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Quantum mechanics

Index Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles. [1]

356 relations: Abdus Salam, Absolute zero, Accuracy and precision, Acta Physica Polonica, Action (physics), Action at a distance, Addison-Wesley, Albert Einstein, Albert Messiah, Algebra, Angular momentum, Angular momentum diagrams (quantum mechanics), Annalen der Physik, Arnold Sommerfeld, Arthur Compton, Artificial intelligence, Atom, Atomic nucleus, Atomic orbital, Atomic physics, Atomic theory, Bartel Leendert van der Waerden, Bell test experiments, Bell's theorem, Biological system, Black-body radiation, Bohr model, Bohr–Einstein debates, Born rule, Bose–Einstein condensate, Boundary value problem, Bra–ket notation, Bryce DeWitt, C. V. Raman, California Institute of Technology, Cambridge University Press, Carlo Rovelli, Cathode ray, Causality, Chaos theory, Charged particle, Chemical bond, Chemical element, Chemistry, Christiaan Huygens, Chronon, Circular motion, Classical limit, Classical mechanics, Classical physics, ..., Coherence (physics), Coherence length, Commutator, Complementarity (physics), Complex number, Complex projective space, Computational chemistry, Computational physics, Computer, Condensed matter physics, Conjugate variables, Continuous function, Copenhagen interpretation, Cornell University Press, Corpuscular theory of light, Correspondence principle, Cosmology, Counterintuitive, Covalent bond, Cryptography, David Bohm, David Hilbert, Derivative, Determinism, Dihydrogen cation, Diode, Dirac delta function, Dirac equation, Discrete mathematics, Distribution (mathematics), Dover Publications, Eavesdropping, Edward Witten, Eigenvalues and eigenvectors, Einstein's thought experiments, Electric charge, Electric current, Electric field, Electric potential, Electromagnetic field, Electromagnetic radiation, Electromagnetism, Electron, Electron microscope, Electronics, Electroweak interaction, Elliptic orbit, Empirical evidence, Energy, Enrico Fermi, Epistemology, EPR paradox, Ernest Rutherford, Erwin Schrödinger, Euler's formula, Evgeny Lifshitz, Fermi level, Festschrift, Field (physics), Flash memory, Florida State College at Jacksonville, Fractional quantum Hall effect, Fractional quantum mechanics, Free particle, Freeman Dyson, Frequency, Fundamental interaction, Gödel's incompleteness theorems, General relativity, George Mackey, German language, Giancarlo Ghirardi, Gluon, Grand Unified Theory, Gravity, Gustav Kirchhoff, Hagen Kleinert, Hamiltonian (quantum mechanics), Hamiltonian mechanics, Hans Bethe, Harmonic oscillator, Hawking radiation, Helium, Henry Moseley, Herbert Goldstein, Herbert S. Green, Hermann Weyl, Hermite polynomials, Hermitian adjoint, Hilbert space, Hippo Family Club, History of quantum mechanics, Hydrogen atom, IBM, Information, Inner product space, Integer factorization, Integrated circuit, Interpretations of quantum mechanics, Ionic bonding, Isaac Newton, Isotope, J. J. Sakurai, John Stewart Bell, John von Neumann, Kinetic energy, Klein–Gordon equation, Lagrangian mechanics, Laser, Latin, Léon Rosenfeld, Leonard Susskind, Leonhard Euler, Lev Landau, Light, Light switch, Light-emitting diode, List of quantum-mechanical systems with analytical solutions, Loop quantum gravity, Louis de Broglie, Ludwig Boltzmann, M-theory, Macroscopic quantum phenomena, Macroscopic scale, Magnetic resonance imaging, Many-worlds interpretation, Martinus J. G. Veltman, Mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics, Mathematics, Matrix mechanics, Matter, Max Born, Max Jammer, Max Planck, Max von Laue, Maxwell's equations, Measurement in quantum mechanics, Medical imaging, Michael Faraday, Microprocessor, Minkowski space, MIT OpenCourseWare, Molecular physics, Molecule, Momentum, Momentum operator, Multiverse, N. David Mermin, NanoHUB, Nature, Neutron, New Scientist, Newton's laws of motion, Niels Bohr, Nobel Prize in Physics, Nuclear chemistry, Nuclear force, Nuclear physics, Observable, Observer effect (physics), Old quantum theory, Olfaction, Operator (physics), Pamela L. Gay, Particle, Particle in a box, Particle physics, Pascual Jordan, Path integral formulation, Paul Dirac, Pergamon Press, Periodic table, Perturbation theory (quantum mechanics), Peter Debye, Phase (waves), Phase space formulation, Philosophy, Photoelectric effect, Photon, Photosynthesis, Physical cosmology, Physical quantity, Physical Review Letters, Physics, Pi, Pieter Zeeman, Planck constant, Planck length, Planck's law, Plane wave, Polymath, Position operator, Potential energy, Precision tests of QED, Princeton University Press, Principle of locality, Principles of Quantum Mechanics, Probability, Probability amplitude, Probability distribution, Probability distribution function, Projective space, Protein structure, Proton, QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter, Quantization (physics), Quantum chaos, Quantum chemistry, Quantum chromodynamics, Quantum computing, Quantum cryptography, Quantum decoherence, Quantum electrodynamics, Quantum entanglement, Quantum field theory, Quantum gravity, Quantum harmonic oscillator, Quantum information science, Quantum machine, Quantum mechanics, Quantum number, Quantum optics, Quantum state, Quantum superposition, Quantum teleportation, Quantum tunnelling, Quark, Qubit, Randomness, Rectangular potential barrier, Reductionism, Regularization (physics), Relational quantum mechanics, Resonance (journal), Resonant-tunneling diode, Richard Feynman, Richard Liboff, Robert Andrews Millikan, Robert Hooke, Robert Resnick, Roland Omnès, Satyendra Nath Bose, Scanning tunneling microscope, Schrödinger equation, Science Daily, Self-adjoint operator, Semiconductor, Separable space, Sheldon Lee Glashow, Solid-state physics, Solvay Conference, Special relativity, Spectral theorem, Spectrum, Speed of light, Spherical basis, Spherical coordinate system, Spin network, Square-integrable function, State space (physics), Stephen Hawking, Steven Weinberg, String theory, Strong interaction, Subatomic particle, Superconducting magnet, Superconductivity, Superfluidity, Superlattice, Superposition principle, Telecommunication, The Dancing Wu Li Masters, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, The Quantum Universe, Theory of everything, Theory of relativity, Thomas Young (scientist), Thought experiment, Time evolution, Topological order, Transactional interpretation, Transformation theory (quantum mechanics), Transistor, Trigonometry, Uncertainty principle, Unit vector, Universe Today, USB flash drive, Vector space, Victor J. Stenger, W. H. Freeman and Company, Wave, Wave function, Wave function collapse, Wave interference, Wave packet, Wave vector, Wave–particle duality, Wavelength, Weak interaction, Werner Heisenberg, Wien approximation, Wilhelm Wien, Wolfgang Pauli, Yahoo! GeoCities, Young's interference experiment. Expand index (306 more) »

