159 relations: Absolute magnitude, Accretion (astrophysics), Accretion disk, Active galactic nucleus, Albert Einstein, Allan Sandage, Andromeda Galaxy, Antimatter, APM 08279+5255, Apparent magnitude, Astronomer, Astrophysical jet, Astrophysics, Balmer series, Big Bang, Binary star, Black body, Black hole, Blazar, Brady Haran, Calar Alto Observatory, Centrifugal mechanism of acceleration, Chain reaction, Chemical element, Comoving and proper distances, Compton scattering, Constellation, Contraction (grammar), Cosmic dust, Cosmology, Distance measures (cosmology), Doppler broadening, Double star, Earth, Edwin Ernest Salpeter, Electromagnetic radiation, Electromagnetic spectrum, Energy, Ernst Öpik, European Southern Observatory, European Space Agency, Event horizon, Expansion of the universe, Extinction (astronomy), Faster-than-light, Fermi acceleration, Forbidden mechanism, Fred Hoyle, Friction, Galaxy, ..., Galaxy cluster, Galaxy merger, Gamma ray, Gamma-ray astronomy, Gamma-ray burst, General relativity, Gravitational energy, Gravitational lens, Gravitational redshift, Gunn–Peterson trough, Hale Telescope, Hawaii, Hayashi track, Heber Doust Curtis, Helium, Hong-Yee Chiu, Hubble Space Telescope, Hubble's law, Infrared, Infrared astronomy, Interacting galaxy, Interferometry, International Celestial Reference System, Iron, Jodrell Bank Observatory, John Gatenby Bolton, La Silla Observatory, LBQS 1429-008, Light, Light-year, List of quasars, Lovell Telescope, Luminosity, Lyman series, Lyman-alpha forest, Maarten Schmidt, Magnesium, Mass, Matter, Mauna Kea, Milky Way, Minute and second of arc, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Moon, Nanometre, NASA, Nature (journal), Nebula, Nuclear fusion, Observable universe, Occultation, Outer space, OVV quasar, Parkes Observatory, Physics Today, Plasma (physics), Power density, Proton–proton chain reaction, Radio astronomy, Radio galaxy, Radio wave, Redshift, Reionization, Relativistic beaming, Relativistic speed, Reverberation mapping, Seyfert galaxy, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Solar mass, Solar System, Space telescope, Space.com, Special relativity, Spectral line, Spitzer Space Telescope, Star, Star cluster, Star formation, Steady State theory, Stellar population, Sun, Supermassive black hole, Supernova, Taxonomy (general), Telescope, Third Cambridge Catalogue of Radio Sources, Thomas A. Matthews, Twin Quasar, Uhuru (satellite), ULAS J1120+0641, ULAS J1342+0928, Ultraviolet, Ultraviolet astronomy, Universe, University of Nottingham, Very-long-baseline interferometry, Virgo (constellation), Visible spectrum, Visible-light astronomy, W. M. Keck Observatory, Watt, Wavelength, White hole, Wormhole, X-ray, X-ray astronomy, Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich, 3C 273, 3C 48. Expand index (109 more) » « Shrink index
Absolute magnitude is a measure of the luminosity of a celestial object, on a logarithmic astronomical magnitude scale.
In astrophysics, accretion is the accumulation of particles into a massive object by gravitationally attracting more matter, typically gaseous matter, in an accretion disk.
An accretion disk is a structure (often a circumstellar disk) formed by diffused material in orbital motion around a massive central body.
An active galactic nucleus (AGN) is a compact region at the center of a galaxy that has a much higher than normal luminosity over at least some portion—and possibly all—of the electromagnetic spectrum, with characteristics indicating that the excess luminosity is not produced by stars.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Allan Rex Sandage (June 18, 1926 – November 13, 2010) was an American astronomer.
The Andromeda Galaxy, also known as Messier 31, M31, or NGC 224, is a spiral galaxy approximately 780 kiloparsecs (2.5 million light-years) from Earth, and the nearest major galaxy to the Milky Way.
In modern physics, antimatter is defined as a material composed of the antiparticle (or "partners") to the corresponding particles of ordinary matter.
APM 08279+5255 is a very distant, broad absorption line quasar located in the constellation Lynx.
The apparent magnitude of a celestial object is a number that is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth.
An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who concentrates their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth.
An astrophysical jet is an astronomical phenomenon where outflows of ionised matter are emitted as an extended beam along the axis of rotation.
Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space".
The Balmer series or Balmer lines in atomic physics, is the designation of one of a set of six named series describing the spectral line emissions of the hydrogen atom.
