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Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is. [1]

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Hebb, Double-crested cormorant, Dowry, Eastern Canada, Eastern Canadian blizzard of March 1971, Eastern Canadian Shield taiga, Eastern gray squirrel, Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Townships, Eastern wolf, Eastmain River, Ebony jewelwing, Ecoregion, Electoral district (Canada), Energy superpower, English Canada, English Canadians, English language, English-speaking Quebecers, Equalization payments in Canada, Ericsson, Estuary, European herring gull, European Union, Executive Council of Quebec, Exoplanet, Fagus grandifolia, Félix Leclerc, Festival du nouveau cinéma, Fiddle, Fine art, Fir, First language, First Nations, Fiscal year, Flag of Carillon, Flag of Quebec, Fleur-de-lis, Folk music, Fort Chambly, Fortification, François-Xavier Garneau, Francis I of France, Fraser Institute, Fraxinus americana, Frederick Haldimand, French and Indian War, French Canadians, French colonial empire, French colonization of the Americas, French language, French orthography, French-based creole languages, French-speaking Quebecer, Fresh water, Front de libération du Québec, Fur trade, Gabrielle Roy, Gaspé Peninsula, Gaston Miron, Gatineau, Gatineau Hot Air Balloon Festival, Gatineau River, Gemini Awards, Gens du pays, George Washington, German Canadians, Gilles Archambault, Gilles Vigneault, Gilles Villeneuve, Giovanni da Verrazzano, Golden eagle, Government of Canada, Government of Quebec, Grammatical gender, Grand Théâtre de Québec, Great blue heron, Great Lakes, Greater Montreal, Greece, Greek Orthodox Church, Groundhog, Group of Seven, Guadeloupe, Guido Nincheri, Gulf of Saint Lawrence, Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests, Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester, Guy Laliberté, Habitants, Habitation de Québec, Haitian Canadians, Harp seal, Head of state, Henri Julien, Hindu, Hinduism in Canada, Hip hop, History of Quebec, History of the Jews in Canada, Honoré Beaugrand, House of Commons of Canada, House sparrow, HR 8799, Hubert Aquin, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Hudson's Bay Company, Humid continental climate, Humidex, Hydro-Québec, Hydroelectricity, Hydropower, IBM, Ice cider, Ice hockey, Ice wine, Igneous rock, Index of Quebec-related articles, Indigenous peoples, Indigenous peoples in Canada, Information technology, Innu, Intendant of New France, Intolerable Acts, Inuit, Inukjuak, Invasion of Quebec (1775), Iris versicolor, Irish Canadians, Iroquois, Irreligion in Canada, ISIS (satellite), Islam in Canada, Island of Montreal, Italian Canadians, Italian language, J. Michel Doyon, Jack pine, Jacques Cartier, Jacques Villeneuve, James Bay, James Bay Project, James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin, James Cross, James Murray (British Army officer, born 1721), James Wolfe, Je me souviens, Jean Allaire, Jean Charest, Jean Chrétien, Jean Dallaire, Jean de Brébeuf, Jean Duceppe, Jean Lesage, Jean Paul Lemieux, Jean Talon, Jean-Paul Riopelle, Jew's harp, Jig, John Lambton, 1st Earl of Durham, John the Baptist, Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, Juglans cinerea, Julie Payette, Just for Laughs, Kahnawake, Kanesatake, Kate & Anna McGarrigle, Köppen climate classification, King's Daughters, Kingdom of Great Britain, Knowledge economy, Kuujjuaq, La Bolduc, La famille Plouffe, La Grande River, La La La Human Steps, La Petite Patrie, Labatt Brewing Company, Labrador, Labrador Current, Labrador Peninsula, Lac-Saint-Louis (electoral district), Lachine Canal, Lake Champlain, Lake Memphremagog, Lake Mistassini, Lake Pohenegamook, Lanaudière, Largemouth bass, Larix 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Abenaki

The Abenaki (Abnaki, Abinaki, Alnôbak) are a Native American tribe and First Nation.

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Abies balsamea

Abies balsamea or balsam fir is a North American fir, native to most of eastern and central Canada (Newfoundland west to central British Columbia) and the northeastern United States (Minnesota east to Maine, and south in the Appalachian Mountains to West Virginia).

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Abitibi-Témiscamingue

Abitibi-Témiscamingue is an administrative region located in western Québec, Canada, along the border with Ontario.

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Acadia

Acadia (Acadie) was a colony of New France in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day Maine to the Kennebec River.

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Accordion

Accordions (from 19th-century German Akkordeon, from Akkord—"musical chord, concord of sounds") are a family of box-shaped musical instruments of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone type, colloquially referred to as a squeezebox.

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Acer rubrum

Acer rubrum, the red maple, also known as swamp, water or soft maple, is one of the most common and widespread deciduous trees of eastern and central North America.

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Acer saccharum

Acer saccharum, the sugar maple or rock maple, is a species of maple native to the hardwood forests of eastern Canada, from Nova Scotia west through Quebec and southern Ontario to southeastern Manitoba around Lake of the Woods, and the northern parts of the Central and Eastern United States, from Minnesota eastward to the highlands of the eastern states.

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Acipenser oxyrinchus

Acipenser oxyrinchus is a species of sturgeon.

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Act of Union 1840

The British North America Act, 1840 (3 & 4 Victoria, c.35), commonly known as the Act of Union 1840, was enacted in July 1840 and proclaimed February 10, 1841 in Montréal.

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Action démocratique du Québec

The Action démocratique du Québec, commonly referred to as the ADQ was a conservative and right-wing populist provincial political party in Quebec, Canada.

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Acute accent

The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.

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ADISQ

ADISQ stands for Association québécoise de l'industrie du disque, du spectacle et de la video, which translates as "Québec Association for the Recording, Concert and Video Industries." It is a nonprofit organization whose mission is to support the music industry in Québec.

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Aerospace

Aerospace is the human effort in science, engineering and business to fly in the atmosphere of Earth (aeronautics) and surrounding space (astronautics).

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Akwesasne

The Mohawk Nation at Akwesasne (alternate spelling Ahkwesáhsne) is a Mohawk Nation (Kanien'kehá:ka) territory that straddles the intersection of international (United States and Canada) borders and provincial (Ontario and Quebec) boundaries on both banks of the St. Lawrence River.

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Alabama

Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.

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Alberta

Alberta is a western province of Canada.

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Alfred Laliberté

Alfred Laliberté (19 May 1878 - 13 January 1953) was a French Canadian sculptor and painter based in Montreal.

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Alfred Pellan

Alfred Pellan, (born Alfred Pelland; 16 May 1906 – 31 October 1988) was an important figure in twentieth-century Quebec painting.

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Algonquian peoples

The Algonquian are one of the most populous and widespread North American native language groups.

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Algonquin language

Algonquin (also spelled Algonkin; in Algonquin: Anicinàbemowin or Anishinàbemiwin) is either a distinct Algonquian language closely related to the Ojibwe language or a particularly divergent Ojibwe dialect.

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Algonquin people

The Algonquins are indigenous inhabitants of North America who speak the Algonquin language, a divergent dialect of the Ojibwe language, which is part of the Algonquian language family.

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Allophone (Quebec)

In Quebec, an allophone is a resident, usually an immigrant, whose mother tongue or home language is neither French nor English.

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American black bear

The American black bear (Ursus americanus) is a medium-sized bear native to North America.

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American crow

The American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) is a large passerine bird species of the family Corvidae.

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American literary regionalism

American literary regionalism or local color is a style or genre of writing in the United States that gained popularity in the mid to late 19th century into the early 20th century.

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American pickerel

The American pickerels are two subspecies of Esox americanus, a species of freshwater fish in the pike family (family Esocidae) of order Esociformes: the redfin pickerel, E. americanus americanus Gmelin, 1789, and the grass pickerel, E. americanus vermiculatus Lesueur, 1846.

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American Revolution

The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.

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American robin

The American robin (Turdus migratorius) is a migratory songbird of the true thrush genus and Turdidae, the wider thrush family.

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Amtrak

The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak, is a passenger railroad service that provides medium- and long-distance intercity service in the contiguous United States and to three Canadian cities.

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Anglicanism

Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.

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Anglo-French War (1627–1629)

The Anglo-French War was a military conflict fought between the Kingdom of France and the Kingdom of England between 1627 and 1629 that was part of the broader Thirty Years' War.

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Anticosti Island

Anticosti Island (French, Île d'Anticosti) is an island in the province of Quebec, Canada at the outlet of the Saint Lawrence River into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, between 49° and 50° N., and between 61° 40' and 64° 30' W.

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Appalachian Mountains

The Appalachian Mountains (les Appalaches), often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America.

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Arab Canadians

Arab Canadians come from all of the countries of the Arab world.

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Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arctic

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

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Arctic char

Arctic char or Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is a cold-water fish in the family Salmonidae, native to alpine lakes and arctic and subarctic coastal waters.

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Arctic fox

The Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus), also known as the white fox, polar fox, or snow fox, is a small fox native to the Arctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere and common throughout the Arctic tundra biome.

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Armand Vaillancourt

Armand J. R. Vaillancourt (born on September 3, 1929 in Black Lake) is a Canadian sculptor, painter and performance artist from Quebec.

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Arthur Villeneuve

Arthur Villeneuve, (January 4, 1910, Chicoutimi, Quebec - May 24, 1990, Montreal, Quebec) was a Québécois painter and member of the Order of Canada.

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Asbestos

Asbestos is a set of six naturally occurring silicate minerals, which all have in common their eponymous asbestiform habit: i.e. long (roughly 1:20 aspect ratio), thin fibrous crystals, with each visible fiber composed of millions of microscopic "fibrils" that can be released by abrasion and other processes.

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Ashuapmushuan River

The Ashuapmushuan River is a river in the Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean region of the Canadian provinces of Quebec.

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Atlantic cod

The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is a benthopelagic fish of the family Gadidae, widely consumed by humans.

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Atlantic puffin

The Atlantic puffin (Fratercula arctica), also known as the common puffin, is a species of seabird in the auk family.

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Atlantic salmon

The Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.

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Aurora

An aurora (plural: auroras or aurorae), sometimes referred to as polar lights, northern lights (aurora borealis) or southern lights (aurora australis), is a natural light display in the Earth's sky, predominantly seen in the high-latitude regions (around the Arctic and Antarctic).

