-symmetry requirements, and consequently the Pauli principle, by changing sign upon exchange of two electrons (or other fermions).
In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum.
In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.
In mathematics, the special unitary group of degree, denoted, is the Lie group of unitary matrices with determinant 1.
In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.
In differential geometry and mathematical physics, a spin connection is a connection on a spinor bundle.
In quantum mechanics, the spin–statistics theorem relates the intrinsic spin of a particle (angular momentum not due to the orbital motion) to the particle statistics it obeys.
Spintronics (a portmanteau meaning spin transport electronics), also known as spin electronics, is the study of the intrinsic spin of the electron and its associated magnetic moment, in addition to its fundamental electronic charge, in solid-state devices.
Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a spontaneous process of symmetry breaking, by which a physical system in a symmetric state ends up in an asymmetric state.
Springer Publishing is an American publishing company of academic journals and books, focusing on the fields of nursing, gerontology, psychology, social work, counseling, public health, and rehabilitation (neuropsychology).
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.
Static force fields are fields, such as a simple electric, magnetic or gravitational fields, that exist without excitations.
Statistical physics is a branch of physics that uses methods of probability theory and statistics, and particularly the mathematical tools for dealing with large populations and approximations, in solving physical problems.
Steven Weinberg (born May 3, 1933) is an American theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate in Physics for his contributions with Abdus Salam and Sheldon Glashow to the unification of the weak force and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles.
In physics, string theory is a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings.
In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force or nuclear strong force), and is one of the four known fundamental interactions, with the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction, and gravitation.
In the physical sciences, subatomic particles are particles much smaller than atoms.
Superfluidity is the characteristic property of a fluid with zero viscosity which therefore flows without loss of kinetic energy.
In theoretical physics, supergravity (supergravity theory; SUGRA for short) is a modern field theory that combines the principles of supersymmetry and general relativity where supersymmetry obeys locality; in contrast to non-gravitational supersymmetric theories such as the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model.
Superstring theory is an attempt to explain all of the particles and fundamental forces of nature in one theory by modeling them as vibrations of tiny supersymmetric strings.
In particle physics, supersymmetry (SUSY) is a theory that proposes a relationship between two basic classes of elementary particles: bosons, which have an integer-valued spin, and fermions, which have a half-integer spin.
In physics, a symmetry of a physical system is a physical or mathematical feature of the system (observed or intrinsic) that is preserved or remains unchanged under some transformation.
In physics, symmetry breaking is a phenomenon in which (infinitesimally) small fluctuations acting on a system crossing a critical point decide the system's fate, by determining which branch of a bifurcation is taken.
Symmetries in quantum mechanics describe features of spacetime and particles which are unchanged under some transformation, in the context of quantum mechanics, relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum field theory, and with applications in the mathematical formulation of the standard model and condensed matter physics.
The Character of Physical Law is a series of seven lectures by physicist Richard Feynman concerning the nature of the laws of physics.
The New York Times Magazine is a Sunday magazine supplement included with the Sunday edition of The New York Times.
The theoretical and experimental justification for the Schrödinger equation motivates the discovery of the Schrödinger equation, the equation that describes the dynamics of nonrelativistic particles.
Theoretical physics is a branch of physics that employs mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.
A topological quantum computer is a theoretical quantum computer that employs two-dimensional quasiparticles called anyons, whose world lines pass around one another to form braids in a three-dimensional spacetime (i.e., one temporal plus two spatial dimensions).
A topological quantum field theory (or topological field theory or TQFT) is a quantum field theory which computes topological invariants.
In mathematics, topology (from the Greek τόπος, place, and λόγος, study) is concerned with the properties of space that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, crumpling and bending, but not tearing or gluing.
In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle (also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle) is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known.
In quantum physics, unitarity is a restriction on the allowed evolution of quantum systems that ensures the sum of probabilities of all possible outcomes of any event always equals 1.
In quantum field theory, the quantum vacuum state (also called the quantum vacuum or vacuum state) is the quantum state with the lowest possible energy.