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
A binary star is a star system consisting of two stars orbiting around their common barycenter.
A black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.
A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.
A blazar is a very compact quasar (quasi-stellar radio source) associated with a presumed supermassive black hole at the center of an active, giant elliptical galaxy.
Brady John Haran (born 18 June 1976) is an Australian-born British independent filmmaker and video journalist who is known for his educational videos and documentary films produced for BBC News and his YouTube channels, the most notable being Periodic Videos and Numberphile.
The Calar Alto Observatory (Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán or Deutsch-Spanisches Astronomisches Zentrum, respectively "Spanish–German Astronomical Centre" and "German–Spanish Astronomical Centre") is an astronomical observatory located in Almería province in Spain on Calar Alto, a mountain in the Sierra de Los Filabres range.
Centrifugal acceleration of astroparticles to relativistic energies might take place in rotating astrophysical objects (see also Fermi acceleration).
A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions to take place.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
In standard cosmology, comoving distance and proper distance are two closely related distance measures used by cosmologists to define distances between objects.
Compton scattering, discovered by Arthur Holly Compton, is the scattering of a photon by a charged particle, usually an electron.
A constellation is a group of stars that are considered to form imaginary outlines or meaningful patterns on the celestial sphere, typically representing animals, mythological people or gods, mythological creatures, or manufactured devices.
A contraction is a shortened version of the written and spoken forms of a word, syllable, or word group, created by omission of internal letters and sounds.
Cosmic dust, also called extraterrestrial dust or space dust, is dust which exists in outer space, as well as all over planet Earth.
Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.
Distance measures are used in physical cosmology to give a natural notion of the distance between two objects or events in the universe.
In atomic physics, Doppler broadening is the broadening of spectral lines due to the Doppler effect caused by a distribution of velocities of atoms or molecules.
In observational astronomy, a double star or visual double is a pair of stars that appear close to each other in the sky as seen from Earth when viewed through an optical telescope.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Edwin Ernest Salpeter (3 December 1924 – 26 November 2008) was an Austrian–Australian–American astrophysicist.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Ernst Julius Öpik (– 10 September 1985) was an Estonian astronomer and astrophysicist who spent the second half of his career (1948–1981) at the Armagh Observatory in Northern Ireland.
The European Southern Observatory (ESO) is a 15-nation intergovernmental research organization for ground-based astronomy.
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
In general relativity, an event horizon is a region in spacetime beyond which events cannot affect an outside observer.
The expansion of the universe is the increase of the distance between two distant parts of the universe with time.
In astronomy, extinction is the absorption and scattering of electromagnetic radiation by dust and gas between an emitting astronomical object and the observer.
Faster-than-light (also superluminal or FTL) communication and travel are the conjectural propagation of information or matter faster than the speed of light.
Fermi acceleration, sometimes referred to as diffusive shock acceleration (a subclass of Fermi acceleration On the Origin of the Cosmic Radiation, E. Fermi, Physical Review 75, pp. 1169-1174, 1949), is the acceleration that charged particles undergo when being repeatedly reflected, usually by a magnetic mirror (see also Centrifugal mechanism of acceleration).
In spectroscopy, a forbidden mechanism (forbidden transition or forbidden line) is a spectral line associated with absorption or emission of light by atomic nuclei, atoms, or molecules which undergo a transition that is not allowed by a particular selection rule but is allowed if the approximation associated with that rule is not made.
Sir Fred Hoyle FRS (24 June 1915 – 20 August 2001) was a British astronomer who formulated the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis.
Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.
A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter.
A galaxy cluster, or cluster of galaxies, is a structure that consists of anywhere from hundreds to thousands of galaxies that are bound together by gravity with typical masses ranging from 1014–1015 solar masses.
Galaxy mergers can occur when two (or more) galaxies collide.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
Gamma-ray astronomy is the astronomical observation of gamma rays,Astronomical literature generally hyphenates "gamma-ray" when used as an adjective, but uses "gamma ray" without a hyphen for the noun.
In gamma-ray astronomy, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are extremely energetic explosions that have been observed in distant galaxies.
General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.
Gravitational energy is the potential energy a body with mass has in relation to another massive object due to gravity.
A gravitational lens is a distribution of matter (such as a cluster of galaxies) between a distant light source and an observer, that is capable of bending the light from the source as the light travels towards the observer.
In astrophysics, gravitational redshift or Einstein shift is the process by which electromagnetic radiation originating from a source that is in a gravitational field is reduced in frequency, or redshifted, when observed in a region at a higher gravitational potential.