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Axis powers

The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.

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École des beaux-arts de Montréal

École des beaux-arts de Montréal (The School of Fine Arts in Montreal; EBAM) was an educational institution founded in Quebec in 1922.

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École nationale de cirque

The National Circus School (École nationale de cirque) is a professional circus school located in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

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Édouard Beaupré

Édouard Beaupré (born Joseph Édouard Beaupré Piché January 9, 1881 – July 3, 1904) was a circus and freak show giant, wrestler, strongman, and a star in Barnum and Bailey's circus.

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Émile Nelligan

Émile Nelligan (December 24, 1879 – November 18, 1941) was a francophone poet from Quebec, Canada.

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Étienne Brûlé

Étienne Brûlé (c. 1592 – c. June 1633) was the first European explorer to journey beyond the St. Lawrence River in what is today Canada.

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Île d'Orléans

Île d'Orléans (English: Island of Orleans) is located in the Saint Lawrence River about east of downtown Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.

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Bald eagle

The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus, from Greek ἅλς, hals "sea", αἰετός aietos "eagle", λευκός, leukos "white", κεφαλή, kephalē "head") is a bird of prey found in North America.

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Baptists

Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).

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Bas-Saint-Laurent

The Bas-Saint-Laurent (Lower Saint-Lawrence) region is located along the south shore of the lower Saint Lawrence River in Quebec.

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Basic research

Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, has the scientific research aim to improve scientific theories for improved understanding or prediction of natural or other phenomena.

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Basse-Côte-Nord

Basse-Côte-Nord Territory (French: Territoire de la Basse-Côte-Nord, meaning "lower north shore") was a territory equivalent to a regional county municipality (TE) in eastern Quebec, Canada.

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Battle of Carillon

The Battle of Carillon, also known as the 1758 Battle of Ticonderoga,Chartrand (2000), p. 57 was fought on July 8, 1758, during the French and Indian War (which was part of the global Seven Years' War).

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Battle of Jumonville Glen

The Battle of Jumonville Glen, also known as the Jumonville affair, was the opening battle of the French and Indian War fought on May 28, 1754, near what is present-day Hopwood and Uniontown in Fayette County, Pennsylvania.

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Battle of Saint-Denis (1837)

The Battle of Saint-Denis was fought on November 23, 1837 between British colonial authorities under Lieutenant-Colonel Gore and Patriote rebels.

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Battle of the Plains of Abraham

The Battle of the Plains of Abraham, also known as the Battle of Quebec (Bataille des Plaines d'Abraham, or Première bataille de Québec in French), was a pivotal battle in the Seven Years' War (referred to as the French and Indian War in the United States).

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Battle of Trois-Rivières

The Battle of Trois-Rivières was fought on June 8, 1776, during the American Revolutionary War.

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Beluga whale

The beluga whale or white whale (Delphinapterus leucas) is an Arctic and sub-Arctic cetacean.

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Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs

The Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs is an academic research center at Georgetown University in Washington, DC dedicated to the interdisciplinary study of religion, ethics, and politics.

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Betula alleghaniensis

Betula alleghaniensis (yellow birch, also known as golden birch), is a large and important lumber species of birch native to North-eastern North America.

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Betula papyrifera

Betula papyrifera (paper birch, also known as white birch and canoe birch) is a short-lived species of birch native to northern North America.

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Bicameralism

A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.

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Bilingual belt

The bilingual belt is a term for the portion of Canada where both French and English are regularly spoken.

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Biotechnology

Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).

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Black-capped chickadee

The black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) is a small, nonmigratory, North American songbird that lives in deciduous and mixed forests.

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Bloc Québécois

The Bloc Québécois (BQ) is a federal political party in Canada devoted to Quebec nationalism and the promotion of Quebec sovereignty.

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Blue jay

The blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata) is a passerine bird in the family Corvidae, native to North America.

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Blue whale

The blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) is a marine mammal belonging to the baleen whale parvorder, Mysticeti.

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Bobcat

The bobcat (Lynx rufus) is a North American cat that appeared during the Irvingtonian stage of around 1.8 million years ago (AEO).

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Bogeyman

Bogeyman (usually spelled boogeyman in the U.S.; also spelled bogieman or boogie man; see American and British English spelling differences) is a common allusion to a mythical creature in many cultures used by adults to frighten children into good behaviour.

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Boreal forest of Canada

The Taiga Biome extends in a broad band across North America, Europe, and Asia.

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Boston Tea Party

The Boston Tea Party was a political and mercantile protest by the Sons of Liberty in Boston, Massachusetts, on December 16, 1773.

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Brenda Milner

Brenda Milner, (born July 15, 1918) is a British-Canadian neuropsychologist who has contributed extensively to the research literature on various topics in the field of clinical neuropsychology, sometimes referred to as "the founder of neuropsychology".

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Bretons

The Bretons (Bretoned) are a Celtic ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France.

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British Army

The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.

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British Columbia

British Columbia (BC; Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.

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British North America

The term "British North America" refers to the former territories of the British Empire on the mainland of North America.

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British North America Acts

The British North America Acts 1867–1975 are a series of Acts at the core of the constitution of Canada.

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Brook trout

The brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) is a species of freshwater fish in the salmon family Salmonidae.

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Buddhism

Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Buddhism in Canada

Buddhism is among the smallest minority-religions in Canada, with a very slowly growing population in the country, partly the result of conversion, with only 4.6% of new immigrants identifying themselves as Buddhist.

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Bumblebee

A bumblebee (or bumble bee, bumble-bee or humble-bee) is any of over 250 species in the genus Bombus, part of Apidae, one of the bee families.

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Canada

Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Canada (New France)

Canada was a French colony within New France first claimed in the name of the King of France in 1535 during the second voyage of Jacques Cartier.

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Canada 1911 Census

The Canada 1911 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population.

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Canada 1996 Census

The Canada 1996 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population.

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Canada 2001 Census

The Canada 2001 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population.

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Canada 2006 Census

The Canada 2006 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population.

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Canada 2011 Census

The Canada 2011 Census is a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population on May 10, 2011.

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Canada 2016 Census

The Canada 2016 Census is the most recent detailed enumeration of the Canadian residents, which counted a population of 35,151,728, a change from its 2011 population of 33,476,688.

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Canada at the 2010 Winter Olympics

Canada hosted and participated in the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, British Columbia.

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Canada at the 2014 Winter Olympics

Canada competed at the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia, from February 7 to 23, 2014.

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Canada at the 2018 Winter Olympics

Canada competed at the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang, South Korea, from February 9 to 25, 2018.

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Canada East

Canada East (Canada-Est) was the northeastern portion of the United Province of Canada.

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Canada goose

The Canada goose (Branta canadensis), also called the Canadian goose, is a large wild goose species with a black head and neck, white cheeks, white under its chin, and a brown body.

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Canada–United States softwood lumber dispute

The Canada–U.S. softwood lumber dispute is one of the largest and most enduring trade disputes between both nations.

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Canadian Broadcasting Corporation

The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (Société Radio-Canada), branded as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian federal Crown corporation that serves as the national public broadcaster for both radio and television.

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Canadian Coast Guard

The Canadian Coast Guard (CCG; Garde côtière canadienne – GCC) is the coast guard of Canada.

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Canadian Confederation

Canadian Confederation (Confédération canadienne) was the process by which the British colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were united into one Dominion of Canada on July 1, 1867.

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Canadian English

Canadian English (CanE, CE, en-CA) is the set of varieties of the English language native to Canada.

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Canadian football

Canadian football is a sport played in Canada in which two teams of 12 players each compete for territorial control of a field of play long and wide attempting to advance a pointed prolate spheroid ball into the opposing team's scoring area (end zone).

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Canadian French

Canadian French (français canadien) refers to a variety of dialects of the French language generally spoken in Canada.

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Canadian Grand Prix

The Canadian Grand Prix (Grand Prix du Canada) is an annual auto race held in Canada since 1961.

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Canadian horse

The Canadian horse is a horse breed from Canada.

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Canadian National Railway

The Canadian National Railway Company (Compagnie des chemins de fer nationaux du Canada) is a Canadian Class I freight railway headquartered in Montreal, Quebec that serves Canada and the Midwestern and Southern United States.

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Canadian Pacific Railway

The Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR), also known formerly as CP Rail between 1968 and 1996, is a historic Canadian Class I railroad incorporated in 1881.

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Canadian Shield

The Canadian Shield, also called the Laurentian Plateau, or Bouclier canadien (French), is a large area of exposed Precambrian igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks (geological shield) that forms the ancient geological core of the North American continent (the North American Craton or Laurentia).

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Canadian Space Agency

The Canadian Space Agency (CSA; Agence spatiale canadienne, ASC) was established by the Canadian Space Agency Act which received Royal Assent on May 10, 1990.

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Canadienne cattle

Canadienne cattle, also known as Black Canadienne, French Canadienne, and Black Jersey, are the only breed of dairy cattle developed in Canada.

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Caniapiscau Reservoir

The Caniapiscau Reservoir (in French, Réservoir de Caniapiscau) is a reservoir on the upper Caniapiscau River in the Côte-Nord administrative region of the Canadian province of Quebec.

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Canoe

A canoe is a lightweight narrow vessel, typically pointed at both ends and open on top, propelled by one or more seated or kneeling paddlers facing the direction of travel using a single-bladed paddle.

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Capitale-Nationale

Capitale-Nationale (National Capital region) is one of 17 administrative regions of Quebec, Canada.

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Capitole de Québec

The Capitole de Québec is a Beaux Arts-style theatre in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.

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Carya cordiformis

Carya cordiformis, the bitternut hickory, also called bitternut or swamp hickory, is a large pecan hickory with commercial stands located mostly north of the other pecan hickories.

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Cathay

Cathay is the Anglicized rendering of "Catai" and an alternative name for China in English.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Catholic Church in Canada

The Catholic Church in Canada is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope.

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Cavalia

Cavalia Inc.

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Côte-Nord

Côte-Nord (French for "North Shore", area 247,633.94 km²) is the second largest administrative region by land area in Quebec, Canada, after Nord-du-Québec.

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Celine Dion

Céline Marie Claudette Dion, (born 30 March 1968) is a Canadian singer.