Abdus Salam

Mohammad Abdus Salam Salam adopted the forename "Mohammad" in 1974 in response to the anti-Ahmadiyya decrees in Pakistan, similarly he grew his beard.

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Absolute zero

Absolute zero is the lower limit of the thermodynamic temperature scale, a state at which the enthalpy and entropy of a cooled ideal gas reach their minimum value, taken as 0.

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Accuracy and precision

Precision is a description of random errors, a measure of statistical variability.

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Acta Physica Polonica

Acta Physica Polonica is an open access peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in physics.

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Action (physics)

In physics, action is an attribute of the dynamics of a physical system from which the equations of motion of the system can be derived.

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Action at a distance

In physics, action at a distance is the concept that an object can be moved, changed, or otherwise affected without being physically touched (as in mechanical contact) by another object.

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Addison-Wesley is a publisher of textbooks and computer literature.

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Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).

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Albert Messiah

Albert Messiah (23 September 1921, Nice – 17 April 2013, Paris) was a French physicist.

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Algebra (from Arabic "al-jabr", literally meaning "reunion of broken parts") is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and analysis.

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Angular momentum

In physics, angular momentum (rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational equivalent of linear momentum.

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Angular momentum diagrams (quantum mechanics)

In quantum mechanics and its applications to quantum many-particle systems, notably quantum chemistry, angular momentum diagrams, or more accurately from a mathematical viewpoint angular momentum graphs, are a diagrammatic method for representing angular momentum quantum states of a quantum system allowing calculations to be done symbolically.

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Annalen der Physik

Annalen der Physik (English: Annals of Physics) is one of the oldest scientific journals on physics and has been published since 1799.

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Arnold Sommerfeld

Arnold Johannes Wilhelm Sommerfeld, (5 December 1868 – 26 April 1951) was a German theoretical physicist who pioneered developments in atomic and quantum physics, and also educated and mentored a large number of students for the new era of theoretical physics.

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Arthur Compton

Arthur Holly Compton (September 10, 1892 – March 15, 1962) was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1927 for his 1923 discovery of the Compton effect, which demonstrated the particle nature of electromagnetic radiation.

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Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.

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An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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Atomic nucleus

The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.

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Atomic orbital

In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.

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Atomic physics

Atomic physics is the field of physics that studies atoms as an isolated system of electrons and an atomic nucleus.

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Atomic theory

In chemistry and physics, atomic theory is a scientific theory of the nature of matter, which states that matter is composed of discrete units called atoms.

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Bartel Leendert van der Waerden

Bartel Leendert van der Waerden (February 2, 1903 – January 12, 1996) was a Dutch mathematician and historian of mathematics.

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Bell test experiments

A Bell test experiment or Bell's inequality experiment, also simply a Bell test, is a real-world physics experiment designed to test the theory of quantum mechanics in relation to two other concepts: the principle of locality and Einstein's concept of "local realism".

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Bell's theorem

Bell's theorem is a "no-go theorem" that draws an important distinction between quantum mechanics and the world as described by classical mechanics.

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Biological system

A biological system is a complex network of biologically relevant entities.

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Black-body radiation

Black-body radiation is the thermal electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or emitted by a black body (an opaque and non-reflective body).

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Bohr model

In atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model or Bohr diagram, introduced by Niels Bohr and Ernest Rutherford in 1913, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus—similar to the structure of the Solar System, but with attraction provided by electrostatic forces rather than gravity.

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Bohr–Einstein debates

The Bohr–Einstein debates were a series of public disputes about quantum mechanics between Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr.

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Born rule

The Born rule (also called the Born law, Born's rule, or Born's law) formulated by German physicist Max Born in 1926, is a law of quantum mechanics giving the probability that a measurement on a quantum system will yield a given result.

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Bose–Einstein condensate

A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter of a dilute gas of bosons cooled to temperatures very close to absolute zero.

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Boundary value problem

In mathematics, in the field of differential equations, a boundary value problem is a differential equation together with a set of additional constraints, called the boundary conditions.

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Bra–ket notation

In quantum mechanics, bra–ket notation is a standard notation for describing quantum states.

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Bryce DeWitt

Bryce Seligman DeWitt (January 8, 1923 – September 23, 2004) was an American theoretical physicist who studied gravity and field theories.

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C. V. Raman

Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (7 November 188821 November 1970) was an Indian physicist born in the former Madras Province in India presently the state of Tamil Nadu, who carried out ground-breaking work in the field of light scattering, which earned him the 1930 Nobel Prize for Physics.

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California Institute of Technology

The California Institute of Technology (abbreviated Caltech)The university itself only spells its short form as "Caltech"; other spellings such as.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Carlo Rovelli

Carlo Rovelli (born 3 May 1956) is an Italian theoretical physicist, philosopher and writer who has worked in Italy, the United States and since 2000, in France.

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Cathode ray

Cathode rays (also called an electron beam or e-beam) are streams of electrons observed in vacuum tubes.

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Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.

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Chaos theory

Chaos theory is a branch of mathematics focusing on the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions.

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Charged particle

In physics, a charged particle is a particle with an electric charge.

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Chemical bond

A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.

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Chemical element

A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).

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Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.

