180 relations: Acicular (crystal habit), Agate, Aggregate (geology), Aluminium, Amethyst, Ametrine, Amorphous solid, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Asterism (gemology), Asturias, Australian Aboriginal religion and mythology, Autoclave (industrial), Aventurine, Ångström, Bell Labs, Blue, Brazil, Brush Development Company, Caldoveiro Peak, Cameo (carving), Canada, Carnelian, Carrowmore, Chalcedony, Chatoyancy, Chemical formula, Chirality, Chirality (chemistry), Citron, Coesite, Continental crust, Cristobalite, Cryptocrystalline, Crystal cluster, Crystal habit, Crystal oscillator, Crystal twinning, Crystallography, Dallasite, Dumortierite, Earth, East Asia, East Central German, Electric potential, Emerald, Engraved gem, Feldspar, Felsic, Ferric, ..., Fluid inclusions, Fused quartz, G. W. Pierce, Gangue, Gemstone, Geode, German language, Glass, Gneiss, Goldich dissolution series, Granite, Grey, Gypsum, Hardstone carving, Heliotrope (mineral), Hexagonal crystal family, Hydrothermal circulation, Hydrothermal synthesis, Ice, Igneous rock, Inclusion (mineral), Irish language, Iron, Jacques Curie, Jade, Jasper, Jewellery, Karl Emil von Schafhäutl, Knapping, Lechatelierite, Lightning, List of minerals, Lithic technology, Lothair Crystal, Lower Silesia, Maban, Magma, Maine, Manganese, Mass, Metal-coated crystal, Metamorphic rock, Microcrystalline, Middle High German, Minas Gerais, Mineral, Moganite, Mohs scale of mineral hardness, Monoclinic crystal system, Monocrystalline silicon, Munich, Newgrange, Nicolas Steno, Onyx, Ore, Oxide minerals, Oxygen, Pegmatite, Philosopher, Phonograph, Phosphate, Pierce oscillator, Pierre Curie, Piezoelectricity, Pliny the Elder, Poland, Polymorphism (materials science), Prasiolite, Pre-Columbian era, Prehistoric Ireland, Prism (geometry), Purple, Pyramid, Quartz clock, Quartz crystal microbalance, Quartz fiber, Quartz reef mining, Quartzite, Quartzolite, Racemic mixture, Republic of Ireland, Riebeckite, Rio Grande do Sul, Rock crystal vase, Rumford, Maine, Rutilated quartz, Rutile, Sand, Sandstone, Schist, Sedimentary rock, Semiconductor, Shale, Shocked quartz, Silicate minerals, Silicon, Silicon dioxide, Smithsonian Institution, Smoky quartz, Soil, Space group, Spain, Spectrum, Spruce Pine, North Carolina, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Stishovite, Stone tool, Stress (mechanics), Supercooling, Tetrahedral molecular geometry, Theophrastus, Thin-film thickness monitor, Thunder Bay, Tibet, Tiger's eye, Titanium, Tonne, Topaz, Transparency and translucency, Triboluminescence, Tridymite, Uniaxial crystal, United States, Upper Saxon German, Vein (geology), Volcano, Wafer (electronics), Walter Guyton Cady, Weathering, X-ray crystallography. Expand index (130 more) » « Shrink index
Acicular, in mineralogy, refers to a crystal habit composed of slender, needle-like crystals.
Agate is a rock consisting primarily of cryptocrystalline silica, chiefly chalcedony, alternating with microgranular quartz.
In the Earth sciences, aggregrate has three possible meanings.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Amethyst is a violet variety of quartz often used in jewelry.
Ametrine, also known as trystine or by its trade name as bolivianite, is a naturally occurring variety of quartz.
In condensed matter physics and materials science, an amorphous (from the Greek a, without, morphé, shape, form) or non-crystalline solid is a solid that lacks the long-range order that is characteristic of a crystal.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Asterism (from ἀστήρ star), the property of a star stone (asteria), is the phenomenon of gemstones exhibiting a star-like concentration of reflected or refracted light when cut en cabochon (shaped and polished rather than faceted).
