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Quantum gravity

Index Quantum gravity

Quantum gravity (QG) is a field of theoretical physics that seeks to describe gravity according to the principles of quantum mechanics, and where quantum effects cannot be ignored, such as near compact astrophysical objects where the effects of gravity are strong. [1]

155 relations: Abraham–Lorentz force, AdS/CFT correspondence, Albert Einstein, An Exceptionally Simple Theory of Everything, Annalen der Physik, Ashtekar variables, Asymptotic freedom, Asymptotic safety in quantum gravity, Atom, Background independence, Basic Books, BICEP and Keck Array, Big Bang, Black hole, Black hole electron, Cambridge University Press, Canonical quantization, Canonical quantum gravity, Carlo Rovelli, Causal dynamical triangulation, Causal fermion system, Causal sets, Centauro event, Charge (physics), Classical and Quantum Gravity, Classical field theory, Classical mechanics, Classical physics, Color confinement, Composite gravity, Condensed matter physics, Cosmic dust, Cosmic microwave background, Current Science, De Sitter invariant special relativity, Differential geometry, Dilaton, Doubly special relativity, Effective field theory, Einstein field equations, Electric field, Electricity, Electromagnetism, Euclidean quantum gravity, Event symmetry, Fock–Lorentz symmetry, Force carrier, Fundamental interaction, Galaxy, Gauge boson, ..., General relativity, General Relativity and Gravitation, Geometrodynamics, Grand Unified Theory, Gravitational wave, Gravitoelectromagnetism, Graviton, Gravity, Group field theory, Hamiltonian (quantum mechanics), Hawking radiation, Higgs boson, Hořava–Lifshitz gravity, Holonomy, International Journal of Modern Physics, International Journal of Theoretical Physics, Jackiw–Teitelboim gravity, John Archibald Wheeler, Kaluza–Klein theory, Lambert W function, Lecture Notes in Physics, Lee Smolin, List of quantum gravity researchers, Living Reviews in Relativity, Logarithmic Schrödinger equation, Loop quantum gravity, Lorentz covariance, M-theory, MacDowell–Mansouri action, Macrocosm and microcosm, Magnetic field, Minkowski space, Modern Physics Letters A, Nature (journal), Non-perturbative, Noncommutative geometry, Normal mode, Orders of magnitude (length), Oxford University Press, Particle accelerator, Particle physics, Path integral formulation, Penrose interpretation, Perturbation theory, Phenomenological quantum gravity, Photon, Physical Review, Physical Review Letters, Physics Letters, Planck length, Planck units, Planet, Point particle, Princeton University Press, Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Quantum cosmology, Quantum electrodynamics, Quantum field theory, Quantum Field Theory in a Nutshell, Quantum field theory in curved spacetime, Quantum foam, Quantum mechanics, Quantum realm, Regge calculus, Relational theory, Renormalization, Renormalization group, Reports on Progress in Physics, Reviews of Modern Physics, Roger Penrose, Roman Jackiw, Scale relativity, Scholarpedia, Schrödinger equation, Shape dynamics, Spacetime, Special relativity, Spin foam, Spin network, Standard Model, Star, String theory, String theory landscape, String-net liquid, Superfluid vacuum theory, Superfluidity, Supergravity, Superstring theory, Supersymmetry, Theoretical physics, Theory, Theory of everything, Three Roads to Quantum Gravity, Topological quantum field theory, Translation operator (quantum mechanics), Twistor theory, Ultraviolet fixed point, Universe, University of Oregon, Unruh effect, W. W. Norton & Company, Weak gravity conjecture, Weinberg–Witten theorem, Wheeler–DeWitt equation, World Scientific. Expand index (105 more) »

Abraham–Lorentz force

In the physics of electromagnetism, the Abraham–Lorentz force (also Lorentz–Abraham force) is the recoil force on an accelerating charged particle caused by the particle emitting electromagnetic radiation.