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Christiaan Huygens

Christiaan Huygens (Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695) was a Dutch physicist, mathematician, astronomer and inventor, who is widely regarded as one of the greatest scientists of all time and a major figure in the scientific revolution.

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A chronon is a proposed quantum of time, that is, a discrete and indivisible "unit" of time as part of a hypothesis that proposes that time is not continuous.

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Circular motion

In physics, circular motion is a movement of an object along the circumference of a circle or rotation along a circular path.

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Classical limit

The classical limit or correspondence limit is the ability of a physical theory to approximate or "recover" classical mechanics when considered over special values of its parameters.

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Classical mechanics

Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies.

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Classical physics

Classical physics refers to theories of physics that predate modern, more complete, or more widely applicable theories.

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Coherence (physics)

In physics, two wave sources are perfectly coherent if they have a constant phase difference and the same frequency, and the same waveform.

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Coherence length

In physics, coherence length is the propagation distance over which a coherent wave (e.g. an electromagnetic wave) maintains a specified degree of coherence.

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In mathematics, the commutator gives an indication of the extent to which a certain binary operation fails to be commutative.

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Complementarity (physics)

In physics, complementarity is both a theoretical and an experimental result of quantum mechanics, also referred to as principle of complementarity.

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Complex number

A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form, where and are real numbers, and is a solution of the equation.

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Complex projective space

In mathematics, complex projective space is the projective space with respect to the field of complex numbers.

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Computational chemistry

Computational chemistry is a branch of chemistry that uses computer simulation to assist in solving chemical problems.

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Computational physics

Computational physics is the study and implementation of numerical analysis to solve problems in physics for which a quantitative theory already exists.

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A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.

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Condensed matter physics

Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic and microscopic physical properties of matter.

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Conjugate variables

Conjugate variables are pairs of variables mathematically defined in such a way that they become Fourier transform duals, or more generally are related through Pontryagin duality.

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Continuous function

In mathematics, a continuous function is a function for which sufficiently small changes in the input result in arbitrarily small changes in the output.

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Copenhagen interpretation

The Copenhagen interpretation is an expression of the meaning of quantum mechanics that was largely devised in the years 1925 to 1927 by Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg.

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Cornell University Press

The Cornell University Press is a division of Cornell University housed in Sage House, the former residence of Henry William Sage.

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Corpuscular theory of light

In optics, the corpuscular theory of light, arguably set forward by Descartes (1637) states that light is made up of small discrete particles called "corpuscles" (little particles) which travel in a straight line with a finite velocity and possess impetus.

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Correspondence principle

In physics, the correspondence principle states that the behavior of systems described by the theory of quantum mechanics (or by the old quantum theory) reproduces classical physics in the limit of large quantum numbers.

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Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.

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A counterintuitive proposition is one that does not seem likely to be true when assessed using intuition, common sense, or gut feelings.

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Covalent bond

A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

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Cryptography or cryptology (from κρυπτός|translit.

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David Bohm

David Joseph Bohm FRS (December 20, 1917 – October 27, 1992) was an American scientist who has been described as one of the most significant theoretical physicists of the 20th centuryF.

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David Hilbert

David Hilbert (23 January 1862 – 14 February 1943) was a German mathematician.

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The derivative of a function of a real variable measures the sensitivity to change of the function value (output value) with respect to a change in its argument (input value).

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Determinism is the philosophical theory that all events, including moral choices, are completely determined by previously existing causes.

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Dihydrogen cation

The hydrogen molecular ion, dihydrogen cation, or, is the simplest molecular ion.

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A diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts current primarily in one direction (asymmetric conductance); it has low (ideally zero) resistance in one direction, and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other.

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Dirac delta function

In mathematics, the Dirac delta function (function) is a generalized function or distribution introduced by the physicist Paul Dirac.

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Dirac equation

In particle physics, the Dirac equation is a relativistic wave equation derived by British physicist Paul Dirac in 1928.

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Discrete mathematics

Discrete mathematics is the study of mathematical structures that are fundamentally discrete rather than continuous.

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Distribution (mathematics)

Distributions (or generalized functions) are objects that generalize the classical notion of functions in mathematical analysis.

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Dover Publications

Dover Publications, also known as Dover Books, is an American book publisher founded in 1941 by Hayward Cirker and his wife, Blanche.

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Eavesdropping is secretly or stealthily listening to the private conversation or communications of others without their consent.

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Edward Witten

Edward Witten (born August 26, 1951) is an American theoretical physicist and professor of mathematical physics at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey.

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Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

In linear algebra, an eigenvector or characteristic vector of a linear transformation is a non-zero vector that changes by only a scalar factor when that linear transformation is applied to it.

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Einstein's thought experiments

A hallmark of Albert Einstein's career was his use of visualized thought experiments (Gedankenexperiment) as a fundamental tool for understanding physical issues and for elucidating his concepts to others.

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Electric charge

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.

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Electric current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge.

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Electric field

An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.

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Electric potential

An electric potential (also called the electric field potential, potential drop or the electrostatic potential) is the amount of work needed to move a unit positive charge from a reference point to a specific point inside the field without producing any acceleration.

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Electromagnetic field

An electromagnetic field (also EMF or EM field) is a physical field produced by electrically charged objects.

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Electromagnetic radiation

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

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Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

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The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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Electron microscope

An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.

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Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.

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Electroweak interaction

In particle physics, the electroweak interaction is the unified description of two of the four known fundamental interactions of nature: electromagnetism and the weak interaction.

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Elliptic orbit

In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics, an elliptic orbit or elliptical orbit is a Kepler orbit with an eccentricity of less than 1; this includes the special case of a circular orbit, with eccentricity equal to 0.

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Empirical evidence

Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.

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In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.

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Enrico Fermi

Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian-American physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.

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Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.

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EPR paradox

The Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen paradox or the EPR paradox of 1935 is a thought experiment in quantum mechanics with which Albert Einstein and his colleagues Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen (EPR) claimed to demonstrate that the wave function does not provide a complete description of physical reality, and hence that the Copenhagen interpretation is unsatisfactory; resolutions of the paradox have important implications for the interpretation of quantum mechanics.