Asturias (Asturies; Asturias), officially the Principality of Asturias (Principado de Asturias; Principáu d'Asturies), is an autonomous community in north-west Spain.
Australian Aboriginal religion and mythology (also known as Dreamtime or Dreaming stories, songlines, or Aboriginal oral literature) are the stories traditionally performed by Aboriginal peoples within each of the language groups across Australia.
Industrial autoclaves are pressure vessels used to process parts and materials which require exposure to elevated pressure and temperature.
Aventurine is a form of quartz, characterised by its translucency and the presence of platy mineral inclusions that give a shimmering or glistening effect termed aventurescence.
The ångström or angstrom is a unit of length equal to (one ten-billionth of a metre) or 0.1 nanometre.
Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.
Blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments in painting and traditional colour theory, as well as in the RGB colour model.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Brush Development Company was a manufacturer of audio, phonographic products and magnetic recording technologies located in Cleveland, Ohio.
Caldoveiro Peak (Pico Caldoveiro) is a protected mountain range in Asturias, Northern Spain, with a maximum peak of 1,357 meters, near the village of Villabre.
Cameo is a method of carving an object such as an engraved gem, item of jewellery or vessel.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Carnelian (also spelled cornelian) is a brownish-red mineral commonly used as a semi-precious gemstone.
Carrowmore (An Cheathrú Mhór, 'the great quarter') is a large group of megalithic tombs on the Cúil Irra peninsula near Sligo, Ireland.
Chalcedony is a cryptocrystalline form of silica, composed of very fine intergrowths of quartz and moganite.
In gemology, chatoyancy, or chatoyance or cat's eye effect, is an optical reflectance effect seen in certain gemstones.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
Chirality is a property of asymmetry important in several branches of science.
Chirality is a geometric property of some molecules and ions.
The citron (Citrus medica) is a large fragrant citrus fruit with a thick rind.
Coesite is a form (polymorph) of silicon dioxide SiO2 that is formed when very high pressure (2–3 gigapascals), and moderately high temperature, are applied to quartz.
Continental crust is the layer of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks that forms the continents and the areas of shallow seabed close to their shores, known as continental shelves.
The mineral cristobalite is a high-temperature polymorph of silica, meaning that it has the same chemical formula as quartz, SiO2, but a distinct crystal structure.
Cryptocrystalline is a rock texture made up of such minute crystals that its crystalline nature is only vaguely revealed even microscopically in thin section by transmitted polarized light.
A crystal cluster is a group of crystals which formed in an open space environment and exhibit euhedral crystal form determined by their internal crystal structure.
In mineralogy, crystal habit is the characteristic external shape of an individual crystal or crystal group.
A crystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a precise frequency.
Crystal twinning occurs when two separate crystals share some of the same crystal lattice points in a symmetrical manner.
Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure).
Dallasite is a breccia made of subequant to rectangular or distinctly elongate, curvilinear shards that represent the spalled rims of pillow basalt (see: Hyaloclastite).
Dumortierite is a fibrous variably colored aluminium boro-silicate mineral, Al7BO3(SiO4)3O3.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
East Central German (Ostmitteldeutsche Dialekte) is the eastern, non-Franconian sub-group of Central German dialects, themselves part of High German.
An electric potential (also called the electric field potential, potential drop or the electrostatic potential) is the amount of work needed to move a unit positive charge from a reference point to a specific point inside the field without producing any acceleration.
Emerald is a precious gemstone and a variety of the mineral beryl (Be3Al2(SiO3)6) colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium.
An engraved gem, frequently referred to as an intaglio, is a small and usually semi-precious gemstone that has been carved, in the Western tradition normally with images or inscriptions only on one face.
Feldspars (KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8) are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals that make up about 41% of the Earth's continental crust by weight.
In geology, felsic refers to igneous rocks that are relatively rich in elements that form feldspar and quartz.