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Central Canada

Central Canada (sometimes the Central provinces) is a region consisting of Canada's two largest and most populous provinces: Ontario and Quebec.

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Central Canadian Shield forests

The Central Canadian Shield forests are a taiga ecoregion of Canada.

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Centre-du-Québec

Centre-du-Québec (Central Quebec) is a region of Quebec, Canada.

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Champlain Sea

The Champlain Sea was a temporary inlet of the Atlantic Ocean, created by the retreating glaciers during the close of the last ice age.

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Chantecler chicken

The Chantecler is a breed of chicken originating in Canada.

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Charles Daudelin

Charles Daudelin, (October 1, 1920 – April 2, 2001) was a French Canadian sculptor and painter, a major Quebec artist.

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Charlottetown

Charlottetown (Baile Sheàrlot) is the capital and largest city of the Canadian province of Prince Edward Island, and the county seat of Queens County.

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Charlottetown Accord

The Charlottetown Accord (Accord de Charlottetown) was a package of proposed amendments to the Constitution of Canada, proposed by the Canadian federal and provincial governments in 1992.

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Charlottetown Conference

The Charlottetown Conference was held in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island for representatives from the colonies of British North America to discuss Canadian Confederation.

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Charter of the French Language

The Charter of the French Language (La charte de la langue française), also known as Bill 101 (Law 101 or Loi 101), is a 1977 law in the province of Quebec in Canada defining French, the language of the majority of the population, as the official language of the provincial government.

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Chasse-galerie

La Chasse-galerie also known as "The Bewitched Canoe" or "The Flying Canoe" is a popular French-Canadian tale of Coureurs des bois who make a deal with the devil, a variant of the Wild Hunt.

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Chaudière River

The Chaudière River (French for "Cauldron" or "Boiler") is a river with its source near the Town of Lac-Mégantic, in southeast Quebec, Canada.

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Chaudière-Appalaches

Chaudière-Appalaches is an administrative region in Quebec, Canada.

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Chipmunk

Chipmunks are small, striped rodents of the family Sciuridae.

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Christian

A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.

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Church attendance

Church attendance is a central religious practice for many Christians; some Christian denominations, such as the Catholic Church require church attendance on the Lord's Day (Sunday); the Westminster Confession of Faith is held by the Reformed Churches and teaches first-day Sabbatarianism, thus proclaiming the duty of public worship in keeping with the Ten Commandments.

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Cinémathèque québécoise

The Cinémathèque québécoise is a film conservatory in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

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Cirque Éloize

Cirque Éloize is a Montreal-born contemporary circus company founded in 1993 by Daniel Cyr, Claudette Morin and Jeannot Painchaud.

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Cirque du Soleil

Cirque du Soleil ("Circus of the Sun" or "Sun Circus") is a Canadian entertainment company.

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Civil Code of Quebec

The Civil Code of Quebec (CCQ, Code civil du Québec) is the civil code in force in the province of Quebec, Canada, which came into effect on January 1, 1994.

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Civil law (legal system)

Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.

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Clarence Gagnon

Clarence Alphonse Gagnon, R.C.A., (8 November 1881 – 5 January 1942) was a French Canadian painter, draughtsman, engraver and illustrator, from the province of Quebec.

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Climate of the Arctic

The climate of the Arctic is characterized by long, cold winters and short, cool summers.

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Clown

Clowns are comic performers who employ slapstick or similar types of physical comedy, often in a mime style.

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Clyde Wells

Clyde Kirby Wells, (born November 9, 1937) was the fifth Premier of Newfoundland from 1989 to 1996, and subsequently Chief Justice of Newfoundland and Labrador, sitting on the Supreme Court of Newfoundland and Labrador (Court of Appeal) from 1998 to 2009.

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Coat of arms of Quebec

The coat of arms of Quebec was adopted by order-in-council of the Quebec government on 9 December 1939, replacing the arms assigned by royal warrant of Queen Victoria on 26 May 1868.

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Coccinellidae

Coccinellidae is a widespread family of small beetles ranging in size from 0.8 to 18 mm (0.03 to 0.71 inches).

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Common grackle

The common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula) is a large icterid which is found in large numbers through much of North America.

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Common loon

The common loon or great northern diver (Gavia immer) is a large member of the loon, or diver, family of birds.

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Common starling

The common starling (Sturnus vulgaris), also known as the European starling, or in the British Isles just the starling, is a medium-sized passerine bird in the starling family, Sturnidae.

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Company of One Hundred Associates

The Company of One Hundred Associates (French: formally the Compagnie de la Nouvelle France, or colloquially the Compagnie des Cent-Associés or Compagnie du Canada or Company of New France) was a French trading and colonization company chartered in 1627 to capitalize on the North American fur trade and to expand French colonies there.

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Conscription Crisis of 1917

The Conscription Crisis of 1917 (Crise de la conscription de 1917) was a political and military crisis in Canada during World War I. It was mainly caused by disagreement on whether men should be conscripted to fight in the war.

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Conscription Crisis of 1944

The Conscription Crisis of 1944 was a political and military crisis following the introduction of forced military service for men in Canada during World War II.

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Conseil des arts et des lettres du Québec

The Conseil des arts et des lettres du Québec (CALQ) is a public agency founded in 1994 by the government of Quebec.

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Conservatoire de musique et d'art dramatique du Québec

The Conservatoire de musique et d'art dramatique du Québec (CMADQ) is a public network of nine state-subsidised schools offering higher education in music and theatre in Quebec, Canada.

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Constitution Act, 1867

The Constitution Act, 1867, 30 & 31 Victoria, c. 3 (U.K.), R.S.C. 1985, App.

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Constitution of Canada

The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada; the country's constitution is an amalgamation of codified acts and uncodified traditions and conventions.

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Constitutional Act 1791

The Clergy Endowments (Canada) Act 1791 (31 Geo 3 c 31), (the Act) commonly known as the Constitutional Act 1791, is an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain.

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Contemporary circus

New or Contemporary Circus, also known as nouveau cirque or cirque contemporain in French-speaking countries, is a genre of performing arts developed in the late 20th century in which a story or theme is conveyed through traditional circus skills.

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Contemporary dance

Contemporary dance is a genre of dance performance that developed during the mid twentieth century and has since grown to become one of the dominant genres for formally trained dancers throughout the world, with particularly strong popularity in the U.S. and Europe.

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Continental Army

The Continental Army was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America.

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Coordinated Universal Time

No description.

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Cornelius Krieghoff

Cornelius David Krieghoff (June 19, 1815 – April 8, 1872) was a Dutch-Canadian painter of the 19th century.

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Cougar

The cougar (Puma concolor), also commonly known as the mountain lion, puma, panther, or catamount, is a large felid of the subfamily Felinae native to the Americas.

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Coureur des bois

A coureur des bois or coureur de bois ("runner of the woods"; plural: coureurs de bois) was an independent entrepreneurial French-Canadian trader who traveled in New France and the interior of North America.

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Coyote

The coyote (Canis latrans); from Nahuatl) is a canine native to North America. It is smaller than its close relative, the gray wolf, and slightly smaller than the closely related eastern wolf and red wolf. It fills much of the same ecological niche as the golden jackal does in Eurasia, though it is larger and more predatory, and is sometimes called the American jackal by zoologists. The coyote is listed as least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature due to its wide distribution and abundance throughout North America, southwards through Mexico, and into Central America. The species is versatile, able to adapt to and expand into environments modified by humans. It is enlarging its range, with coyotes moving into urban areas in the Eastern U.S., and was sighted in eastern Panama (across the Panama Canal from their home range) for the first time in 2013., 19 coyote subspecies are recognized. The average male weighs and the average female. Their fur color is predominantly light gray and red or fulvous interspersed with black and white, though it varies somewhat with geography. It is highly flexible in social organization, living either in a family unit or in loosely knit packs of unrelated individuals. It has a varied diet consisting primarily of animal meat, including deer, rabbits, hares, rodents, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and invertebrates, though it may also eat fruits and vegetables on occasion. Its characteristic vocalization is a howl made by solitary individuals. Humans are the coyote's greatest threat, followed by cougars and gray wolves. In spite of this, coyotes sometimes mate with gray, eastern, or red wolves, producing "coywolf" hybrids. In the northeastern United States and eastern Canada, the eastern coyote (a larger subspecies, though still smaller than wolves) is the result of various historical and recent matings with various types of wolves. Genetic studies show that most North American wolves contain some level of coyote DNA. The coyote is a prominent character in Native American folklore, mainly in the Southwestern United States and Mexico, usually depicted as a trickster that alternately assumes the form of an actual coyote or a man. As with other trickster figures, the coyote uses deception and humor to rebel against social conventions. The animal was especially respected in Mesoamerican cosmology as a symbol of military might. After the European colonization of the Americas, it was reviled in Anglo-American culture as a cowardly and untrustworthy animal. Unlike wolves (gray, eastern, or red), which have undergone an improvement of their public image, attitudes towards the coyote remain largely negative.

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Credit rating

A credit rating is an evaluation of the credit risk of a prospective debtor (an individual, a business, company or a government), predicting their ability to pay back the debt, and an implicit forecast of the likelihood of the debtor defaulting.

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Cree

The Cree (script; Cri) are one of the largest groups of First Nations in North America, with over 200,000 members living in Canada.

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Culture of France

The culture of Paris,in France and of the French people has been shaped by geography, by profound historical events, and by foreign and internal forces and groups.

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Damselfly

Damselflies are insects of the suborder Zygoptera in the order Odonata.

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David Kirke

Sir David Kirke (c. 1597–1654) (a.k.a. David Ker) was an adventurer, colonizer and governor for the king of England.

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Debt-to-GDP ratio

In economics, the debt-to-GDP ratio is the ratio between a country's government debt (a cumulative amount) and its gross domestic product (GDP) (measured in years).

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Deciduous

In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous (/dɪˈsɪdʒuəs/) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to the shedding of petals, after flowering; and to the shedding of ripe fruit.

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Developed country

A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

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Distinct society

Distinct society (in la société distincte) is a political term especially used during constitutional debate in Canada, in the second half of the 1980s and in the early 1990s, and present in the two failed constitutional amendments, the Meech Lake Accord and the Charlottetown Accord.