In solid-state physics, the valence band and conduction band are the bands closest to the Fermi level and thus determine the electrical conductivity of the solid.
In particle physics, a vector boson is a boson with the spin equal to 1.
Victor Frederick "Viki" Weisskopf (September 19, 1908 – April 22, 2002) was an Austrian-born American theoretical physicist.
In physics, a virtual particle is a transient fluctuation that exhibits some of the characteristics of an ordinary particle, but whose existence is limited by the uncertainty principle.
Vladimir Aleksandrovich Fock (or Fok; Влади́мир Алекса́ндрович Фок) (December 22, 1898 – December 27, 1974) was a Soviet physicist, who did foundational work on quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics.
The W and Z bosons are together known as the weak or more generally as the intermediate vector bosons. These elementary particles mediate the weak interaction; the respective symbols are,, and.
Walther Wilhelm Georg Bothe (8 January 1891 – 8 February 1957) was a German nuclear physicist, who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1954 with Max Born.
In quantum field theory, a Ward–Takahashi identity is an identity between correlation functions that follows from the global or gauge symmetries of the theory, and which remains valid after renormalization.
Warren Siegel is a theoretical physicist specializing in supersymmetric quantum field theory and string theory.
A wave function in quantum physics is a mathematical description of the quantum state of an isolated quantum system.
In particle physics, the weak interaction (the weak force or weak nuclear force) is the mechanism of interaction between sub-atomic particles that causes radioactive decay and thus plays an essential role in nuclear fission.
Weidenfeld & Nicolson Ltd (established 1948), often shortened to W&N or Weidenfeld, is a British publisher of fiction and reference books.
Wendell Hinkle Furry (February 18. 1907 – December 1984) was a professor of physics at Harvard University, and made notable contributions to theoretical and particle physics.
Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics.
Westview Press was an American publishing house.
The Wheeler–Feynman absorber theory (also called the Wheeler–Feynman time-symmetric theory), named after its originators, the physicists Richard Feynman and John Archibald Wheeler, is an interpretation of electrodynamics derived from the assumption that the solutions of the electromagnetic field equations must be invariant under time-reversal transformation, as are the field equations themselves.
In physics, the Wightman axioms (also called Gårding–Wightman axioms), named after Lars Gårding and Arthur Wightman, are an attempt at a mathematically rigorous formulation of quantum field theory.
In mathematics and theoretical physics, Wigner's classification is a classification of the nonnegative (E ≥ 0) energy irreducible unitary representations of the Poincaré group which have sharp mass eigenvalues.
Wigner's theorem, proved by Eugene Wigner in 1931, is a cornerstone of the mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics.
Willis Eugene Lamb Jr. (July 12, 1913 – May 15, 2008) was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1955 "for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum." The Nobel Committee that year awarded half the prize to Lamb and the other half to Polykarp Kusch, who won "for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron." Lamb was able to determine precisely a surprising shift in electron energies in a hydrogen atom (see Lamb shift).
Wolfgang Ernst Pauli (25 April 1900 – 15 December 1958) was an Austrian-born Swiss and American theoretical physicist and one of the pioneers of quantum physics.
World Scientific Publishing is an academic publisher of scientific, technical, and medical books and journals headquartered in Singapore.
In mathematical physics, the Yang–Mills existence and mass gap problem is an unsolved problem and one of the seven Millennium Prize Problems defined by the Clay Mathematics Institute, which has offered a prize of US$1,000,000 to the one who solves it.
Yang–Mills theory is a gauge theory based on the SU(''N'') group, or more generally any compact, reductive Lie algebra.
was a Japanese-American physicist and professor at the University of Chicago.
History of conformal field theory, Quantum Field Theory, Quantum field, Quantum field theories, Quantum field theroy, Quantum theory of field, Quantum theory of fields, Relativistic quantum field theories, Relativistic quantum field theory, Relativistic quantum theory, The problem of infinities.