Ferric refers to iron-containing materials or compounds.
Trapped in a time capsule the same size as the diameter of a human hair, the ore-forming liquid in this inclusion was so hot and contained so much dissolved solids that when it cooled, crystals of halite, sylvite, gypsum, and hematite formed. As the samples cooled, the fluid shrank more than the surrounding mineral, and created a vapor bubble. Source: USGS Fluid inclusions are microscopic bubbles of liquid and gas that are trapped within crystals.
Fused quartz or fused silica is glass consisting of silica in amorphous (non-crystalline) form.
George Washington Pierce (January 11, 1872 – August 25, 1956) was an American physicist.
In mining, gangue is the commercially worthless material that surrounds, or is closely mixed with, a wanted mineral in an ore deposit.
A gemstone (also called a gem, fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments.
Geodes (Greek γεώδης - ge-ōdēs, "earthlike") are geological secondary structures which occur in certain sedimentary and volcanic rocks.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
Gneiss is a common distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from pre-existing formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks.
The Goldich dissolution series is a way of predicting the relative stability or weathering rate of various minerals on the Earth's surface.
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.
Grey (British English) or gray (American English; see spelling differences) is an intermediate color between black and white.
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.
Hardstone carving is a general term in art history and archaeology for the artistic carving of predominantly semi-precious stones (but also of gemstones), such as jade, rock crystal (clear quartz), agate, onyx, jasper, serpentine, or carnelian, and for an object made in this way.
The mineral aggregate heliotrope (from Greek ἥλιος, hḗlios “Sun”, τρέπειν, trépein “to turn”), also known as bloodstone, is a variety of jasper or chalcedony (which is a cryptocrystalline mixture of quartz).
In crystallography, the hexagonal crystal family is one of the 6 crystal families, which includes 2 crystal systems (hexagonal and trigonal) and 2 lattice systems (hexagonal and rhombohedral).
Hydrothermal circulation in its most general sense is the circulation of hot water (Ancient Greek ὕδωρ, water,Liddell, H.G. & Scott, R. (1940). A Greek-English Lexicon. revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones. with the assistance of. Roderick McKenzie. Oxford: Clarendon Press. and θέρμη, heat). Hydrothermal circulation occurs most often in the vicinity of sources of heat within the Earth's crust.
Hydrothermal synthesis includes the various techniques of crystallizing substances from high-temperature aqueous solutions at high vapor pressures; also termed "hydrothermal method".
Ice is water frozen into a solid state.
Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic.
In mineralogy, an inclusion is any material that is trapped inside a mineral during its formation.
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Paul-Jacques Curie (29 October 1855 – 19 February 1941) was a French physicist and professor of mineralogy at the University of Montpellier.
Jade is an ornamental mineral, mostly known for its green varieties, which is featured prominently in ancient Asian art.
Jasper, an aggregate of microgranular quartz and/or chalcedony and other mineral phases,Kostov, R. I. 2010.
Jewellery (British English) or jewelry (American English)see American and British spelling differences consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks.
Karl Franz Emil von Schafhäutl (16 February 1803 in Ingolstadt – 25 February 1890 in Munich) was a German naturalist and musicologist.
Knapping is the shaping of flint, chert, obsidian or other conchoidal fracturing stone through the process of lithic reduction to manufacture stone tools, strikers for flintlock firearms, or to produce flat-faced stones for building or facing walls, and flushwork decoration.
Lechatelierite is silica glass, amorphous SiO2, non-crystalline mineraloid.
Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.
This is a list of minerals for which there are articles on Wikipedia.
Lithic technology refers to a broad array of techniques and styles in archaeology, which are used to produce usable tools from various types of stone.
The Lothair Crystal (also known as the Lothar Crystal or the Susanna Crystal) is an engraved gem from Lotharingia in North-West Europe, showing scenes of the biblical story of Susanna, dating from 855-869.