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Ernest Rutherford

Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, HFRSE LLD (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937) was a New Zealand-born British physicist who came to be known as the father of nuclear physics.

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Erwin Schrödinger

Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (12 August 1887 – 4 January 1961), sometimes written as or, was a Nobel Prize-winning Austrian physicist who developed a number of fundamental results in the field of quantum theory, which formed the basis of wave mechanics: he formulated the wave equation (stationary and time-dependent Schrödinger equation) and revealed the identity of his development of the formalism and matrix mechanics.

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Euler's formula

Euler's formula, named after Leonhard Euler, is a mathematical formula in complex analysis that establishes the fundamental relationship between the trigonometric functions and the complex exponential function.

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Evgeny Lifshitz

Evgeny Mikhailovich Lifshitz (Евге́ний Миха́йлович Ли́фшиц; February 21, 1915, Kharkov, Russian Empire – October 29, 1985, Moscow, Russian SFSR) was a leading Soviet physicist and the brother of physicist Ilya Mikhailovich Lifshitz.

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Fermi level

The Fermi level chemical potential for electrons (or electrochemical potential for electrons), usually denoted by µ or EF, of a body is a thermodynamic quantity, whose significance is the thermodynamic work required to add one electron to the body (not counting the work required to remove the electron from wherever it came from).

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In academia, a Festschrift (plural, Festschriften) is a book honoring a respected person, especially an academic, and presented during their lifetime.

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Field (physics)

In physics, a field is a physical quantity, represented by a number or tensor, that has a value for each point in space and time.

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Flash memory

Flash memory is an electronic (solid-state) non-volatile computer storage medium that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed.

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Florida State College at Jacksonville

Florida State College at Jacksonville (FSCJ) is a state college in Jacksonville, Florida.

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Fractional quantum Hall effect

The fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) is a physical phenomenon in which the Hall conductance of 2D electrons shows precisely quantised plateaus at fractional values of e^2/h.

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Fractional quantum mechanics

In physics, fractional quantum mechanics is a generalization of standard quantum mechanics, which naturally comes out when the Brownian-like quantum paths substitute with the Lévy-like ones in the Feynman path integral.

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Free particle

In physics, a free particle is a particle that, in some sense, is not bound by an external force, or equivalently not in a region where its potential energy varies.

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Freeman Dyson

Freeman John Dyson (born 15 December 1923) is an English-born American theoretical physicist and mathematician.

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Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.

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Fundamental interaction

In physics, the fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces, are the interactions that do not appear to be reducible to more basic interactions.

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Gödel's incompleteness theorems

Gödel's incompleteness theorems are two theorems of mathematical logic that demonstrate the inherent limitations of every formal axiomatic system containing basic arithmetic.

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General relativity

General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.

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George Mackey

George Whitelaw Mackey (February 1, 1916 – March 15, 2006) was an American mathematician.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Giancarlo Ghirardi

Giancarlo Ghirardi (28 October 1935 – 1 June 2018) was an Italian physicist and emeritus professor of theoretical physics at the University of Trieste.

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A gluon is an elementary particle that acts as the exchange particle (or gauge boson) for the strong force between quarks.

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Grand Unified Theory

A Grand Unified Theory (GUT) is a model in particle physics in which, at high energy, the three gauge interactions of the Standard Model which define the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, or forces, are merged into one single force.

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Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

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Gustav Kirchhoff

Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (12 March 1824 – 17 October 1887) was a German physicist who contributed to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects.

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Hagen Kleinert

Hagen Kleinert (born 15 June 1941) is Professor of Theoretical Physics at the Free University of Berlin, Germany (since 1968), at the West University of Timişoara, at the in Bishkek.

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Hamiltonian (quantum mechanics)

In quantum mechanics, a Hamiltonian is an operator corresponding to the total energy of the system in most of the cases.

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Hamiltonian mechanics

Hamiltonian mechanics is a theory developed as a reformulation of classical mechanics and predicts the same outcomes as non-Hamiltonian classical mechanics.

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Hans Bethe

Hans Albrecht Bethe (July 2, 1906 – March 6, 2005) was a German-American nuclear physicist who made important contributions to astrophysics, quantum electrodynamics and solid-state physics, and won the 1967 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis.

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Harmonic oscillator

In classical mechanics, a harmonic oscillator is a system that, when displaced from its equilibrium position, experiences a restoring force, F, proportional to the displacement, x: where k is a positive constant.

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Hawking radiation

Hawking radiation is blackbody radiation that is predicted to be released by black holes, due to quantum effects near the event horizon.

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Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.

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Henry Moseley

Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley (23 November 1887 – 10 August 1915) was an English physicist, whose contribution to the science of physics was the justification from physical laws of the previous empirical and chemical concept of the atomic number.

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Herbert Goldstein

Herbert Goldstein (June 26, 1922 – January 12, 2005) was an American physicist and the author of the standard graduate textbook Classical Mechanics.

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Herbert S. Green

Herbert (Bert) Sydney Green (17 December 1920 – 16 February 1999) was a British–Australian physicist.

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Hermann Weyl

Hermann Klaus Hugo Weyl, (9 November 1885 – 8 December 1955) was a German mathematician, theoretical physicist and philosopher.

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Hermite polynomials

In mathematics, the Hermite polynomials are a classical orthogonal polynomial sequence.

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Hermitian adjoint

In mathematics, specifically in functional analysis, each bounded linear operator on a complex Hilbert space has a corresponding adjoint operator.

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Hilbert space

The mathematical concept of a Hilbert space, named after David Hilbert, generalizes the notion of Euclidean space.

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Hippo Family Club

The is a brainchild of an organization known as the Institute for Language Experience, Experiment & Exchange, also known as LEX.

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History of quantum mechanics

The history of quantum mechanics is a fundamental part of the history of modern physics.

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Hydrogen atom

A hydrogen atom is an atom of the chemical element hydrogen.

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The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.

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Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.

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Inner product space

In linear algebra, an inner product space is a vector space with an additional structure called an inner product.

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Integer factorization

In number theory, integer factorization is the decomposition of a composite number into a product of smaller integers.

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Integrated circuit

An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.

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Interpretations of quantum mechanics

An interpretation of quantum mechanics is an attempt to explain how concepts in quantum mechanics correspond to reality.