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District of Ungava

The District of Ungava was a regional administrative district of Canada's Northwest Territories from 1895 to 1920, although it effectively ceased operation in 1912.

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Donald O. Hebb

Donald Olding Hebb FRS (July 22, 1904 – August 20, 1985) was a Canadian psychologist who was influential in the area of neuropsychology, where he sought to understand how the function of neurons contributed to psychological processes such as learning.

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Double-crested cormorant

The double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) is a member of the cormorant family of seabirds.

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Dowry

A dowry is a transfer of parental property, gifts or money at the marriage of a daughter.

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Eastern Canada

Eastern Canada (also the Eastern provinces) is generally considered to be the region of Canada east of Manitoba, consisting of the following provinces.

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Eastern Canadian blizzard of March 1971

The Eastern Canadian blizzard of March 1971 was a severe winter storm that struck portions of eastern Canada from March 3 to March 5, 1971.

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Eastern Canadian Shield taiga

The Eastern Canadian Shield taiga is an ecoregion of Canada as defined by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) categorization system.

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Eastern gray squirrel

Sciurus carolinensis, common name eastern gray squirrel or grey squirrel depending on region, is a tree squirrel in the genus Sciurus.

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Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.

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Eastern Townships

The Eastern Townships (Cantons de l'Est) is a tourist region and a former administrative region in southeastern Quebec, Canada, situated between the former seigneuries south of the Saint Lawrence River and the United States border.

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Eastern wolf

The eastern wolf (Canis lupus lycaon or Canis lycaon), also known as the Eastern Canadian wolf, Eastern Timber wolf, Eastern Canadian red wolf, Algonquin wolf or deer wolf,Thiel, R. P.

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Eastmain River

The Eastmain River is a river in west central Quebec which rises in central Quebec and flows 800 km west to drain into James Bay.

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Ebony jewelwing

The ebony jewelwing (Calopteryx maculata) is a species of broad-winged damselfly.

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Ecoregion

An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.

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Electoral district (Canada)

An electoral district in Canada, also known as a "constituency" or a "riding", is a geographical constituency upon which Canada's representative democracy is based.

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Energy superpower

An energy superpower is a country that supplies large amounts of energy resources (crude oil, natural gas, coal, uranium, etc.) to a significant number of other countries, and therefore has the potential to influence world markets to gain a political or economic advantage.

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English Canada

English Canada is a term referring to one of the following.

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English Canadians

English Canadians or Anglo-Canadians (Canadiens anglais) refers to either Canadians of English ethnic origin and heritage, or to English-speaking, or Anglophone, Canadians of any ethnic origin; it is used primarily in contrast with French Canadians.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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English-speaking Quebecers

English-speaking Quebecers (also known as Anglo-Quebecers, English Quebecers, or Anglophone Quebecers, all with the optional spelling Quebeckers; in French Anglo-Québécois, Québécois Anglophone, or simply Anglo) refers to the English-speaking (anglophone) minority of the primarily French-speaking (francophone) province of Quebec, Canada.

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Equalization payments in Canada

In Canada, the federal government makes equalization payments to less wealthy Canadian provinces to equalize the provinces' "fiscal capacity"—their ability to generate tax revenues.

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Ericsson

Ericsson (Telefonaktiebolaget L. M. Ericsson) is a Swedish multinational networking and telecommunications company headquartered in Stockholm.

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Estuary

An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.

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European herring gull

The European herring gull (Larus argentatus) is a large gull (up to long).

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Executive Council of Quebec

The Executive Council of Quebec (in French, le Conseil exécutif du Québec, but informally and more commonly, the Cabinet of Quebec and in French: le Conseil des ministres) is the cabinet of the government of Quebec, Canada.

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Exoplanet

An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet outside our solar system.

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Fagus grandifolia

Fagus grandifolia, the American beech or North American beech, is the species of beech tree native to the eastern United States and extreme southeast Canada.

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Félix Leclerc

Félix Leclerc, (August 2, 1914 – August 8, 1988) was a French-Canadian singer-songwriter, poet, writer, actor and Québécois political activist.

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Festival du nouveau cinéma

The Festival du nouveau cinéma (FNC) (meaning Festival of New Cinema) is an annual independent film festival held in Montreal and features independent films from around the world.

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Fiddle

A fiddle is a bowed string musical instrument, most often a violin.

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Fine art

In European academic traditions, fine art is art developed primarily for aesthetics or beauty, distinguishing it from applied art, which also has to serve some practical function, such as pottery or most metalwork.

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Fir

Firs (Abies) are a genus of 48–56 species of evergreen coniferous trees in the family Pinaceae.

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First language

A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.

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First Nations

In Canada, the First Nations (Premières Nations) are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle.

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Fiscal year

A fiscal year (or financial year, or sometimes budget year) is the period used by governments for accounting and budget purposes, which vary between countries.

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Flag of Carillon

The flag of Carillon was flown by the troops of General Louis-Joseph de Montcalm during the Battle of Carillon, which was fought by the French and Canadian forces against those of the British in July 1758 at Fort Carillon.

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Flag of Quebec

The flag of Quebec, called the Fleurdelisé, represents the province of Quebec.

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Fleur-de-lis

The fleur-de-lis/fleur-de-lys (plural: fleurs-de-lis/fleurs-de-lys) or flower-de-luce is a stylized lily (in French, fleur means "flower", and lis means "lily") that is used as a decorative design or motif, and many of the Catholic saints of France, particularly St. Joseph, are depicted with a lily.

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Folk music

Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.

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Fort Chambly

Fort Chambly is a historic fort in La Vallée-du-Richelieu Regional County Municipality, Quebec.

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Fortification

A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.

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François-Xavier Garneau

François-Xavier Garneau (June 15, 1809 – February 2 or February 3, 1866) was a nineteenth-century French Canadian notary, poet, civil servant and liberal who wrote a three-volume history of the French Canadian nation entitled Histoire du Canada between 1845 and 1848.

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Francis I of France

Francis I (François Ier) (12 September 1494 – 31 March 1547) was the first King of France from the Angoulême branch of the House of Valois, reigning from 1515 until his death.

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Fraser Institute

The Fraser Institute is a Canadian public policy think tank and registered charity.

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Fraxinus americana

Fraxinus americana, the white ash or American ash, is a species of ash tree native to eastern and central North America.

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Frederick Haldimand

Sir Frederick Haldimand, KB (August 11, 1718 – June 5, 1791) was a military officer best known for his service in the British Army in North America during the Seven Years' War and the American Revolutionary War.

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French and Indian War

The French and Indian War (1754–63) comprised the North American theater of the worldwide Seven Years' War of 1756–63.

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French Canadians

French Canadians (also referred to as Franco-Canadians or Canadiens; Canadien(ne)s français(es)) are an ethnic group who trace their ancestry to French colonists who settled in Canada from the 17th century onward.

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French colonial empire

The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.

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French colonization of the Americas

The French colonization of the Americas began in the 16th century, and continued on into the following centuries as France established a colonial empire in the Western Hemisphere.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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French orthography

French orthography encompasses the spelling and punctuation of the French language.

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French-based creole languages

A French creole, or French-based creole language, is a creole language (contact language with native speakers) for which French is the lexifier.

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French-speaking Quebecer

French-speaking Quebecers or Quebeckers (Québécois) are francophone residents of the province of Quebec in Canada.

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Fresh water

Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.

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Front de libération du Québec

The Front de libération du Québec (FLQ; "Quebec Liberation Front") was a separatist and Marxist-Leninist paramilitary group in Quebec.

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Fur trade

The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur.

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Gabrielle Roy

Gabrielle Roy, (March 22, 1909 – July 13, 1983) was a French Canadian author.

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Gaspé Peninsula

The Gaspésie (official name), or Gaspé Peninsula, the Gaspé or Gaspesia, is a peninsula along the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River to the east of the Matapédia Valley in Quebec, Canada, that extends into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence.

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Gaston Miron

Gaston Miron, (January 8, 1928 – December 14, 1996) was an important poet, writer, and editor of the Quebec Quiet Revolution.

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Gatineau

Gatineau (locally), officially Ville de Gatineau, is a city in western Quebec, Canada.

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Gatineau Hot Air Balloon Festival

The Gatineau Hot Air Balloon Festival is a yearly festival, held in Gatineau, Quebec, Canada, and organized by a not-for-profit organization, during which hot air balloons of every shape and colour are flown and where 300 shows and performances adding up to over 60 hours’ worth of programming are taking place.

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Gatineau River

The Gatineau River (Rivière Gatineau) is a river in western Quebec, Canada, which rises in lakes north of the Baskatong Reservoir and flows south to join the Ottawa River at the city of Gatineau, Quebec.

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Gemini Awards

The Gemini Awards were awards given by the Academy of Canadian Cinema & Television to recognize the achievements of Canada's television industry.

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Gens du pays

"Gens du pays" has been called the unofficial national anthem of Quebec.

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George Washington

George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.

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German Canadians

German Canadians (Deutsch-Kanadier or Deutschkanadier) are Canadian citizens of ethnic German ancestry.

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Gilles Archambault

Gilles Archambault (born September 19, 1933 in Montreal, Quebec) is a francophone novelist from Quebec, Canada.

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Gilles Vigneault

Gilles Vigneault (born 27 October 1928) is a Canadian French-speaking poet, publisher and singer-songwriter, and Quebec nationalist and sovereigntist.

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Gilles Villeneuve

Joseph Gilles Henri Villeneuve (January 18, 1950 – May 8, 1982), known as Gilles Villeneuve, was a Canadian racing driver.

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Giovanni da Verrazzano

Giovanni da Verrazzano (sometimes also incorrectly spelled Verrazano) (1485–1528) was an Italian explorer of North America, in the service of King Francis I of France.

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Golden eagle

The golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is one of the best-known birds of prey in the Northern Hemisphere.

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Government of Canada

The Government of Canada (Gouvernement du Canada), formally Her Majesty's Government (Gouvernement de Sa Majesté), is the federal administration of Canada.

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Government of Quebec

The Government of Quebec (in French, and officially, Le Gouvernement du Québec) refers to the provincial government of the province of Quebec.

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Grammatical gender

In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.

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Grand Théâtre de Québec

The Grand Théâtre de Québec is an arts complex in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.