Lower Silesia (Dolny Śląsk; Dolní Slezsko; Silesia Inferior; Niederschlesien; Silesian German: Niederschläsing; Dolny Ślůnsk) is the northwestern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia; Upper Silesia is to the southeast.
Maban or Mabain is a material that is held to be magical in Australian Aboriginal mythology.
Magma (from Ancient Greek μάγμα (mágma) meaning "thick unguent") is a mixture of molten or semi-molten rock, volatiles and solids that is found beneath the surface of the Earth, and is expected to exist on other terrestrial planets and some natural satellites.
Maine is a U.S. state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
Metal-coated crystals are natural crystals, such as quartz, whose surface has been coated with metal to give them an iridescent metallic sheen.
Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form".
A microcrystalline material is a crystallized substance or rock that contains small crystals visible only through microscopic examination.
Middle High German (abbreviated MHG, Mittelhochdeutsch, abbr. Mhd.) is the term for the form of German spoken in the High Middle Ages.
Minas Gerais is a state in the north of Southeastern Brazil.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Moganite is an oxide mineral with the chemical formula SiO2 (silicon dioxide) that was discovered in 1984.
The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is a qualitative ordinal scale characterizing scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of harder material to scratch softer material.
In crystallography, the monoclinic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
Monocrystalline silicon (also called "single-crystal silicon", "single-crystal Si", "mono c-Si", or mono-Si) is the base material for silicon chips used in virtually all electronic equipment today.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
Newgrange (Sí an Bhrú or Brú na Bóinne) is a prehistoric monument in County Meath, Ireland, located west of Drogheda on the north side of the River Boyne.
Nicolas Steno (Niels Steensen; Latinized to Nicolaus Stenonis or Nicolaus Stenonius; 1 January 1638 – 25 November 1686 – Aber, James S. 2007. Retrieved 11 January 2012.) was a Danish scientist, a pioneer in both anatomy and geology who became a Catholic bishop in his later years.
Onyx is a banded variety of the oxide mineral chalcedony.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
The oxide mineral class includes those minerals in which the oxide anion (O2−) is bonded to one or more metal ions.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
A pegmatite is a holocrystalline, intrusive igneous rock composed of interlocking phaneritic crystals usually larger than 2.5 cm in size (1 in); such rocks are referred to as pegmatitic.
A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.
The phonograph is a device for the mechanical recording and reproduction of sound.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
The Pierce oscillator is a type of electronic oscillator particularly well-suited for use in piezoelectric crystal oscillator circuits.
Pierre Curie (15 May 1859 – 19 April 1906) was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity.
Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials (such as crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as bone, DNA and various proteins) in response to applied mechanical stress.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
In materials science, polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one form or crystal structure.
Prasiolite (also known as green quartz or vermarine) is a green variety of quartz, a silicate mineral chemically silicon dioxide.
The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.
The prehistory of Ireland has been pieced together from archaeological and genetic evidence; it begins with the first evidence of humans in Ireland around 12,500 years ago and finishes with the start of the historical record around 400 AD.
In geometry, a prism is a polyhedron comprising an n-sided polygonal base, a second base which is a translated copy (rigidly moved without rotation) of the first, and n other faces (necessarily all parallelograms) joining corresponding sides of the two bases.
Purple is a color intermediate between blue and red.
A pyramid (from πυραμίς) is a structure whose outer surfaces are triangular and converge to a single point at the top, making the shape roughly a pyramid in the geometric sense.
A quartz clock is a clock that uses an electronic oscillator that is regulated by a quartz crystal to keep time.
A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measures a mass variation per unit area by measuring the change in frequency of a quartz crystal resonator.
Quartz fiber is a fiber created from high purity natural quartz crystals.
Quartz reef mining played an important role in 19th Century gold-mining districts such as Bendigo, Victoria, Central Otago in New Zealand, and the California mother lode.
Quartzite (from Quarzit) is a hard, non-foliated metamorphic rock which was originally pure quartz sandstone.
Quartzolite or silexite is an intrusive igneous rock, in which the mineral quartz is more than 90% of the rock's felsic mineral content, with feldspar at up to 10%.