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Ionic bonding

Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds.

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Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

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Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.

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J. J. Sakurai

was a Japanese-American particle physicist and theorist.

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John Stewart Bell

John Stewart Bell FRS (28 June 1928 – 1 October 1990) was a Northern Irish physicist, and the originator of Bell's theorem, an important theorem in quantum physics regarding hidden variable theories.

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John von Neumann

John von Neumann (Neumann János Lajos,; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, and polymath.

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Kinetic energy

In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.

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Klein–Gordon equation

The Klein–Gordon equation (Klein–Fock–Gordon equation or sometimes Klein–Gordon–Fock equation) is a relativistic wave equation, related to the Schrödinger equation.

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Lagrangian mechanics

Lagrangian mechanics is a reformulation of classical mechanics, introduced by the Italian-French mathematician and astronomer Joseph-Louis Lagrange in 1788.

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A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Léon Rosenfeld

Léon Rosenfeld (14 August 1904 in Charleroi – 23 March 1974) was a Belgian physicist and Marxist.

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Leonard Susskind

Leonard Susskind (born 1940)his 60th birthday was celebrated with a special symposium at Stanford University.

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Leonhard Euler

Leonhard Euler (Swiss Standard German:; German Standard German:; 15 April 170718 September 1783) was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, logician and engineer, who made important and influential discoveries in many branches of mathematics, such as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory, while also making pioneering contributions to several branches such as topology and analytic number theory.

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Lev Landau

Lev Davidovich Landau (22 January 1908 - April 1968) was a Soviet physicist who made fundamental contributions to many areas of theoretical physics.

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Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Light switch

In electrical wiring, a light switch is a switch, most commonly used to operate electric lights, permanently connected equipment, or electrical outlets.

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Light-emitting diode

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source.

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List of quantum-mechanical systems with analytical solutions

Much insight in quantum mechanics can be gained from understanding the closed-form solutions to the time-dependent non-relativistic Schrödinger equation in an appropriate configuration space.

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Loop quantum gravity

Loop quantum gravity (LQG) is a theory of quantum gravity, merging quantum mechanics and general relativity.

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Louis de Broglie

Louis Victor Pierre Raymond de Broglie, duke de Broglie (or; 15 August 1892 – 19 March 1987) was a French physicist who made groundbreaking contributions to quantum theory.

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Ludwig Boltzmann

Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (February 20, 1844 – September 5, 1906) was an Austrian physicist and philosopher whose greatest achievement was in the development of statistical mechanics, which explains and predicts how the properties of atoms (such as mass, charge, and structure) determine the physical properties of matter (such as viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion).

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M-theory is a theory in physics that unifies all consistent versions of superstring theory.

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Macroscopic quantum phenomena

Macroscopic quantum phenomena refer to processes showing quantum behavior at the macroscopic scale, rather than at the atomic scale where quantum effects are prevalent.

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Macroscopic scale

The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visible almost practically with the naked eye, without magnifying optical instruments.

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Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.

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Many-worlds interpretation

The many-worlds interpretation is an interpretation of quantum mechanics that asserts the objective reality of the universal wavefunction and denies the actuality of wavefunction collapse.

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Martinus J. G. Veltman

Martinus Justinus Godefriedus "Tini" Veltman (born 27 June 1931) is a Dutch theoretical physicist.

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Mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics

The mathematical formulations of quantum mechanics are those mathematical formalisms that permit a rigorous description of quantum mechanics.

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Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

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Matrix mechanics

Matrix mechanics is a formulation of quantum mechanics created by Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, and Pascual Jordan in 1925.

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In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.

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Max Born

Max Born (11 December 1882 – 5 January 1970) was a German physicist and mathematician who was instrumental in the development of quantum mechanics.

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Max Jammer

Max Jammer (born Moshe Jammer,; April 13, 1915 – December 18, 2010), was an Israeli physicist and philosopher of physics.

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Max Planck

Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS (23 April 1858 – 4 October 1947) was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.

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Max von Laue

Max Theodor Felix von Laue (9 October 1879 – 24 April 1960) was a German physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1914 for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals.

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Maxwell's equations

Maxwell's equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetism, classical optics, and electric circuits.

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Measurement in quantum mechanics

The framework of quantum mechanics requires a careful definition of measurement.

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Medical imaging

Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).

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Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.

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A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.

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Minkowski space

In mathematical physics, Minkowski space (or Minkowski spacetime) is a combining of three-dimensional Euclidean space and time into a four-dimensional manifold where the spacetime interval between any two events is independent of the inertial frame of reference in which they are recorded.

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MIT OpenCourseWare

MIT OpenCourseWare (MIT OCW) is an initiative of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to publish all of the educational materials from its undergraduateand graduate-level courses online, freely and openly available to anyone, anywhere.

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Molecular physics

Molecular physics is the study of the physical properties of molecules, the chemical bonds between atoms as well as the molecular dynamics.

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A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.

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Momentum operator

In quantum mechanics, the momentum operator is an operator which maps the wave function in a Hilbert space representing a quantum state to another function.

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The multiverse (or meta-universe) is a hypothetical group of multiple separate universes including the universe in which humans live.

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N. David Mermin

Nathaniel David Mermin (born 1935) is a solid-state physicist at Cornell University best known for the eponymous Mermin–Wagner theorem, his application of the term "boojum" to superfluidity, his textbook with Neil Ashcroft on solid-state physics, and for contributions to the foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum information science.

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nanoHUB.org is a science and engineering gateway comprising community-contributed resources and geared toward educational applications, professional networking, and interactive simulation tools for nanotechnology.

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Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe.

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| magnetic_moment.

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New Scientist

New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.

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Newton's laws of motion

Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics.

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Niels Bohr

Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.

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Nobel Prize in Physics

The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.

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Nuclear chemistry

Nuclear chemistry is the subfield of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes, such as nuclear transmutation, and nuclear properties.

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Nuclear force

The nuclear force (or nucleon–nucleon interaction or residual strong force) is a force that acts between the protons and neutrons of atoms.

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Nuclear physics

Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.

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In physics, an observable is a dynamic variable that can be measured.