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Great blue heron

The great blue heron (Ardea herodias) is a large wading bird in the heron family Ardeidae, common near the shores of open water and in wetlands over most of North America and Central America, as well as the Caribbean and the Galápagos Islands.

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Great Lakes

The Great Lakes (les Grands-Lacs), also called the Laurentian Great Lakes and the Great Lakes of North America, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River.

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Greater Montreal

Greater Montreal is the most populous metropolitan area in Quebec, and the second most populous in Canada after Greater Toronto.

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Greece

No description.

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Greek Orthodox Church

The name Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἑκκλησία, Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía), or Greek Orthodoxy, is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the Septuagint and New Testament, and whose history, traditions, and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers and the culture of the Byzantine Empire.

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Groundhog

The groundhog (Marmota monax), also known as a woodchuck, is a rodent of the family Sciuridae, belonging to the group of large ground squirrels known as marmots.

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Group of Seven

The Group of Seven (G7) is a group consisting of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

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Guadeloupe

Guadeloupe (Antillean Creole: Gwadloup) is an insular region of France located in the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean.

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Guido Nincheri

Guido Nincheri (1885 – 1 March 1973) was a Canadian painter and designer working mainly in stained glass and fresco.

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Gulf of Saint Lawrence

The Gulf of Saint Lawrence (French: Golfe du Saint-Laurent) is the outlet of the North American Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean.

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Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests

The Gulf of St.

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Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester

Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester, KB (3 September 1724 – 10 November 1808), known between 1776 and 1786 as Sir Guy Carleton, was an Anglo-Irish soldier and administrator.

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Guy Laliberté

Guy Laliberté, (born 2 September 1959) is a Canadian businessman, investor, poker player, and musician.

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Habitants

Habitants were French settlers and the inhabitants of French origin who farmed the land along the two shores of the St. Lawrence River and Gulf in what is the present-day Province of Quebec in Canada.

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Habitation de Québec

Habitation de Québec was an ensemble of buildings interconnected by Samuel de Champlain when he founded Québec during 1608.

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Haitian Canadians

Haitian Canadians are Canadian citizens of Haitian descent or Haiti-born people who reside in Canada.

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Harp seal

The harp seal or saddleback seal, Pagophilus groenlandicus is a species of earless seal, or true seal, native to the northernmost Atlantic Ocean and Arctic Ocean.

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Head of state

A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.

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Henri Julien

Henri Julien, baptised Octave-Henri Julien (14 May 1852 – 17 September 1908) was a French Canadian artist and cartoonist noted for his work for the Canadian Illustrated News and for his political cartoons in the Montreal Daily Star.

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Hindu

Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.

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Hinduism in Canada

According to the 2011 census, there are 497,965 Hindus in Canada, up from 297,200 in the 2001 census.

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Hip hop

Hip hop, or hip-hop, is a subculture and art movement developed in the Bronx in New York City during the late 1970s.

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History of Quebec

Quebec has played a special role in French history; the modern province occupies much of the land where French settlers founded the colony of Canada (New France) in the 17th and 18th centuries.

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History of the Jews in Canada

Canadian Jews or, alternatively, Jewish Canadians are Canadian citizens of the Jewish faith and/or Jewish ethnicity.

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Honoré Beaugrand

Honoré Beaugrand (24 March 1848 – 7 October 1906) was a French Canadian journalist, politician, author and folklorist, born in Berthier County, Quebec.

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House of Commons of Canada

The House of Commons of Canada (Chambre des communes du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate.

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House sparrow

The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) is a bird of the sparrow family Passeridae, found in most parts of the world.

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HR 8799

HR 8799 is a roughly 30 million-year-old main-sequence star located 129 light years (39 parsecs) away from Earth in the constellation of Pegasus.

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Hubert Aquin

Hubert Aquin (24 October 1929 – 15 March 1977) was a Quebec novelist, political activist, essayist, filmmaker and editor.

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Hudson Bay

Hudson Bay (Inuktitut: Kangiqsualuk ilua, baie d'Hudson) (sometimes called Hudson's Bay, usually historically) is a large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada with a surface area of.

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Hudson Strait

Hudson Strait links the Atlantic Ocean and Labrador Sea to Hudson Bay in Canada.

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Hudson's Bay Company

The Hudson's Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie d'Hudson) is a Canadian retail business group.

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Humid continental climate

A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.

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Humidex

The humidex (short for humidity index) is an index number used by Canadian meteorologists to describe how hot the weather feels to the average person, by combining the effect of heat and humidity.

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Hydro-Québec

Hydro-Québec is a public utility that manages the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity in Quebec.

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Hydroelectricity

Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.

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Hydropower

Hydropower or water power (from ύδωρ, "water") is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.

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IBM

The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.

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Ice cider

Ice cider (also apple icewine or cidre de glace in French; sold as ice apple wine in the United States) is the cider equivalent of ice wine: a fermented beverage made from the frozen juice of apples.

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Ice hockey

Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points.

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Ice wine

Ice wine (or icewine; Eiswein) is a type of dessert wine produced from grapes that have been frozen while still on the vine.

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Igneous rock

Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic.

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Index of Quebec-related articles

Articles related to Quebec include.

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Indigenous peoples

Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.

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Indigenous peoples in Canada

Indigenous peoples in Canada, also known as Native Canadians or Aboriginal Canadians, are the indigenous peoples within the boundaries of present-day Canada.

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Information technology

Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.

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Innu

The Innu (or Montagnais) are the Indigenous inhabitants of an area in Canada they refer to as Nitassinan (“Our Land”), which comprises most of the northeastern portion of the present-day province of Quebec and some eastern portions of Labrador.

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Intendant of New France

The Intendant of New France was an administrative position in the French colony of New France.

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Intolerable Acts

The Intolerable Acts was the term invented by 19th century historians to refer to a series of punitive laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774 after the Boston Tea Party.

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Inuit

The Inuit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, "the people") are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska.

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Inukjuak

Inukjuak (ᐃᓄᒃᔪᐊᒃ) (Inuktitut for The Giant) is a northern village (Inuit community) located on Hudson Bay at the mouth of the Innuksuak River in Nunavik, in the Nord-du-Québec region of northern Quebec, Canada.

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Invasion of Quebec (1775)

The Invasion of Quebec in 1775 was the first major military initiative by the newly formed Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War.

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Iris versicolor

Iris versicolor is also commonly known as the blue flag, harlequin blueflag, larger blue flag, northern blue flag, and poison flag, plus other variations of these names, and in Britain and Ireland as purple iris.

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Irish Canadians

Irish Canadians (Gaedheal-Cheanadaigh) are Canadian citizens who have full or partial Irish heritage including descendants who trace their ancestry to immigrants who originated in Ireland.

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Iroquois

The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee (People of the Longhouse) are a historically powerful northeast Native American confederacy.

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Irreligion in Canada

Irreligion is common throughout all provinces and territories of Canada.

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ISIS (satellite)

ISIS 1 and 2 ("International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies") were the third and fourth in a series of Canadian satellites launched to study the ionosphere.

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Islam in Canada

According to Canada's 2011 National Household Survey, there were 1,053,945 Muslims in Canada, or about 3.2% of the population, making Islam the second largest religion in the country after Christianity.

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Island of Montreal

The Island of Montreal (Kanien’kéha: Tiohtià:ke), in southwestern Quebec, Canada, is at the confluence of the Saint Lawrence and Ottawa rivers.

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Italian Canadians

Italian Canadians (Italo-canadesi, Italo-Canadiens) comprise Canadian citizens who have full or partial Italian heritage and Italians who emigrated to or reside in Canada.

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Italian language

Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.

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J. Michel Doyon

J.

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Jack pine

Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) is an eastern North American pine.

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Jacques Cartier

Jacques Cartier (Jakez Karter; December 31, 1491September 1, 1557) was a Breton explorer who claimed what is now Canada for France.

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Jacques Villeneuve

Jacques Joseph Charles Villeneuve, (born April 9, 1971), is a Canadian professional auto racing driver and amateur musician.

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James Bay

James Bay (Baie James, Wînipekw) is a large body of water on the southern end of Hudson Bay in Canada.

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James Bay Project

The James Bay Project (in French, projet de la Baie-James) refers to the construction by state-owned utility Hydro-Québec of a series of hydroelectric power stations on the La Grande River in northwestern Quebec, Canada, and the diversion of neighbouring rivers into the La Grande watershed.

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James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin

James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin and 12th Earl of Kincardine, (20 July 1811 – 20 November 1863) was a British colonial administrator and diplomat. He served as Governor of Jamaica (1842–1846), Governor General of the Province of Canada (1847–1854), and Viceroy of India (1862–1863). In 1857, he was appointed High Commissioner and Plenipotentiary in China and the Far East to assist in the process of opening up China and Japan to Western trade. In 1860, during the Second Opium War in China, in the retaliation of the torture and execution of almost twenty European and Indian prisoners, he ordered the destruction of the Old Summer Palace in Beijing, an architectural wonder with immeasurable collections of artworks and historic antiques, inflicting invaluable loss of cultural heritage. Subsequently, he submitted the Qing Dynasty to the unequal treaty of the Convention of Peking, adding Kowloon Peninsula to the British crown colony of Hong Kong.

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James Cross

James Richard Cross, CMG (born 29 September 1921) is an Irish-born British former diplomat in Canada who was kidnapped by Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) militants during the October Crisis of October 1970.

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James Murray (British Army officer, born 1721)

General James Murray (21 January 1721, Ballencrieff, East Lothian, Scotland – 18 June 1794, Battle, East Sussex) FRS was a British soldier, whose lengthy career included service as colonial administrator and governor of the Province of Quebec and later as Governor of Minorca from 1778 to 1782. His term in Quebec was notably successful, and marked with excellent relationships with the conquered French-Canadians, who were reassured of their traditional rights and customs.

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James Wolfe

James Wolfe (2 January 1727 – 13 September 1759) was a British Army officer, known for his training reforms and remembered chiefly for his victory in 1759 over the French at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham in Quebec as a major general.

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Je me souviens

Je me souviens is the official motto of Quebec, a province of Canada.

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Jean Allaire

Jean Allaire (born 1930) was the author of the Allaire Report, and subsequently in 1994 the first leader of the fiscally conservative, autonomist provincial level political party in Quebec, the Action démocratique du Québec (ADQ).