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AdS/CFT correspondence

In theoretical physics, the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence, sometimes called Maldacena duality or gauge/gravity duality, is a conjectured relationship between two kinds of physical theories.

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Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).

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An Exceptionally Simple Theory of Everything

"An Exceptionally Simple Theory of Everything" is a physics preprint proposing a basis for a unified field theory, often referred to as "E8 Theory", which attempts to describe all known fundamental interactions in physics and to stand as a possible theory of everything.

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Annalen der Physik

Annalen der Physik (English: Annals of Physics) is one of the oldest scientific journals on physics and has been published since 1799.

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Ashtekar variables

In the ADM formulation of general relativity, spacetime is split into spatial slices and a time axis.

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Asymptotic freedom

In particle physics, asymptotic freedom is a property of some gauge theories that causes interactions between particles to become asymptotically weaker as the energy scale increases and the corresponding length scale decreases.

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Asymptotic safety in quantum gravity

Asymptotic safety (sometimes also referred to as nonperturbative renormalizability) is a concept in quantum field theory which aims at finding a consistent and predictive quantum theory of the gravitational field.

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An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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Background independence

Background independence is a condition in theoretical physics, that requires the defining equations of a theory to be independent of the actual shape of the spacetime and the value of various fields within the spacetime.

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Basic Books

Basic Books is a book publisher founded in 1952 and located in New York, now an imprint of Hachette Books.

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BICEP and Keck Array

BICEP (Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization) and the Keck Array are a series of cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments.

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Big Bang

The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.

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Black hole

A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.

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Black hole electron

In physics, there is a speculative notion that if there were a black hole with the same mass, charge and angular momentum as an electron, it would share some of the properties of the electron.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Canonical quantization

In physics, canonical quantization is a procedure for quantizing a classical theory, while attempting to preserve the formal structure, such as symmetries, of the classical theory, to the greatest extent possible.

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Canonical quantum gravity

In physics, canonical quantum gravity is an attempt to quantize the canonical formulation of general relativity (or canonical gravity).

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Carlo Rovelli

Carlo Rovelli (born 3 May 1956) is an Italian theoretical physicist, philosopher and writer who has worked in Italy, the United States and since 2000, in France.

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Causal dynamical triangulation

Causal dynamical triangulation (abbreviated as CDT) theorized by Renate Loll, Jan Ambjørn and Jerzy Jurkiewicz, and popularized by Fotini Markopoulou and Lee Smolin, is an approach to quantum gravity that like loop quantum gravity is background independent.

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Causal fermion system

The theory of causal fermion systems is an approach to describe fundamental physics.

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Causal sets

The causal sets program is an approach to quantum gravity.

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Centauro event

A Centauro event is a kind of anomalous event observed in cosmic-ray detectors since 1972.

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Charge (physics)

In physics, a charge may refer to one of many different quantities, such as the electric charge in electromagnetism or the color charge in quantum chromodynamics.

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Classical and Quantum Gravity

Classical and Quantum Gravity is a peer-reviewed journal that covers all aspects of gravitational physics and the theory of spacetime.

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Classical field theory

A classical field theory is a physical theory that predicts how one or more physical fields interact with matter through field equations.

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Classical mechanics

Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies.

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Classical physics

Classical physics refers to theories of physics that predate modern, more complete, or more widely applicable theories.

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Color confinement

In quantum chromodynamics (QCD), color confinement, often simply called confinement, is the phenomenon that color charged particles (such as quarks and gluons) cannot be isolated, and therefore cannot be directly observed in normal conditions below the Hagedorn temperature of approximately 2 trillion kelvin (corresponding to energies of approximately 130–140 MeV per particle).

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Composite gravity

In theoretical physics, composite gravity refers to models that attempted to derive general relativity in a framework where the graviton is constructed as a composite bound state of more elementary particles, usually fermions.

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Condensed matter physics

Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic and microscopic physical properties of matter.