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Observer effect (physics)

In physics, the observer effect is the theory that simply observing a situation or phenomenon necessarily changes that phenomenon.

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Old quantum theory

The old quantum theory is a collection of results from the years 1900–1925 which predate modern quantum mechanics.

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Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.

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Operator (physics)

In physics, an operator is a function over a space of physical states to another space of physical states.

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Pamela L. Gay

Pamela L. Gay (born December 12, 1973) is an American astronomer, educator, podcaster, and writer, best known for her work in astronomical podcasting and citizen science astronomy projects.

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In the physical sciences, a particle (or corpuscule in older texts) is a small localized object to which can be ascribed several physical or chemical properties such as volume, density or mass.

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Particle in a box

In quantum mechanics, the particle in a box model (also known as the infinite potential well or the infinite square well) describes a particle free to move in a small space surrounded by impenetrable barriers.

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Particle physics

Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.

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Pascual Jordan

Ernst Pascual Jordan (18 October 1902 – 31 July 1980) was a theoretical and mathematical physicist who made significant contributions to quantum mechanics and quantum field theory.

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Path integral formulation

The path integral formulation of quantum mechanics is a description of quantum theory that generalizes the action principle of classical mechanics.

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Paul Dirac

Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (8 August 1902 – 20 October 1984) was an English theoretical physicist who is regarded as one of the most significant physicists of the 20th century.

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Pergamon Press

Pergamon Press was an Oxford-based publishing house, founded by Paul Rosbaud and Robert Maxwell, which published scientific and medical books and journals.

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Periodic table

The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.

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Perturbation theory (quantum mechanics)

In quantum mechanics, perturbation theory is a set of approximation schemes directly related to mathematical perturbation for describing a complicated quantum system in terms of a simpler one.

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Peter Debye

Peter Joseph William Debye (March 24, 1884 – November 2, 1966) was a Dutch-American physicist and physical chemist, and Nobel laureate in Chemistry.

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Phase (waves)

Phase is the position of a point in time (an instant) on a waveform cycle.

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Phase space formulation

The phase space formulation of quantum mechanics places the position and momentum variables on equal footing, in phase space.

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Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Photoelectric effect

The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons or other free carriers when light shines on a material.

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The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

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Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).

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Physical cosmology

Physical cosmology is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the Universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its origin, structure, evolution, and ultimate fate.

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Physical quantity

A physical quantity is a physical property of a phenomenon, body, or substance, that can be quantified by measurement.or we can say that quantities which we come across during our scientific studies are called as the physical quantities...

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Physical Review Letters

Physical Review Letters (PRL), established in 1958, is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that is published 52 times per year by the American Physical Society.

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Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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The number is a mathematical constant.

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Pieter Zeeman

Pieter Zeeman (25 May 1865 – 9 October 1943) was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Hendrik Lorentz for his discovery of the Zeeman effect.

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Planck constant

The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action, central in quantum mechanics.

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Planck length

In physics, the Planck length, denoted, is a unit of length, equal to metres.

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Planck's law

Planck's law describes the spectral density of electromagnetic radiation emitted by a black body in thermal equilibrium at a given temperature T. The law is named after Max Planck, who proposed it in 1900.

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Plane wave

In the physics of wave propagation, a plane wave (also spelled planewave) is a wave whose wavefronts (surfaces of constant phase) are infinite parallel planes.

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A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much,"The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Latin: uomo universalis, "universal man") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.

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Position operator

In quantum mechanics, the position operator is the operator that corresponds to the position observable of a particle.

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Potential energy

In physics, potential energy is the energy possessed by an object because of its position relative to other objects, stresses within itself, its electric charge, or other factors.

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Precision tests of QED

Quantum electrodynamics (QED), a relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics, is among the most stringently tested theories in physics.

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Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

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Principle of locality

In physics, the principle of locality states that an object is only directly influenced by its immediate surroundings.

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Principles of Quantum Mechanics

Principles of Quantum Mechanics is a textbook by Ramamurti Shankar.

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Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.

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Probability amplitude

In quantum mechanics, a probability amplitude is a complex number used in describing the behaviour of systems.

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Probability distribution

In probability theory and statistics, a probability distribution is a mathematical function that provides the probabilities of occurrence of different possible outcomes in an experiment.

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Probability distribution function

A probability distribution function is some function that may be used to define a particular probability distribution.

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Projective space

In mathematics, a projective space can be thought of as the set of lines through the origin of a vector space V. The cases when and are the real projective line and the real projective plane, respectively, where R denotes the field of real numbers, R2 denotes ordered pairs of real numbers, and R3 denotes ordered triplets of real numbers.

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Protein structure

Protein structure is the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in an amino acid-chain molecule.

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| magnetic_moment.

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QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter

QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter is an adaptation for the general reader of four lectures on quantum electrodynamics (QED) published in 1985 by American physicist and Nobel laureate Richard Feynman.

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Quantization (physics)

In physics, quantization is the process of transition from a classical understanding of physical phenomena to a newer understanding known as quantum mechanics.

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Quantum chaos

Quantum chaos is a branch of physics which studies how chaotic classical dynamical systems can be described in terms of quantum theory.

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Quantum chemistry

Quantum chemistry is a branch of chemistry whose primary focus is the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.

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Quantum chromodynamics

In theoretical physics, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction between quarks and gluons, the fundamental particles that make up composite hadrons such as the proton, neutron and pion.

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Quantum computing

Quantum computing is computing using quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement.

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Quantum cryptography

Quantum cryptography is the science of exploiting quantum mechanical properties to perform cryptographic tasks.

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Quantum decoherence

Quantum decoherence is the loss of quantum coherence.

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Quantum electrodynamics

In particle physics, quantum electrodynamics (QED) is the relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics.

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Quantum entanglement

Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon which occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated, interact, or share spatial proximity in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently of the state of the other(s), even when the particles are separated by a large distance—instead, a quantum state must be described for the system as a whole.

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Quantum field theory

In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is the theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics.

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Quantum gravity

Quantum gravity (QG) is a field of theoretical physics that seeks to describe gravity according to the principles of quantum mechanics, and where quantum effects cannot be ignored, such as near compact astrophysical objects where the effects of gravity are strong.