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Jean Charest

Jean James Charest, (born John James Charest;; born June 24, 1958) is a Quebec politician.

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Jean Chrétien

Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien (born January 11, 1934), known commonly as Jean Chrétien, is a Canadian politician who served as the 20th Prime Minister of Canada from November 4, 1993, to December 12, 2003.

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Jean Dallaire

Jean-Philippe Dallaire (9 June 1916 – 27 November 1965) was a French Canadian painter with an eclectic and highly original style.

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Jean de Brébeuf

Saint Jean de Brébeuf (March 25, 1593 – March 16, 1649) was a French Jesuit missionary who travelled to New France (Canada) in 1625.

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Jean Duceppe

Jean Hotte-Duceppe, CQ (October 25, 1923 – December 7, 1990) was a stage and television actor from Montreal, Quebec.

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Jean Lesage

Jean Lesage, (10 June 1912 – 12 December 1980) was a lawyer and politician in Quebec, Canada.

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Jean Paul Lemieux

Jean Paul Lemieux, (18 November 1904 – 7 December 1990) was one of the foremost painters of twentieth century Quebec.

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Jean Talon

Jean Talon, Count d'Orsainville (January 8, 1626 – November 23, 1694) was the first Intendant of New France.

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Jean-Paul Riopelle

Jean-Paul Riopelle, (7 October 1923 – 12 March 2002) was a painter and sculptor from Quebec, Canada.

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Jew's harp

The Jew's harp, also known as the jaw harp, mouth harp, Ozark harp or juice harp, is a lamellophone instrument, consisting of a flexible metal or bamboo tongue or reed attached to a frame.

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Jig

The jig (port) is a form of lively folk dance in compound metre, as well as the accompanying dance tune.

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John Lambton, 1st Earl of Durham

John George Lambton, 1st Earl of Durham, GCB, PC (12 April 1792 – 28 July 1840), also known as "Radical Jack" and commonly referred to in Canadian history texts simply as Lord Durham, was a British Whig statesman, colonial administrator, Governor General and high commissioner of British North America.

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John the Baptist

John the Baptist (יוחנן המטביל Yokhanan HaMatbil, Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, Iōánnēs ho baptistḗs or Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτίζων, Iōánnēs ho baptízōn,Lang, Bernhard (2009) International Review of Biblical Studies Brill Academic Pub p. 380 – "33/34 CE Herod Antipas's marriage to Herodias (and beginning of the ministry of Jesus in a sabbatical year); 35 CE – death of John the Baptist" ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ ⲡⲓⲡⲣⲟⲇⲣⲟⲙⲟⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ ⲡⲓⲣϥϯⲱⲙⲥ, يوحنا المعمدان) was a Jewish itinerant preacherCross, F. L. (ed.) (2005) Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd ed.

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Judicial Committee of the Privy Council

The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (JCPC) is the highest court of appeal for certain British territories and Commonwealth countries.

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Juglans cinerea

Juglans cinerea, commonly known as butternut or white walnut, is a species of walnut native to the eastern United States and southeast Canada.

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Julie Payette

Julie Payette (born October 20, 1963) is the current Governor General of Canada, the 29th since Canadian Confederation.

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Just for Laughs

Just for Laughs (Juste pour rire) is a comedy festival held each July in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

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Kahnawake

The Kahnawake Mohawk Territory (in Mohawk, Kahnawáˀkye in Tuscarora) is a First Nations reserve of the Mohawks of Kahnawá:ke on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River in Quebec, Canada, across from Montreal.

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Kanesatake

Kanehsatà:ke is a Kanien'kéha:ka Mohawk settlement on the shore of the Lake of Two Mountains in southeastern Quebec, Canada, at the confluence of the Ottawa and St.

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Kate & Anna McGarrigle

Patrick.

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Köppen climate classification

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.

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King's Daughters

The King's Daughters (filles du roi; filles du roy) is a term used to refer to the approximately 800 young French women who immigrated to New France between 1663 and 1673 as part of a program sponsored by Louis XIV.

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Kingdom of Great Britain

The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.

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Knowledge economy

The knowledge economy is the use of knowledge (savoir, savoir-faire, savoir-être) to generate tangible and intangible values.

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Kuujjuaq

Kuujjuaq (ᑰᔾᔪᐊᖅ) is the largest northern village (Inuit community) in Nunavik, Quebec, Canada with a population of 2,754 as of the Canada 2016 Census.

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La Bolduc

Mary Rose-Anna Bolduc, née Travers, (June 4, 1894 – February 20, 1941) was a musician and singer of French Canadian music.

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La famille Plouffe

La famille Plouffe was a Canadian television drama, more specifically a téléroman, about a Quebec family that first aired in the French-language on Société Radio-Canada in 1953.

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La Grande River

La Grande River (La Grande Rivière, Chisasibi, both meaning "great river") is a river in northwestern Quebec, Canada, which rises in the highlands of north central Quebec and flows roughly west to drain into James Bay.

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La La La Human Steps

La La La Human Steps was a Québécois contemporary dance group in Canada, active between 1980 and 2015, known for its energetic, acrobatic style involving fast-paced and athletic physical contact.

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La Petite Patrie

La Petite patrie was a French Canadian television programme from Quebec.

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Labatt Brewing Company

Labatt Brewing Company Limited (La Brasserie Labatt Limitée) is a Belgian-owned brewery in Canada, founded by John Kinder Labatt in 1847 in London, Ontario.

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Labrador

Labrador is the continental-mainland part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.

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Labrador Current

The Labrador Current is a cold current in the North Atlantic Ocean which flows from the Arctic Ocean south along the coast of Labrador and passes around Newfoundland, continuing south along the east coast of Nova Scotia.

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Labrador Peninsula

The Labrador Peninsula is a large peninsula in eastern Canada.

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Lac-Saint-Louis (electoral district)

Lac-Saint-Louis is a federal electoral district in Quebec, Canada, that has been represented in the House of Commons of Canada since 1997.

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Lachine Canal

The Lachine Canal (Canal de Lachine in French) is a canal passing through the southwestern part of the Island of Montreal, Quebec, Canada, running 14.5 kilometres from the Old Port of Montreal to Lake Saint-Louis, through the boroughs of Lachine, Lasalle and Sud-Ouest.

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Lake Champlain

Lake Champlain (French: Lac Champlain) (Abenaki: Pitawbagok) (Mohawk: Kaniatarakwà:ronte) is a natural freshwater lake in North America mainly within the borders of the United States (in the states of Vermont and New York) but partially situated across the Canada–U.S. border, in the Canadian province of Quebec.

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Lake Memphremagog

Lake Memphremagog (Lac Memphrémagog) is a fresh water glacial lake located between Newport, Vermont, United States and Magog, Quebec, Canada.

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Lake Mistassini

Lake Mistassini is the largest natural lake by surface area in the province of Quebec, Canada, with a total surface area of approximately 2,335 km² and a net area (water surface area only) of 2,164 km².

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Lake Pohenegamook

Lake Pohenegamook (Lac Pohénégamook) is a Canadian lake located in Temiscouata Regional County Municipality (MRC), in administrative region of Bas-Saint-Laurent, in southeastern Quebec immediately north of the International Boundary with Maine at Aroostook County.

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Lanaudière

Lanaudière is one of the seventeen administrative regions of Quebec, Canada, situated immediately to the northeast of Montreal.

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Largemouth bass

The largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) is a freshwater gamefish in the Centrarchidae (sunfish) family, a species of black bass native to North America.

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Larix laricina

Larix laricina, commonly known as the tamarack, hackmatack, eastern larch, black larch, red larch, or American larch, is a species of larch native to Canada, from eastern Yukon and Inuvik, Northwest Territories east to Newfoundland, and also south into the upper northeastern United States from Minnesota to Cranesville Swamp, Maryland; there is also an isolated population in central Alaska.

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Laurentian Mountains

The Laurentian Mountains (French: Laurentides) are a mountain range in southern Quebec, Canada, north of the St. Lawrence River and Ottawa River, rising to a highest point of at Mont Raoul Blanchard, northeast of Quebec City in the Reserve Faunique des Laurentides.

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Laurentides

The Laurentides is a region of Quebec.

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Laval, Quebec

Laval is a Canadian city in southwestern Quebec, north of Montreal.

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Laviolette Bridge

The Laviolette Bridge (in French, pont Laviolette) is an arch bridge connecting the city of Trois-Rivières, Quebec, Canada to Bécancour on the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River via Autoroute 55.

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Legion of Honour

The Legion of Honour, with its full name National Order of the Legion of Honour (Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte and retained by all the divergent governments and regimes later holding power in France, up to the present.

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Legislative Assembly of Quebec

The Legislative Assembly of Quebec (French: Assemblée législative du Québec) was the name of the lower house of Quebec's legislature until December 31, 1968, when it was renamed the National Assembly of Quebec.

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Legislative Council of Quebec

From 1867 until 1968, the Legislative Council of Quebec (French; Conseil législatif du Québec) was the unelected upper house of the bicameral legislature in the Canadian province of Quebec.

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Leonard Cohen

Leonard Norman Cohen (September 21, 1934 – November 7, 2016) was a Canadian singer-songwriter, poet and novelist.

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Les Belles Histoires des pays d'en haut

Les Belles Histoires des pays d'en haut is a Canadian television drama series, which aired on Radio-Canada from October 8, 1956 to June 1, 1970.

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Les Belles-sœurs

Les Belles-soeurs is a two-act play written by Michel Tremblay in 1965.

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Les Filles de Caleb

Les Filles de Caleb is a Quebec TV series of 20 one-hour episodes, created by Jean Beaudin, based on the eponymous novel of Arlette Cousture,W.H. New.

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Les Fusiliers Mont-Royal

Les Fusiliers Mont-Royal is a Primary Reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Army.

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Lichen

A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi in a symbiotic relationship.

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Lieutenant Governor of Quebec

The Lieutenant Governor of Quebec (French (masculine): Lieutenant-gouverneur du Québec, or (feminine): Lieutenante-gouverneure du Québec) is the viceregal representative in Quebec of the, who operates distinctly within the province but is also shared equally with the ten other jurisdictions of Canada, as well as the other Commonwealth realms and any subdivisions thereof, and resides predominantly in oldest realm, the United Kingdom.