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Cosmic dust

Cosmic dust, also called extraterrestrial dust or space dust, is dust which exists in outer space, as well as all over planet Earth.

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Cosmic microwave background

The cosmic microwave background (CMB, CMBR) is electromagnetic radiation as a remnant from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang cosmology.

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Current Science

Current Science is an English-language peer-reviewed multidisciplinary scientific journal.

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De Sitter invariant special relativity

In mathematical physics, de Sitter invariant special relativity is the speculative idea that the fundamental symmetry group of spacetime is the indefinite orthogonal group SO(4,1), that of de Sitter space.

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Differential geometry

Differential geometry is a mathematical discipline that uses the techniques of differential calculus, integral calculus, linear algebra and multilinear algebra to study problems in geometry.

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In particle physics, the hypothetical dilaton particle, and scalar field, appears in theories with extra dimensions when the volume of the compactified dimensions varies.

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Doubly special relativity

Doubly special relativity (DSR) – also called deformed special relativity or, by some, extra-special relativity – is a modified theory of special relativity in which there is not only an observer-independent maximum velocity (the speed of light), but an observer-independent maximum energy scale and minimum length scale (the Planck energy and Planck length).

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Effective field theory

In physics, an effective field theory is a type of approximation, or effective theory, for an underlying physical theory, such as a quantum field theory or a statistical mechanics model.

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Einstein field equations

The Einstein field equations (EFE; also known as Einstein's equations) comprise the set of 10 equations in Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity that describe the fundamental interaction of gravitation as a result of spacetime being curved by mass and energy.

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Electric field

An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.

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Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.

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Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

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Euclidean quantum gravity

In theoretical physics, Euclidean quantum gravity is a version of quantum gravity.

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Event symmetry

In physics, event symmetry includes invariance principles that have been used in some discrete approaches to quantum gravity where the diffeomorphism invariance of general relativity can be extended to a covariance under every permutation of spacetime events.

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Fock–Lorentz symmetry

Lorentz invariance follows from two independent postulates: the principle of relativity and the principle of constancy of the speed of light.

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Force carrier

In particle physics, force carriers or messenger particles or intermediate particles are particles that give rise to forces between other particles.

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Fundamental interaction

In physics, the fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces, are the interactions that do not appear to be reducible to more basic interactions.

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A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter.

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Gauge boson

In particle physics, a gauge boson is a force carrier, a bosonic particle that carries any of the fundamental interactions of nature, commonly called forces.

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General relativity

General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.

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General Relativity and Gravitation

General Relativity and Gravitation is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal.

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In theoretical physics, geometrodynamics is an attempt to describe spacetime and associated phenomena completely in terms of geometry.

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Grand Unified Theory

A Grand Unified Theory (GUT) is a model in particle physics in which, at high energy, the three gauge interactions of the Standard Model which define the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, or forces, are merged into one single force.

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Gravitational wave

Gravitational waves are the disturbance in the fabric ("curvature") of spacetime generated by accelerated masses and propagate as waves outward from their source at the speed of light.

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Gravitoelectromagnetism, abbreviated GEM, refers to a set of formal analogies between the equations for electromagnetism and relativistic gravitation; specifically: between Maxwell's field equations and an approximation, valid under certain conditions, to the Einstein field equations for general relativity.

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In theories of quantum gravity, the graviton is the hypothetical elementary particle that mediates the force of gravity.

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Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

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Group field theory

Group field theory (GFT) is a quantum field theory in which the base manifold is taken to be a Lie group.

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Hamiltonian (quantum mechanics)

In quantum mechanics, a Hamiltonian is an operator corresponding to the total energy of the system in most of the cases.

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Hawking radiation

Hawking radiation is blackbody radiation that is predicted to be released by black holes, due to quantum effects near the event horizon.

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Higgs boson

The Higgs boson is an elementary particle in the Standard Model of particle physics.

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Hořava–Lifshitz gravity

Hořava–Lifshitz gravity (or Hořava gravity) is a theory of quantum gravity proposed by Petr Hořava in 2009.