In chemistry, a racemic mixture, or racemate, is one that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
Riebeckite is a sodium-rich member of the amphibole group of silicate minerals, chemical formula Na2(Fe2+3Fe3+2)Si8O22(OH)2.
Rio Grande do Sul (lit. Great Southern River) is a state located in the southern region of Brazil.
A rock crystal vase is a vase made of rock crystal, a type of hardstone carving.
Rumford is a town in Oxford County, Maine, United States.
Rutilated quartz is a variety of quartz which contains acicular (needle-like) inclusions of rutile.
Rutile is a mineral composed primarily of titanium dioxide (TiO2).
Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.
Schist (pronounced) is a medium-grade metamorphic rock with medium to large, flat, sheet-like grains in a preferred orientation (nearby grains are roughly parallel).
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite.
Shocked quartz is a form of quartz that has a microscopic structure that is different from normal quartz.
Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals with predominantly silicate anions.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
Smoky quartz is a grey, translucent variety of quartz that ranges in clarity from almost complete transparency to an almost-opaque brownish-gray or black crystal.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
In mathematics, physics and chemistry, a space group is the symmetry group of a configuration in space, usually in three dimensions.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
A spectrum (plural spectra or spectrums) is a condition that is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary, without steps, across a continuum.
Spruce Pine is a town in Mitchell County, North Carolina, United States.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
Stishovite is an extremely hard, dense tetragonal form (polymorph) of silicon dioxide.
A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made either partially or entirely out of stone.
In continuum mechanics, stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other, while strain is the measure of the deformation of the material.
Supercooling, also known as undercooling, is the process of lowering the temperature of a liquid or a gas below its freezing point without it becoming a solid.
In a tetrahedral molecular geometry, a central atom is located at the center with four substituents that are located at the corners of a tetrahedron.
Theophrastus (Θεόφραστος Theόphrastos; c. 371 – c. 287 BC), a Greek native of Eresos in Lesbos,Gavin Hardy and Laurence Totelin, Ancient Botany, 2015, p. 8.
Thin-film thickness monitors, deposition rate controllers, and so on, are a family of instruments used in high and ultra-high vacuum systems.
Thunder Bay is a city in, and the seat of, Thunder Bay District, Ontario, Canada.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
Tiger's eye (also called tiger eye) is a chatoyant gemstone that is usually a metamorphic rock with a golden to red-brown colour and a silky lustre.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F, OH)2.
In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.
Triboluminescence is an optical phenomenon in which light is generated through the breaking of chemical bonds in a material when it is pulled apart, ripped, scratched, crushed, or rubbed (see tribology).
Tridymite is a high-temperature polymorph of silica and usually occurs as minute tabular white or colorless pseudo-hexagonal crystals, or scales, in cavities in felsic volcanic rocks.
Uniaxial crystals are transmissive optical elements in which the refractive index of one crystal axis is different from the other two crystal axes (i.e. ni ≠ nj.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Upper Saxon (Obersächsisch) is an East Central German dialect spoken in much of the modern German State of Saxony and in the adjacent parts of Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia.
In geology, a vein is a distinct sheetlike body of crystallized minerals within a rock.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
A wafer, also called a slice or substrate, is a thin slice of semiconductor material, such as a crystalline silicon, used in electronics for the fabrication of integrated circuits and in photovoltaics for conventional, wafer-based solar cells.
Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
Anacona ruby, Blue Quartz, Blue quartz, Bristol stone, Bristowe stone, Citrine, Citrine gemstone, Citrine quartz, Citrine topaz, Citrines, Citrintas, Conite, Fruit quartz, Milk quartz, Milky Quartz, Milky quartz, Quartz (mineral), Quartz crystal, Quartz crystals, Quartz sand, Quarz, Rock Crystal, Rock crystal, Rock-Crystal, Rock-crystal, Rose Quartz, Rose quartz, SiO2 Group, Star Blue Quartz, Star blue quartz.