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Limenitis arthemis

Limenitis arthemis, the red-spotted purple or white admiral, is a North American butterfly species in the cosmopolitan genus Limenitis.

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Line dance

A line dance is a choreographed dance with a repeated sequence of steps in which a group of people dance in one or more lines or rows, all facing either each other or in the same direction, and executing the steps at the same time.

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Lionel Groulx

Lionel Groulx (13 January 1878 – 23 May 1967) was a French Canadian Roman Catholic priest, historian and Quebec nationalist.

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Lisbon Strategy

The Lisbon Strategy, also known as the Lisbon Agenda or Lisbon Process, was an action and development plan devised in 2000, for the economy of the European Union between 2000 and 2010.

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List of boroughs in Quebec

This is a list of boroughs (arrondissements) in Quebec.

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List of Canadian artists

The following is a list of Canadian artists working in visual or plastic media (including 20th-century artists working in video art, performance art, or other types of new media).

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List of Canadian provinces and territories by gross domestic product

This article lists Canadian provinces and territories by gross domestic product (GDP).

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List of Canadian provinces and territories by population

Canada is divided into ten provinces and three territories.

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List of French monarchs

The monarchs of the Kingdom of France and its predecessors (and successor monarchies) ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of the Franks in 486 until the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870, with several interruptions.

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List of life sciences

The life sciences or biological sciences comprise the branches of science that involve the scientific study of life and organisms – such as microorganisms, plants, and animals including human beings – as well as related considerations like bioethics.

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List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Quebec

This is a list of National Historic Sites (Lieux historiques nationaux) in the province of Quebec.

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List of postal codes of Canada: G

This is a list of postal codes in Canada where the first letter is G. Postal codes beginning with G are located within the Canadian province of Quebec.

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List of postal codes of Canada: H

This is a list of postal codes in Canada where the first letter is H. Postal codes beginning with H are located within the Canadian province of Quebec.

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List of postal codes of Canada: J

This is a list of postal codes in Canada where the first letter is J. Postal codes beginning with J are located within the Canadian province of Quebec.

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List of Quebec writers

This is a list of authors from the Canadian province of Quebec.

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List of regions of Quebec

The province of Quebec, Canada, is officially divided into 17 administrative regions.

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List of territorial entities where French is an official language

As of 2015, there are 29 independent nations where French is an official language.

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Local municipality (Quebec)

The lowest unit of local government in Quebec is the local municipality, (Municipalité locale) to distinguish it from the higher-level regional county municipality or RCM, which is also a municipal government at the supralocal level.

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Louis Caron

Louis Caron (born July 21, 1942) is a Canadian journalist and writer from Quebec.

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Louis XIII of France

Louis XIII (27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown.

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Louis XIV of France

Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.

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Louis-Armand de Lom d'Arce de Lahontan, Baron de Lahontan

Louis Armand, Baron de Lahontan (9 June 1666 – prior to 1716) served in the French military in Canada where he traveled extensively in the Wisconsin and Minnesota region and the upper Mississippi Valley.

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Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine Bridge–Tunnel

The Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine Bridge–Tunnel (Pont-Tunnel Louis-Hippolyte-La Fontaine) is a Canadian highway bridge–tunnel running over and beneath the Saint Lawrence River.

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Louis-Joseph de Montcalm

Louis-Joseph de Montcalm-Gozon, Marquis de Saint-Veran (28 February 1712 – 14 September 1759) was a French soldier best known as the commander of the forces in North America during the Seven Years' War (whose North American theatre is called the French and Indian War in the United States).

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Louis-Joseph Papineau

Louis-Joseph Papineau (October 7, 1786 – September 23, 1871), born in Montreal, Quebec, was a politician, lawyer, and the landlord of the seigneurie de la Petite-Nation.

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Louis-Philippe Hébert

Louis-Philippe Hébert CMG (1850–1917) was the son of Théophile Hébert, a farmer, and Julie Bourgeois of Ste-Sophie de Mégantic, Quebec.

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Louisbourg

Louisbourg is an unincorporated community and former town in Cape Breton Regional Municipality, Nova Scotia.

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Lower Canada

The Province of Lower Canada (province du Bas-Canada) was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791–1841).

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Lower Canada Rebellion

The Lower Canada Rebellion (French: La rébellion du Bas-Canada), commonly referred to as the Patriots' War (French: La Guerre des patriotes) by Quebecers, is the name given to the armed conflict in 1837–38 between the rebels of Lower Canada (now Quebec) and the British colonial power of that province.

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Lucien Bouchard

Lucien Bouchard, (born December 22, 1938) is a French Canadian lawyer, diplomat, politician and former Minister of the Environment of the Canadian Federal Government.

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Lumber

Lumber (American English; used only in North America) or timber (used in the rest of the English speaking world) is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production.

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Magnesium

Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.

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Maine

Maine is a U.S. state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.

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Mallard

The mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is a dabbling duck that breeds throughout the temperate and subtropical Americas, Eurasia, and North Africa and has been introduced to New Zealand, Australia, Peru, Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Chile, Colombia, the Falkland Islands, and South Africa.

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Manicouagan River

The Manicouagan River is a river in Côte-Nord region of Quebec, Canada.

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Manitoba

Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada.

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Maple syrup

Maple syrup is a syrup usually made from the xylem sap of sugar maple, red maple, or black maple trees, although it can also be made from other maple species.

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Marc Garneau

Joseph Jean-Pierre Marc Garneau, (born February 23, 1949) is a Canadian politician and the Minister of Transport in the Government of Canada.

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Marc-Aurèle de Foy Suzor-Coté

Marc-Aurèle de Foy Suzor-Coté (April 6, 1869 – January 29, 1937) was a French Canadian painter and sculptor.

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Marc-Aurèle Fortin

Marc-Aurèle Fortin (March 14, 1888 – March 2, 1970) was a Québécois painter.

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Marcelle Ferron

Marcelle Ferron, (January 29, 1924 – November 19, 2001), a Québécoise painter and stained glass artist, was a major figure in the Quebec contemporary art scene, associated with the Automatistes.

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Maria Chapdelaine

Maria Chapdelaine is a romance novel written in 1913 by the French writer Louis Hémon, who was then residing in Quebec.

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Marie Laberge

Marie Laberge (born November 29, 1950) is a Quebec actress, educator and writer.

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Marie-Josephte Corriveau

Marie-Josephte Corriveau (1733 at Saint-Vallier, Quebec – at Quebec City), better known as "la Corriveau", is a well-known figure in Québécois folklore.

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Mario Dumont

Mario Dumont (born May 19, 1970, in Saint-Georges-de-Cacouna, Quebec) is a television personality and former politician in Quebec, Canada.

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Maritime boundary

A maritime boundary is a conceptual division of the Earth's water surface areas using physiographic or geopolitical criteria.

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Market economy

A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.

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Matagami

Matagami is a small town in Quebec, Canada.

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Matrox

Matrox is a producer of video card components and equipment for personal computers.

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Maurice Duplessis

Maurice Le Noblet Duplessis (20 April 1890 – 7 September 1959) served as the 16th Premier of the Canadian province of Quebec from 1936 to 1939 and 1944 to 1959.

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Mauricie

Mauricie is a traditional and current administrative region of Quebec.

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Mavis Gallant

Mavis Leslie de Trafford Gallant,, née Young (11 August 1922 – 18 February 2014), was a Canadian writer who spent much of her life and career in France.

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Médard des Groseilliers

Médard Chouart des Groseilliers (1618–1696) was a French explorer and fur trader in Canada.

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Métis in Canada

The Métis in Canada are a group of peoples in Canada who trace their descent to First Nations peoples and European settlers.

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McCord Museum

The McCord Museum (in French, Musée McCord) is a public research and teaching museum dedicated to the preservation, study, diffusion, and appreciation of Canadian history.

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McGill University

McGill University is a public research university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

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Medicine

Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

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Meech Lake Accord

The Meech Lake Accord (Accord du lac Meech) was a series of proposed amendments to the Constitution of Canada negotiated in 1987 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and all 10 Canadian provincial premiers.

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Metropolitan Community (Quebec)

The two metropolitan communities (communautés métropolitaines) or CMs are multi-functional institutions of local government in the Canadian province of Quebec.

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Mi'kmaq

The Mi'kmaq or Mi'gmaq (also Micmac, L'nu, Mi'kmaw or Mi'gmaw) are a First Nations people indigenous to Canada's Atlantic Provinces and the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec as well as the northeastern region of Maine.

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Michel Tremblay

Michel Tremblay, CQ (born 25 June 1942) is a French Canadian novelist and playwright.

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Microgadus tomcod

Microgadus tomcod, also commonly known as frostfish, Atlantic tomcod or winter cod, is a type of cod found in North American coastal waters from the Gulf of St. Lawrence, St. Lawrence River and northern Newfoundland, south to Virginia.

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Midnight sun

The midnight sun is a natural phenomenon that occurs in the summer months in places north of the Arctic Circle or south of the Antarctic Circle, when the sun remains visible at the local midnight.

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Militia

A militia is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai).

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Mingan Archipelago

The Mingan Archipelago is an archipelago located east of Quebec, Canada.

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Ministry of Culture and Communications (Quebec)

Ministry of Culture and Communications (Ministère de la Culture et des Communications) is responsible for promoting and protecting the culture in the province of Quebec (Canada).

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Minke whale

The minke whale, or lesser rorqual, is a type of baleen whale.

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Minstrel

A minstrel was a medieval European entertainer.

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Mississippi River

The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.

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Missouri River

The Missouri River is the longest river in North America.

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Mixed Wood Plains Ecozone (CEC)

The Mixed Wood Plains Ecozone is an ecozone of North America that was defined by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation to reconcile the American and Canadian land classification systems.

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Mohawk people

The Mohawk people (who identify as Kanien'kehá:ka) are the most easterly tribe of the Haudenosaunee, or Iroquois Confederacy.

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Molson Coors Brewing Company

The Molson Coors Brewing Company is a multinational brewing company, formed in 2005 by the merger of Molson of Canada, and Coors of the United States.

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Monarchy of Canada

The monarchy of Canada is at the core of both Canada's federal structure and Westminster-style of parliamentary and constitutional democracy.