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In differential geometry, the holonomy of a connection on a smooth manifold is a general geometrical consequence of the curvature of the connection measuring the extent to which parallel transport around closed loops fails to preserve the geometrical data being transported.

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International Journal of Modern Physics

The International Journal of Modern Physics is a series of Physics journals published by World Scientific.

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International Journal of Theoretical Physics

The International Journal of Theoretical Physics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of physics published by Springer Science+Business Media since 1968.

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Jackiw–Teitelboim gravity

The R.

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John Archibald Wheeler

John Archibald Wheeler (July 9, 1911 – April 13, 2008) was an American theoretical physicist.

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Kaluza–Klein theory

In physics, Kaluza–Klein theory (KK theory) is a classical unified field theory of gravitation and electromagnetism built around the idea of a fifth dimension beyond the usual four of space and time and considered an important precursor to string theory.

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Lambert W function

In mathematics, the Lambert W function, also called the omega function or product logarithm, is a set of functions, namely the branches of the inverse relation of the function f(z).

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Lecture Notes in Physics

Lecture Notes in Physics (LNP) is a book series published by Springer Science+Business Media in the field of physics, including article related to both research and teaching.

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Lee Smolin

Lee Smolin (born June 6, 1955) is an American theoretical physicist, a faculty member at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, an adjunct professor of physics at the University of Waterloo and a member of the graduate faculty of the philosophy department at the University of Toronto.

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List of quantum gravity researchers

This is a list of (some of) the researchers in quantum gravity.

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Living Reviews in Relativity

Living Reviews in Relativity is a peer-reviewed open-access scientific journal publishing reviews on relativity in the areas of physics and astrophysics.

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Logarithmic Schrödinger equation

In theoretical physics, the logarithmic Schrödinger equation (sometimes abbreviated as LNSE or LogSE) is one of the nonlinear modifications of Schrödinger's equation.

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Loop quantum gravity

Loop quantum gravity (LQG) is a theory of quantum gravity, merging quantum mechanics and general relativity.

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Lorentz covariance

In relativistic physics, Lorentz symmetry, named for Hendrik Lorentz, is an equivalence of observation or observational symmetry due to special relativity implying that the laws of physics stay the same for all observers that are moving with respect to one another within an inertial frame.

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M-theory is a theory in physics that unifies all consistent versions of superstring theory.

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MacDowell–Mansouri action

The MacDowell–Mansouri action (named after S. W. MacDowell and Freydoon Mansouri) is an action that is used to derive Einstein's field equations of general relativity.

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Macrocosm and microcosm

Macrocosm and microcosm refers to a vision of cosmos where the part (microcosm) reflects the whole (macrocosm) and vice versa.

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Magnetic field

A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.

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Minkowski space

In mathematical physics, Minkowski space (or Minkowski spacetime) is a combining of three-dimensional Euclidean space and time into a four-dimensional manifold where the spacetime interval between any two events is independent of the inertial frame of reference in which they are recorded.

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Modern Physics Letters A

Modern Physics Letters A (MPLA) is the first in a series of journals published by World Scientific under the Modern Physics Letters moniker.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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In mathematics and physics, a non-perturbative function or process is one that cannot be accurately described by perturbation theory.

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Noncommutative geometry

Noncommutative geometry (NCG) is a branch of mathematics concerned with a geometric approach to noncommutative algebras, and with the construction of spaces that are locally presented by noncommutative algebras of functions (possibly in some generalized sense).

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Normal mode

A normal mode of an oscillating system is a pattern of motion in which all parts of the system move sinusoidally with the same frequency and with a fixed phase relation.

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Orders of magnitude (length)

The following are examples of orders of magnitude for different lengths.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Particle accelerator

A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.

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Particle physics

Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.

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Path integral formulation

The path integral formulation of quantum mechanics is a description of quantum theory that generalizes the action principle of classical mechanics.

