27 relations: Aluminium gallium arsenide, Break junction, Conductance quantum, Electrical conductor, Electrical resistance and conductance, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electron, Elementary charge, Gallium arsenide, Heterojunction, Magnetic field, Mesoscopic physics, Ohm's law, Planck constant, Quantum computing, Quantum dot, Quantum Hall effect, Quantum state, Qubit, Scanning tunneling microscope, Silicon, Solid-state physics, Spin (physics), Two-dimensional electron gas, Voltage, Waveguide, Wavelength.
Aluminium gallium arsenide (also gallium aluminium arsenide) (AlxGa1−xAs) is a semiconductor material with very nearly the same lattice constant as GaAs, but a larger bandgap.
A break junction is an electronic device which consists of two metal wires separated by a very thin gap, on the order of the inter-atomic spacing (less than a nanometer).
The conductance quantum, denoted by the symbol is the quantized unit of electrical conductance.
In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions.
The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
The elementary charge, usually denoted as or sometimes, is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the magnitude of the electric charge carried by a single electron, which has charge.
Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is a compound of the elements gallium and arsenic.
A heterojunction is the interface that occurs between two layers or regions of dissimilar crystalline semiconductors.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
Mesoscopic physics is a subdiscipline of condensed matter physics that deals with materials of an intermediate length.
Ohm's law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the voltage across the two points.
The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action, central in quantum mechanics.
Quantum computing is computing using quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement.
Quantum dots (QD) are very small semiconductor particles, only several nanometres in size, so small that their optical and electronic properties differ from those of larger particles.
The quantum Hall effect (or integer quantum Hall effect) is a quantum-mechanical version of the Hall effect, observed in two-dimensional electron systems subjected to low temperatures and strong magnetic fields, in which the Hall conductance undergoes quantum Hall transitions to take on the quantized values where is the channel current, is the Hall voltage, is the elementary charge and is Planck's constant.
In quantum physics, quantum state refers to the state of an isolated quantum system.
In quantum computing, a qubit or quantum bit (sometimes qbit) is a unit of quantum information—the quantum analogue of the classical binary bit.
A scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is an instrument for imaging surfaces at the atomic level.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Solid-state physics is the study of rigid matter, or solids, through methods such as quantum mechanics, crystallography, electromagnetism, and metallurgy.
In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.
A two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is a scientific model in solid-state physics.
Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.
A waveguide is a structure that guides waves, such as electromagnetic waves or sound, with minimal loss of energy by restricting expansion to one dimension or two.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.