In astronomical spectroscopy, the Gunn–Peterson trough is a feature of the spectra of quasars due to the presence of neutral hydrogen in the Intergalactic Medium (IGM).
The Hale telescope is a, f/3.3 reflecting telescope at the Palomar Observatory in California, US, named after astronomer George Ellery Hale.
Hawaii (Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959.
The Hayashi track is a luminosity–temperature relationship obeyed by infant stars of less than in the pre-main-sequence phase (PMS phase) of stellar evolution.
Heber Doust Curtis (June 27, 1872 – January 9, 1942) was an American astronomer.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
Hong-Yee Chiu is an American astrophysicist and successful publisher of EHGBooks micro-publishing company, born in Shanghai in October 1932.
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990 and remains in operation.
Hubble's law is the name for the observation in physical cosmology that.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
Infrared astronomy is the branch of astronomy and astrophysics that studies astronomical objects visible in infrared (IR) radiation.
Interacting galaxies (colliding galaxies) are galaxies whose gravitational fields result in a disturbance of one another.
Interferometry is a family of techniques in which waves, usually electromagnetic waves, are superimposed causing the phenomenon of interference in order to extract information.
The International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) is the current standard celestial reference system adopted by the International Astronomical Union (IAU).
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
The Jodrell Bank Observatory (originally the Jodrell Bank Experimental Station, then the Nuffield Radio Astronomy Laboratories from 1966 to 1999) is a British observatory that hosts a number of radio telescopes, and is part of the Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics at the University of Manchester.
This article is on the astronomer John Bolton.
La Silla Observatory is an astronomical observatory in Chile with three telescopes built and operated by the European Southern Observatory (ESO).
LBQS 1429-008 (QQ 1429−008, QQ 1432−0106, QQQ J1432−0106) is a physical triple quasar.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The light-year is a unit of length used to express astronomical distances and measures about 9.5 trillion kilometres or 5.9 trillion miles.
This is a list of quasars.
The Lovell Telescope is a radio telescope at Jodrell Bank Observatory, near Goostrey, Cheshire in the north-west of England.
In astronomy, luminosity is the total amount of energy emitted per unit of time by a star, galaxy, or other astronomical object.
In physics and chemistry, the Lyman series is a hydrogen spectral series of transitions and resulting ultraviolet emission lines of the hydrogen atom as an electron goes from n ≥ 2 to n.
In astronomical spectroscopy, the Lyman-alpha forest is a series of absorption lines in the spectra of distant galaxies and quasars arising from the Lyman-alpha electron transition of the neutral hydrogen atom.
Maarten Schmidt (born December 28, 1929) is a Dutch astronomer who measured the distances of quasars.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.
Mauna Kea is a dormant volcano on the island of Hawaii.
The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.
A minute of arc, arcminute (arcmin), arc minute, or minute arc is a unit of angular measurement equal to of one degree.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
A nebula (Latin for "cloud" or "fog"; pl. nebulae, nebulæ, or nebulas) is an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and other ionized gases.
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
The observable universe is a spherical region of the Universe comprising all matter that can be observed from Earth at the present time, because electromagnetic radiation from these objects has had time to reach Earth since the beginning of the cosmological expansion.
An occultation is an event that occurs when one object is hidden by another object that passes between it and the observer.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
An optically violent variable quasar (often abbreviated as OVV quasar) is a type of highly variable quasar.
The Parkes Observatory (also known informally as "The Dish") is a radio telescope observatory, located 20 kilometres north of the town of Parkes, New South Wales, Australia.
Physics Today is the membership magazine of the American Institute of Physics that was established in 1948.
Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.
Power density (or volume power density or volume specific power) is the amount of power (time rate of energy transfer) per unit volume.
The proton–proton chain reaction is one of the two (known) sets of fusion reactions by which stars convert hydrogen to helium.
Radio astronomy is a subfield of astronomy that studies celestial objects at radio frequencies.
Radio galaxies and their relatives, radio-loud quasars and blazars, are types of active galaxy that are very luminous at radio wavelengths, with luminosities up to 1039 W between 10 MHz and 100 GHz.
Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light.
In physics, redshift happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the spectrum.
In the field of Big Bang theory, and cosmology, reionization is the process that caused the matter in the universe to reionize after the lapse of the "dark ages".
Relativistic beaming (also known as Doppler beaming, Doppler boosting, or the headlight effect) is the process by which relativistic effects modify the apparent luminosity of emitting matter that is moving at speeds close to the speed of light.