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Penrose interpretation

The Penrose interpretation is a prediction by Sir Roger Penrose (born 1931) about the relationship between quantum mechanics and general relativity.

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Perturbation theory

Perturbation theory comprises mathematical methods for finding an approximate solution to a problem, by starting from the exact solution of a related, simpler problem.

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Phenomenological quantum gravity

Phenomenological quantum gravity is a research field in theoretical physics and a subfield of quantum gravity.

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The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

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Physical Review

Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.

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Physical Review Letters

Physical Review Letters (PRL), established in 1958, is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that is published 52 times per year by the American Physical Society.

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Physics Letters

Physics Letters was a scientific journal published from 1962 to 1966, when it split in two series now published by Elsevier.

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Planck length

In physics, the Planck length, denoted, is a unit of length, equal to metres.

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Planck units

In particle physics and physical cosmology, Planck units are a set of units of measurement defined exclusively in terms of five universal physical constants, in such a manner that these five physical constants take on the numerical value of 1 when expressed in terms of these units.

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A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.

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Point particle

A point particle (ideal particle or point-like particle, often spelled pointlike particle) is an idealization of particles heavily used in physics.

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Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

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Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics

Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Physical Society of Japan.

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Quantum cosmology

Quantum cosmology is the attempt in theoretical physics to develop a quantum theory of the Universe.

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Quantum electrodynamics

In particle physics, quantum electrodynamics (QED) is the relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics.

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Quantum field theory

In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is the theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics.

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Quantum Field Theory in a Nutshell

Quantum Field Theory in a Nutshell is a textbook by Anthony Zee covering quantum field theory.

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Quantum field theory in curved spacetime

In particle physics, quantum field theory in curved spacetime is an extension of standard, Minkowski space quantum field theory to curved spacetime.

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Quantum foam

Quantum foam (or spacetime foam) is the fluctuation of spacetime on very small scales due to quantum mechanics.

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Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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Quantum realm

The quantum realm, also called the quantum scale, is a term of art in physics referring to scales where quantum mechanical effects become important when studied as an isolated system.

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Regge calculus

In general relativity, Regge calculus is a formalism for producing simplicial approximations of spacetimes that are solutions to the Einstein field equation.

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Relational theory

In physics and philosophy, a relational theory is a framework to understand reality or a physical system in such a way that the positions and other properties of objects are only meaningful relative to other objects.

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Renormalization is a collection of techniques in quantum field theory, the statistical mechanics of fields, and the theory of self-similar geometric structures, that are used to treat infinities arising in calculated quantities by altering values of quantities to compensate for effects of their self-interactions.

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Renormalization group

In theoretical physics, the renormalization group (RG) refers to a mathematical apparatus that allows systematic investigation of the changes of a physical system as viewed at different scales.

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Reports on Progress in Physics

Reports on Progress in Physics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by IOP Publishing.

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Reviews of Modern Physics

Reviews of Modern Physics is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Physical Society.

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Roger Penrose

Sir Roger Penrose (born 8 August 1931) is an English mathematical physicist, mathematician and philosopher of science.

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Roman Jackiw

Roman Wladimir Jackiw (born 8 November 1939) is a theoretical physicist and Dirac Medallist.

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Scale relativity

Scale relativity is a geometrical and fractal space-time physical theory.

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Scholarpedia is an English-language online wiki-based encyclopedia with features commonly associated with open-access online academic journals, which aims to have quality content.

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Schrödinger equation

In quantum mechanics, the Schrödinger equation is a mathematical equation that describes the changes over time of a physical system in which quantum effects, such as wave–particle duality, are significant.

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Shape dynamics

In theoretical physics, shape dynamics (Shape Dynamics) is a theory of gravity that implements Mach's principle, developed with the specific goal to obviate the problem of time and thereby open a new path toward the resolution of incompatibilities between general relativity and quantum mechanics.

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In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum.

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Special relativity

In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.