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Quantum harmonic oscillator

The quantum harmonic oscillator is the quantum-mechanical analog of the classical harmonic oscillator.

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Quantum information science

Quantum information science is an area of study based on the idea that information science depends on quantum effects in physics.

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Quantum machine

A quantum machine is a human-made device whose collective motion follows the laws of quantum mechanics.

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Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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Quantum number

Quantum numbers describe values of conserved quantities in the dynamics of a quantum system.

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Quantum optics

Quantum optics (QO) is a field of research that uses semi-classical and quantum-mechanical physics to investigate phenomena involving light and its interactions with matter at submicroscopic levels.

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Quantum state

In quantum physics, quantum state refers to the state of an isolated quantum system.

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Quantum superposition

Quantum superposition is a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics.

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Quantum teleportation

Quantum teleportation is a process by which quantum information (e.g. the exact state of an atom or photon) can be transmitted (exactly, in principle) from one location to another, with the help of classical communication and previously shared quantum entanglement between the sending and receiving location.

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Quantum tunnelling

Quantum tunnelling or tunneling (see spelling differences) is the quantum mechanical phenomenon where a particle tunnels through a barrier that it classically cannot surmount.

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A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.

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In quantum computing, a qubit or quantum bit (sometimes qbit) is a unit of quantum information—the quantum analogue of the classical binary bit.

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Randomness is the lack of pattern or predictability in events.

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Rectangular potential barrier

In quantum mechanics, the rectangular (or, at times, square) potential barrier is a standard one-dimensional problem that demonstrates the phenomena of wave-mechanical tunneling (also called "quantum tunneling") and wave-mechanical reflection.

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Reductionism is any of several related philosophical ideas regarding the associations between phenomena which can be described in terms of other simpler or more fundamental phenomena.

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Regularization (physics)

In physics, especially quantum field theory, regularization is a method of modifying observables which have singularities in order to make them finite by the introduction of a suitable parameter called regulator.

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Relational quantum mechanics

Relational quantum mechanics (RQM) is an interpretation of quantum mechanics which treats the state of a quantum system as being observer-dependent, that is, the state is the relation between the observer and the system.

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Resonance (journal)

Resonance – Journal of Science Education is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal covering science education.

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Resonant-tunneling diode

A resonant-tunneling diode (RTD) is a diode with a resonant-tunneling structure in which electrons can tunnel through some resonant states at certain energy levels.

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Richard Feynman

Richard Phillips Feynman (May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) was an American theoretical physicist, known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model.

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Richard Liboff

Richard Lawrence Liboff (December 30, 1931 – March 9, 2014) was an American physicist who authored five books and over 100 other publications in variety of fields, including plasma physics, planetary physics, cosmology, quantum chaos, and quantum billiards.

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Robert Andrews Millikan

Robert Andrews Millikan (March 22, 1868 – December 19, 1953) was an American experimental physicist honored with the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1923 for the measurement of the elementary electronic charge and for his work on the photoelectric effect.

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Robert Hooke

Robert Hooke FRS (– 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.

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Robert Resnick

Robert Resnick (January 11, 1923 – January 29, 2014) was a physics educator and author of physics textbooks.

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Roland Omnès

Roland Omnès (born 18 February 1931) is the author of several books which aim to close the gap between our common sense experience of the classical world and the complex, formal mathematics which is now required to accurately describe reality at its most fundamental level.

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Satyendra Nath Bose

Satyendra Nath Bose, (সত্যেন্দ্র নাথ বসু Sôtyendronath Bosu,; 1 January 1894 – 4 February 1974) was an Indian physicist specialising in theoretical physics.

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Scanning tunneling microscope

A scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is an instrument for imaging surfaces at the atomic level.

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Schrödinger equation

In quantum mechanics, the Schrödinger equation is a mathematical equation that describes the changes over time of a physical system in which quantum effects, such as wave–particle duality, are significant.

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Science Daily

Science Daily is an American website that aggregates press releases and publishes lightly edited press releases (a practice called churnalism) about science, similar to Phys.org and EurekAlert!.

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Self-adjoint operator

In mathematics, a self-adjoint operator on a finite-dimensional complex vector space V with inner product \langle\cdot,\cdot\rangle is a linear map A (from V to itself) that is its own adjoint: \langle Av,w\rangle.

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A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.

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Separable space

In mathematics, a topological space is called separable if it contains a countable, dense subset; that is, there exists a sequence \_^ of elements of the space such that every nonempty open subset of the space contains at least one element of the sequence.

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Sheldon Lee Glashow

Sheldon Lee Glashow (born December 5, 1932) is a Nobel Prize winning American theoretical physicist.

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Solid-state physics

Solid-state physics is the study of rigid matter, or solids, through methods such as quantum mechanics, crystallography, electromagnetism, and metallurgy.

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Solvay Conference

The International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry, located in Brussels, were founded by the Belgian industrialist Ernest Solvay in 1912, following the historic invitation-only 1911 Conseil Solvay, considered a turning point in the world of physics.

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Special relativity

In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.

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Spectral theorem

In mathematics, particularly linear algebra and functional analysis, a spectral theorem is a result about when a linear operator or matrix can be diagonalized (that is, represented as a diagonal matrix in some basis).

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A spectrum (plural spectra or spectrums) is a condition that is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary, without steps, across a continuum.

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Speed of light

The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.

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Spherical basis

In pure and applied mathematics, particularly quantum mechanics and computer graphics and their applications, a spherical basis is the basis used to express spherical tensors.

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Spherical coordinate system

In mathematics, a spherical coordinate system is a coordinate system for three-dimensional space where the position of a point is specified by three numbers: the radial distance of that point from a fixed origin, its polar angle measured from a fixed zenith direction, and the azimuth angle of its orthogonal projection on a reference plane that passes through the origin and is orthogonal to the zenith, measured from a fixed reference direction on that plane.

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Spin network

In physics, a spin network is a type of diagram which can be used to represent states and interactions between particles and fields in quantum mechanics.

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Square-integrable function

In mathematics, a square-integrable function, also called a quadratically integrable function, is a real- or complex-valued measurable function for which the integral of the square of the absolute value is finite.

