76 relations: Ad hoc, Angular momentum, Atom, Atomic nucleus, Atomic orbital, Azimuthal quantum number, Baryon number, Bohr model, C parity, Caesium, Carbon, Chemical bond, Classical mechanics, Commutative property, Conserved quantity, Discrete mathematics, Eigenvalues and eigenvectors, Electric charge, Electron, Electron configuration, Electron shell, Elementary particle, Energy level, Erwin Schrödinger, Flavour (particle physics), Friedrich Hund, Fundamental interaction, Hamiltonian (quantum mechanics), History of quantum mechanics, Hund's rules, Hydrogen, Infinity, Involution (mathematics), John C. Slater, John Lennard-Jones, Lepton number, Linear independence, Local symmetry, Magnetic field, Magnetic quantum number, Magnetic resonance imaging, Molecular geometry, Molecular orbital, Neutron, Niels Bohr, Nuclear magnetic moment, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Nuclear medicine, Nucleon, Operator (physics), ..., Organic chemistry, Parity (physics), Particle physics, Pauli exclusion principle, Poincaré group, Principal quantum number, Proton, Quantization (physics), Quantum field theory, Quantum mechanics, Quantum state, Quantum system, Robert S. Mulliken, Schrödinger equation, Sodium, Spacetime, Spacetime symmetries, Spectroscopy, Spin (physics), Spin quantum number, Spin–orbit interaction, Standard Model, Stern–Gerlach experiment, T-symmetry, Total angular momentum quantum number, Valence (chemistry). Expand index (26 more) » « Shrink index
Ad hoc is a Latin phrase meaning literally "for this".
In physics, angular momentum (rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational equivalent of linear momentum.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.
The azimuthal quantum number is a quantum number for an atomic orbital that determines its orbital angular momentum and describes the shape of the orbital.
In particle physics, the baryon number is a strictly conserved additive quantum number of a system.
In atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model or Bohr diagram, introduced by Niels Bohr and Ernest Rutherford in 1913, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus—similar to the structure of the Solar System, but with attraction provided by electrostatic forces rather than gravity.
In physics, the C parity or charge parity is a multiplicative quantum number of some particles that describes their behavior under the symmetry operation of charge conjugation.
Caesium (British spelling and IUPAC spelling) or cesium (American spelling) is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies.
In mathematics, a binary operation is commutative if changing the order of the operands does not change the result.
In mathematics, a conserved quantity of a dynamical system is a function of the dependent variables whose value remains constant along each trajectory of the system.
Discrete mathematics is the study of mathematical structures that are fundamentally discrete rather than continuous.
In linear algebra, an eigenvector or characteristic vector of a linear transformation is a non-zero vector that changes by only a scalar factor when that linear transformation is applied to it.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.
In chemistry and atomic physics, an electron shell, or a principal energy level, may be thought of as an orbit followed by electrons around an atom's nucleus.
In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle with no substructure, thus not composed of other particles.
A quantum mechanical system or particle that is bound—that is, confined spatially—can only take on certain discrete values of energy.
Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (12 August 1887 – 4 January 1961), sometimes written as or, was a Nobel Prize-winning Austrian physicist who developed a number of fundamental results in the field of quantum theory, which formed the basis of wave mechanics: he formulated the wave equation (stationary and time-dependent Schrödinger equation) and revealed the identity of his development of the formalism and matrix mechanics.
In particle physics, flavour or flavor refers to the species of an elementary particle.
Friedrich Hermann Hund (4 February 1896 – 31 March 1997) was a German physicist from Karlsruhe known for his work on atoms and molecules.
In physics, the fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces, are the interactions that do not appear to be reducible to more basic interactions.
In quantum mechanics, a Hamiltonian is an operator corresponding to the total energy of the system in most of the cases.
The history of quantum mechanics is a fundamental part of the history of modern physics.
In atomic physics, Hund's rules refers to a set of rules that German physicist Friedrich Hund formulated around 1927, which are used to determine the term symbol that corresponds to the ground state of a multi-electron atom.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Infinity (symbol) is a concept describing something without any bound or larger than any natural number.