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Spin foam

In physics, the topological structure of spinfoam or spin foam consists of two-dimensional faces representing a configuration required by functional integration to obtain a Feynman's path integral description of quantum gravity.

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Spin network

In physics, a spin network is a type of diagram which can be used to represent states and interactions between particles and fields in quantum mechanics.

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Standard Model

The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.

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A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.

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String theory

In physics, string theory is a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings.

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String theory landscape

The string theory landscape refers to the collection of possible false vacua in string theory,The number of metastable vacua is not known exactly, but commonly quoted estimates are of the order 10500.

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String-net liquid

In condensed matter physics, a string-net is an extended object whose collective behavior has been proposed as a physical mechanism for topological order by Michael A. Levin and Xiao-Gang Wen.

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Superfluid vacuum theory

Superfluid vacuum theory (SVT), sometimes known as the BEC vacuum theory, is an approach in theoretical physics and quantum mechanics where the fundamental physical vacuum (non-removable background) is viewed as superfluid or as a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC).

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Superfluidity is the characteristic property of a fluid with zero viscosity which therefore flows without loss of kinetic energy.

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In theoretical physics, supergravity (supergravity theory; SUGRA for short) is a modern field theory that combines the principles of supersymmetry and general relativity where supersymmetry obeys locality; in contrast to non-gravitational supersymmetric theories such as the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model.

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Superstring theory

Superstring theory is an attempt to explain all of the particles and fundamental forces of nature in one theory by modeling them as vibrations of tiny supersymmetric strings.

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In particle physics, supersymmetry (SUSY) is a theory that proposes a relationship between two basic classes of elementary particles: bosons, which have an integer-valued spin, and fermions, which have a half-integer spin.

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Theoretical physics

Theoretical physics is a branch of physics that employs mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena.

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A theory is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or the results of such thinking.

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Theory of everything

A theory of everything (ToE), final theory, ultimate theory, or master theory is a hypothetical single, all-encompassing, coherent theoretical framework of physics that fully explains and links together all physical aspects of the universe.

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Three Roads to Quantum Gravity

Three Roads to Quantum Gravity: A New Understanding of Space, Time and the Universe is the second non-fiction book by American theoretical physicist Lee Smolin.

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Topological quantum field theory

A topological quantum field theory (or topological field theory or TQFT) is a quantum field theory which computes topological invariants.

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Translation operator (quantum mechanics)

In quantum mechanics, a translation operator is defined as an operator which shifts particles and fields by a certain amount in a certain direction.

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Twistor theory

Twistor theory was proposed by Roger Penrose in 1967 as a possible path to quantum gravity and has evolved into a branch of theoretical and mathematical physics.

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Ultraviolet fixed point

In a quantum field theory, one may calculate an effective or running coupling constant that defines the coupling of the theory measured at a given momentum scale.

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The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.

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University of Oregon

The University of Oregon (also referred to as UO, U of O or Oregon) is a public flagship research university in Eugene, Oregon.

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Unruh effect

The Unruh effect (or sometimes Fulling–Davies–Unruh effect) is the prediction that an accelerating observer will observe blackbody radiation where an inertial observer would observe none.

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W. W. Norton & Company


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Weak gravity conjecture

The weak gravity conjecture (WGC) is a conjecture regarding the strength gravity can have in a theory of quantum gravity relative to the gauge forces in that theory.

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Weinberg–Witten theorem

In theoretical physics, the Weinberg–Witten (WW) theorem, proved by Steven Weinberg and Edward Witten, states that massless particles (either composite or elementary) with spin j > 1/2 cannot carry a Lorentz-covariant current, while massless particles with spin j > 1 cannot carry a Lorentz-covariant stress-energy.

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Wheeler–DeWitt equation

The Wheeler–DeWitt equation is a field equation.

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World Scientific

World Scientific Publishing is an academic publisher of scientific, technical, and medical books and journals headquartered in Singapore.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_gravity

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