Relativistic speed refers to speed at which relativistic effects become significant to the desired accuracy of measurement of the phenomenon being observed.
Reverberation mapping is an astrophysical technique for measuring the structure of the broad emission-line region (BLR) around a supermassive black hole at the center of an active galaxy, and thus estimating the hole's mass.
Seyfert galaxies are one of the two largest groups of active galaxies, along with quasars.
The Sloan Digital Sky Survey or SDSS is a major multi-spectral imaging and spectroscopic redshift survey using a dedicated 2.5-m wide-angle optical telescope at Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico, United States.
The solar mass is a standard unit of mass in astronomy, equal to approximately.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
A space telescope or space observatory is an instrument located in outer space to observe distant planets, galaxies and other astronomical objects.
Space.com is a space and astronomy news website.
In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.
A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.
The Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), is an infrared space telescope launched in 2003 and still operating as of 2018.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
Star clusters are groups of stars.
Star formation is the process by which dense regions within molecular clouds in interstellar space, sometimes referred to as "stellar nurseries" or "star-forming regions", collapse and form stars.
In cosmology, the Steady State theory is an alternative to the Big Bang model of the evolution of our universe.
During 1944, Walter Baade categorized groups of stars within the Milky Way into bluer stars associated with the spiral arms and the general position of yellow stars near the central galactic bulge or within globular star clusters.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
A supermassive black hole (SMBH or SBH) is the largest type of black hole, on the order of hundreds of thousands to billions of solar masses, and is found in the centre of almost all currently known massive galaxies.
A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.
Taxonomy is the practice and science of classification.
A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).
The Third Cambridge Catalogue of Radio Sources (3C) is an astronomical catalogue of celestial radio sources detected originally at 159 MHz, and subsequently at 178 MHz.
Thomas A. Matthews is an American astronomer.
The Twin Quasar (also known as Twin QSO, Double Quasar, SBS 0957+561, TXS 0957+561, Q0957+561 or QSO 0957+561 A/B), was discovered in 1979 and was the first identified gravitationally lensed object.
Uhuru was the first satellite launched specifically for the purpose of X-ray astronomy.
ULAS J1120+0641 is the second most distant known quasar as of 6 December 2017, after ULAS J1342+0928. ULAS J1120+0641 (at a comoving distance of 28.85 billion light-years) was the first quasar discovered beyond a redshift of 7. Its discovery was reported in June 2011.
ULAS J1342+0928 is the most distant known quasar detected and contains the most distant and oldest known supermassive black hole, at a reported redshift of z.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
Ultraviolet astronomy is the observation of electromagnetic radiation at ultraviolet wavelengths between approximately 10 and 320 nanometres; shorter wavelengths—higher energy photons—are studied by X-ray astronomy and gamma ray astronomy.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
The University of Nottingham is a public research university in Nottingham, United Kingdom.
Very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) is a type of astronomical interferometry used in radio astronomy.
Virgo is one of the constellations of the zodiac.
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
Visible-light astronomy encompasses a wide variety of observations via telescopes that are sensitive in the range of visible light (optical telescopes).
The W. M. Keck Observatory is a two-telescope astronomical observatory at an elevation of 4,145 meters (13,600 ft) near the summit of Mauna Kea in the U.S. state of Hawaii.
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
In general relativity, a white hole is a hypothetical region of spacetime which cannot be entered from the outside, although matter and light can escape from it.
A wormhole is a concept that represents a solution of the Einstein field equations: a non-trivial resolution of the Ehrenfest paradox structure linking separate points in spacetime.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
X-ray astronomy is an observational branch of astronomy which deals with the study of X-ray observation and detection from astronomical objects.
Yakov Borisovich Zel’dovich (Я́каў Бары́савіч Зяльдо́віч, Я́ков Бори́сович Зельдо́вич; 8 March 1914 – 2 December 1987), also known as YaB, was a Soviet physicist of Belarusian Jewish ethnicity, who is known for his prolific contributions in cosmology and the physics of thermonuclear and hydrodynamical phenomena.
3C 273 is a quasar located in the constellation Virgo.
3C48 is a quasar discovered in 1960; it was the second source conclusively identified as such.
Double Quasar, Double quasar, Double-quasar, Iron Quasar, Iron quasar, Mini qso, MiniQSO, Multiple quasar, Multiply imaged quasar, Quasars, Quaser, Quasi-Stellar Objects, Quasi-Stellar Radio Source, Quasi-stellar object, Quasistellar Object, Quasistellar object, Quazar, Triple quasar, Triple quasars.