In mathematics, an involution, or an involutory function, is a function that is its own inverse, for all in the domain of.
John Clarke Slater (December 22, 1900 – July 25, 1976) was a noted American physicist who made major contributions to the theory of the electronic structure of atoms, molecules and solids.
Sir John Edward Lennard-Jones KBE, FRS (27 October 1894 – 1 November 1954) was an English mathematician who was a professor of theoretical physics at University of Bristol, and then of theoretical science at the University of Cambridge.
In particle physics, lepton number (historically also called lepton charge) is a conserved quantum number representing the difference between the number of leptons and the number of antileptons in an elementary particle reaction.
In the theory of vector spaces, a set of vectors is said to be if one of the vectors in the set can be defined as a linear combination of the others; if no vector in the set can be written in this way, then the vectors are said to be.
In physics, a local symmetry is symmetry of some physical quantity, which smoothly depends on the point of the base manifold.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
In atomic physics, the magnetic quantum number, designated by the letter ml, is the third in a set of four quantum numbers (the principal quantum number, the azimuthal quantum number, the magnetic quantum number, and the spin quantum number) which describe the unique quantum state of an electron.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Molecular geometry is the three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms that constitute a molecule.
In chemistry, a molecular orbital (MO) is a mathematical function describing the wave-like behavior of an electron in a molecule.
Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.
The nuclear magnetic moment is the magnetic moment of an atomic nucleus and arises from the spin of the protons and neutrons.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.
Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
In chemistry and physics, a nucleon is either a proton or a neutron, considered in its role as a component of an atomic nucleus.
In physics, an operator is a function over a space of physical states to another space of physical states.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
In quantum mechanics, a parity transformation (also called parity inversion) is the flip in the sign of one spatial coordinate.
Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.
The Pauli exclusion principle is the quantum mechanical principle which states that two or more identical fermions (particles with half-integer spin) cannot occupy the same quantum state within a quantum system simultaneously.
The Poincaré group, named after Henri Poincaré (1906), was first defined by Minkowski (1908) as the group of Minkowski spacetime isometries.
In quantum mechanics, the principal quantum number (symbolized n) is one of four quantum numbers which are assigned to all electrons in an atom to describe that electron's state.
In physics, quantization is the process of transition from a classical understanding of physical phenomena to a newer understanding known as quantum mechanics.
In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is the theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
In quantum physics, quantum state refers to the state of an isolated quantum system.
A quantum system is a portion of the whole Universe (environment or physical world) which is taken under consideration to make analysis or to study for quantum mechanics pertaining to the wave-particle duality in that system.
Robert Sanderson Mulliken (June 7, 1896 – October 31, 1986) was an American physicist and chemist, primarily responsible for the early development of molecular orbital theory, i.e. the elaboration of the molecular orbital method of computing the structure of molecules.
In quantum mechanics, the Schrödinger equation is a mathematical equation that describes the changes over time of a physical system in which quantum effects, such as wave–particle duality, are significant.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum.
Spacetime symmetries are features of spacetime that can be described as exhibiting some form of symmetry.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.
In atomic physics, the spin quantum number is a quantum number that parameterizes the intrinsic angular momentum (or spin angular momentum, or simply spin) of a given particle.
In quantum physics, the spin–orbit interaction (also called spin–orbit effect or spin–orbit coupling) is a relativistic interaction of a particle's spin with its motion inside a potential.
The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.
The Stern–Gerlach experiment demonstrated that the spatial orientation of angular momentum is quantized.
T-symmetry or time reversal symmetry is the theoretical symmetry of physical laws under the transformation of time reversal: T-symmetry can be shown to be equivalent to the conservation of entropy, by Noether's Theorem.
In quantum mechanics, the total angular momentum quantum number parameterises the total angular momentum of a given particle, by combining its orbital angular momentum and its intrinsic angular momentum (i.e., its spin).
In chemistry, the valence or valency of an element is a measure of its combining power with other atoms when it forms chemical compounds or molecules.