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State space (physics)

In physics, a state space is an abstract space in which different "positions" represent, not literal locations, but rather states of some physical system.

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Stephen Hawking

Stephen William Hawking (8 January 1942 – 14 March 2018) was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author, who was director of research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge at the time of his death.

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Steven Weinberg

Steven Weinberg (born May 3, 1933) is an American theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate in Physics for his contributions with Abdus Salam and Sheldon Glashow to the unification of the weak force and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles.

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String theory

In physics, string theory is a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings.

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Strong interaction

In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force or nuclear strong force), and is one of the four known fundamental interactions, with the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction, and gravitation.

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Subatomic particle

In the physical sciences, subatomic particles are particles much smaller than atoms.

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Superconducting magnet

A superconducting magnet is an electromagnet made from coils of superconducting wire.

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Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.

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Superfluidity is the characteristic property of a fluid with zero viscosity which therefore flows without loss of kinetic energy.

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A superlattice is a periodic structure of layers of two (or more) materials.

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Superposition principle

In physics and systems theory, the superposition principle, also known as superposition property, states that, for all linear systems, the net response caused by two or more stimuli is the sum of the responses that would have been caused by each stimulus individually.

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Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.

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The Dancing Wu Li Masters

The Dancing Wu Li Masters is a 1979 book by Gary Zukav, a popular science work exploring modern physics, and quantum phenomena in particular.

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The Feynman Lectures on Physics

The Feynman Lectures on Physics is a physics textbook based on some lectures by Richard P. Feynman, a Nobel laureate who has sometimes been called "The Great Explainer".

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The Quantum Universe

The Quantum Universe: Everything That Can Happen Does Happen is a 2011 book by the theoretical physicists Brian Cox and Jeff Forshaw.

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Theory of everything

A theory of everything (ToE), final theory, ultimate theory, or master theory is a hypothetical single, all-encompassing, coherent theoretical framework of physics that fully explains and links together all physical aspects of the universe.

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Theory of relativity

The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.

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Thomas Young (scientist)

Thomas Young FRS (13 June 1773 – 10 May 1829) was a British polymath and physician.

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Thought experiment

A thought experiment (Gedankenexperiment, Gedanken-Experiment or Gedankenerfahrung) considers some hypothesis, theory, or principle for the purpose of thinking through its consequences.

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Time evolution

Time evolution is the change of state brought about by the passage of time, applicable to systems with internal state (also called stateful systems).

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Topological order

In physics, topological order is a kind of order in the zero-temperature phase of matter (also known as quantum matter).

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Transactional interpretation

The transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics (TIQM) takes the psi and psi* wave functions of the standard quantum formalism to be retarded (forward in time) and advanced (backward in time) waves that form a quantum interaction as a Wheeler–Feynman handshake or transaction.

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Transformation theory (quantum mechanics)

The term transformation theory refers to a procedure and a "picture" used by P. A. M. Dirac in his early formulation of quantum theory, from around 1927.

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A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.

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Trigonometry (from Greek trigōnon, "triangle" and metron, "measure") is a branch of mathematics that studies relationships involving lengths and angles of triangles.

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Uncertainty principle

In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle (also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle) is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known.

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Unit vector

In mathematics, a unit vector in a normed vector space is a vector (often a spatial vector) of length 1.

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Universe Today

Universe Today (UT) is a popular North American-based non-commercial space and astronomy news website.

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USB flash drive

A USB flash drive, also variously known as a thumb drive, pen drive, gig stick, flash stick, jump drive, disk key, disk on key (after the original M-Systems DiskOnKey drive from 2000), flash-drive, memory stick (not to be confused with the Sony Memory Stick), USB stick or USB memory, is a data storage device that includes flash memory with an integrated USB interface.

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Vector space

A vector space (also called a linear space) is a collection of objects called vectors, which may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers, called scalars.

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Victor J. Stenger

Victor John Stenger (January 29, 1935 – August 25, 2014) was an American particle physicist, philosopher, author, and religious skeptic.

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W. H. Freeman and Company


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In physics, a wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space, with little or no associated mass transport.

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Wave function

A wave function in quantum physics is a mathematical description of the quantum state of an isolated quantum system.

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Wave function collapse

In quantum mechanics, wave function collapse is said to occur when a wave function—initially in a superposition of several eigenstates—appears to reduce to a single eigenstate (by "observation").

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Wave interference

In physics, interference is a phenomenon in which two waves superpose to form a resultant wave of greater, lower, or the same amplitude.

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Wave packet

In physics, a wave packet (or wave train) is a short "burst" or "envelope" of localized wave action that travels as a unit.

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Wave vector

In physics, a wave vector (also spelled wavevector) is a vector which helps describe a wave.

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Wave–particle duality

Wave–particle duality is the concept in quantum mechanics that every particle or quantic entity may be partly described in terms not only of particles, but also of waves.

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In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.

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Weak interaction

In particle physics, the weak interaction (the weak force or weak nuclear force) is the mechanism of interaction between sub-atomic particles that causes radioactive decay and thus plays an essential role in nuclear fission.

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Werner Heisenberg

Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics.

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Wien approximation

Wien's approximation (also sometimes called Wien's law or the Wien distribution law) is a law of physics used to describe the spectrum of thermal radiation (frequently called the blackbody function).

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Wilhelm Wien

Wilhelm Carl Werner Otto Fritz Franz Wien (13 January 1864 – 30 August 1928) was a German physicist who, in 1893, used theories about heat and electromagnetism to deduce Wien's displacement law, which calculates the emission of a blackbody at any temperature from the emission at any one reference temperature.

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Wolfgang Pauli

Wolfgang Ernst Pauli (25 April 1900 – 15 December 1958) was an Austrian-born Swiss and American theoretical physicist and one of the pioneers of quantum physics.

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Yahoo! GeoCities

Yahoo! GeoCities is a web hosting service.

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Young's interference experiment

Young's interference experiment, also called Young's double-slit interferometer, was the original version of the modern double-slit experiment, performed at the beginning of the nineteenth century by Thomas Young.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_mechanics

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