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Mont Mégantic Observatory

The Mont Mégantic Observatory (Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic; OMM) is an astronomical observatory owned and operated jointly by the Université de Montréal (UdeM), the Université Laval (ULaval), and McGill University.

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Montérégie

Montérégie is an administrative region in the southwest part of the Canadian province of Quebec.

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Monteregian Hills

The Monteregian Hills (Collines Montérégiennes) is a linear chain of isolated hills in Montreal and Montérégie, between the Laurentians and the Appalachians.

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Montreal

Montreal (officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada.

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Montreal Alouettes

The Montreal Alouettes (Les Alouettes de Montréal) are a professional Canadian football team based in Montreal, Quebec.

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Montreal Canadiens

The Montreal CanadiensEven in English, the French spelling, Canadiens, is always used.

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Montreal Casino

The Montreal Casino (Casino de Montréal) is a casino on the Notre Dame Island in the borough of Ville-Marie in Montreal, Quebec, and is the largest casino in Canada.

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Montreal Expos

The Montreal Expos (Les Expos de Montréal) were a Canadian professional baseball team based in Montreal, Quebec.

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Montreal Impact

The Montreal Impact (Impact de Montréal) is a Canadian professional soccer team based in Montreal, Quebec.

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Montreal Insectarium

The Montreal Insectarium (Insectarium de Montréal) is a natural history museum located in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, featuring a large quantity of insects from all around the world.

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Montreal Museum of Fine Arts

The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts (MMFA; Musée des beaux-arts de Montréal, MBAM) is an art museum in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

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Montreal Symphony Orchestra

Orchestre symphonique de Montréal (OSM; English translation, Montreal Symphony Orchestra) is a Canadian symphony orchestra based in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

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Montreal World Film Festival

The Montreal World Film Festival (WFF; le Festival des Films du Monde; alternative official name Montreal International Film Festival, not commonly used), founded in 1977, is one of Canada's oldest international film festivals and the only competitive film festival in North America accredited by the FIAPF (although the Toronto International Film Festival is North America's only accredited non-competitive festival).

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Montreal-style bagel

The Montreal-style bagel or Montreal bagel (sometimes beigel; בײגל beygl; Bagel de Montréal), is a distinctive variety of handmade and wood-fired baked bagel.

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Monument-National

The Monument-National is a historic Canadian theatre located at 1182 Saint Laurent Boulevard in Montreal, Quebec.

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Moody's Investors Service

Moody's Investors Service, often referred to as Moody's, is the bond credit rating business of Moody's Corporation, representing the company's traditional line of business and its historical name.

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Moose

The moose (North America) or elk (Eurasia), Alces alces, is the largest extant species in the deer family.

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Mordecai Richler

Mordecai Richler, CC (January 27, 1931 – July 3, 2001) was a Canadian writer.

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Motorola

Motorola, Inc. was an American multinational telecommunications company founded on September 25, 1928, based in Schaumburg, Illinois.

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Mount Caubvick

Mount Caubvick (known as Mont D'Iberville in Quebec) is a mountain located in Canada on the border between Labrador and Quebec in the Selamiut Range of the Torngat Mountains.

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Multilingualism

Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.

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Multimedia

Multimedia is content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, video and interactive content.

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Musée d'art contemporain de Montréal

The Musée d'art contemporain de Montréal (MACM) is a contemporary art museum in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

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Musée de l'Amérique francophone

The Musée de l'Amérique francophone (formerly the Musée de l'Amérique française) is situated in Old Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.

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Musée de la civilisation

The Musée de la civilisation à Québec (Museum of Civilization) is a museum located in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.

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Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec

The Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec (French for "National Museum of Fine Arts of Quebec") is a museum in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada gathering approximately 25,000 works essentially produced in Quebec, or by Quebec artists, some of which date from the 18th century.

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Muskellunge

The muskellunge (Esox masquinongy), also known as muskelunge, muscallonge, milliganong, or maskinonge (and often abbreviated "muskie" or "musky"), is a species of large, relatively uncommon freshwater fish native to North America.

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Muskox

The muskox (Ovibos moschatus), also spelled musk ox and musk-ox (in ᐅᒥᖕᒪᒃ, umingmak), is an Arctic hoofed mammal of the family Bovidae, noted for its thick coat and for the strong odor emitted during the seasonal rut by males, from which its name derives.

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Narwhal

The narwhal (Monodon monoceros), or narwhale, is a medium-sized toothed whale that possesses a large "tusk" from a protruding canine tooth.

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Naskapi

The Naskapi (Nascapi, Naskapee, Nascapee) or Naskapi Innu are the Innu First Nation inhabitants of an area referred to by many Innu to as Nitassinan, which comprises most of eastern Quebec and Labrador, Canada.

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National Assembly of Quebec

The National Assembly of Quebec (Assemblée nationale du Québec) is the legislative body of the province of Quebec in Canada.

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National Film Board of Canada

The National Film Board of Canada (or simply National Film Board or NFB) (French: Office national du film du Canada, or ONF) is Canada's public film and digital media producer and distributor.

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National Order of Quebec

The National Order of Quebec, termed officially in French as l'Ordre national du Québec, and in English abbreviation as the Order of Quebec, is a civilian honour for merit in the Canadian province of Quebec.

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National Theatre School of Canada

The National Theatre School of Canada (NTS; French: École nationale de théâtre du Canada) is Canada's foremost centre for professional theatre studies.

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Natural resource

Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind.

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Nav Canada

Nav Canada (stylized as NAV CANADA) is a privately run, not-for-profit corporation that owns and operates Canada's civil air navigation system (ANS).

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Neil Bissoondath

Neil Devindra Bissoondath (born April 19, 1955, in Arima, Trinidad and Tobago) is a Trinidadian-Canadian author who lives in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.

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Neuroscience

Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.

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New Brunswick

New Brunswick (Nouveau-Brunswick; Canadian French pronunciation) is one of three Maritime provinces on the east coast of Canada.

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New France

New France (Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763.

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New Hampshire

New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.

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New World warbler

The New World warblers or wood-warblers are a group of small, often colorful, passerine birds which make up the family Parulidae and are restricted to the New World.

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New York (state)

New York is a state in the northeastern United States.

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Newfoundland and Labrador

Newfoundland and Labrador (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador; Akamassiss; Newfoundland Irish: Talamh an Éisc agus Labradar) is the most easterly province of Canada.

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Nicolas Perrot

Nicolas Perrot (c.1644–1717), a French explorer, fur trader, and diplomat, was one of the first European men to travel in the Upper Mississippi Valley, in what is now Wisconsin and Minnesota.

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Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.

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Nomad

A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.

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Nord-du-Québec

Nord-du-Québec (Northern Quebec) is the largest, but the least populous, of the seventeen administrative regions of Quebec, Canada.

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North American beaver

The North American beaver (Castor canadensis) is one of two extant beaver species.

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Northern gannet

The northern gannet (Morus bassanus) is a seabird, the largest species of the gannet family, Sulidae.

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Northwest Territories

The Northwest Territories (NT or NWT; French: les Territoires du Nord-Ouest, TNO; Athabaskan languages: Denendeh; Inuinnaqtun: Nunatsiaq; Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ) is a federal territory of Canada.

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Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia (Latin for "New Scotland"; Nouvelle-Écosse; Scottish Gaelic: Alba Nuadh) is one of Canada's three maritime provinces, and one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada.

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Nunavik

Nunavik (ᓄᓇᕕᒃ) comprises the northern third of the province of Quebec, Canada in Kativik, part of the Nord-du-Québec region.

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Nunavut

Nunavut (Inuktitut syllabics ᓄᓇᕗᑦ) is the newest, largest, and northernmost territory of Canada.

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O Canada

"O Canada" (Ô Canada) is the national anthem of Canada.

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Octave Crémazie

Octave Crémazie (April 16, 1827 – January 16, 1879) was a French Canadian poet and bookseller born in Quebec City.

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October Crisis

The October Crisis (La crise d'Octobre) occurred in October 1970 in the province of Quebec in Canada, mainly in the Montreal metropolitan area.

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OECD

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.

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Official language

An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.

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Ohio Country

The Ohio Country (sometimes called the Ohio Territory or Ohio Valley by the French) was a name used in the 18th century for the regions of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains and in the region of the upper Ohio River south of Lake Erie.

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Ohio River

The Ohio River, which streams westward from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Cairo, Illinois, is the largest tributary, by volume, of the Mississippi River in the United States.

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Oka cheese

Oka is a semi-soft washed rind cheese that was originally manufactured by Trappist monks located in Oka, Quebec, Canada.

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Old Quebec

Old Quebec (Vieux-Québec) is a historic neighbourhood of Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.

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Ontario

Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.

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Open economy

An open economy is an economy in which there are economic activities between the domestic community and outside.

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Orchestre Symphonique de Québec

The Orchestre symphonique de Québec (OSQ; English, Quebec Symphony Orchestra) is a Canadian symphony orchestra based in Quebec City.

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Otish Mountains

The Monts Otish (Otish Mountains) are a range of tall hills in the geographic centre of Quebec, Canada, north of Lac Mistassini and Manicouagan Reservoir.

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Ottawa River

The Ottawa River (Rivière des Outaouais, Algonquin: Kitchissippi) is a river in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec.

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Outaouais

Outaouais; (also commonly called The Outaouais) is a region of western Quebec, Canada.

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Outline of Quebec

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Quebec: Quebec – province in the eastern part of Canada situated between Hudson Bay and the Gulf of St.

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Outline of space science

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to space science: Space science encompasses all of the scientific disciplines that involve space exploration and study natural phenomena and physical bodies occurring in outer space, such as space medicine and astrobiology.

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Ozias Leduc

Ozias Leduc (October 8, 1864 - June 16, 1955) is one of Quebec's early painters.

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Parks Canada

Parks Canada (Parcs Canada), also known as the Parks Canada Agency (Agence Parcs Canada), is an agency of the Government of Canada run by a chief executive who answers to the Minister of the Environment.

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Parliament Building (Quebec)

The Parliament Building (Hôtel du Parlement) is an eight-floor building in Quebec City and home to the Parliament of Quebec, composed of the Lieutenant-Governor and the National Assembly of Quebec.

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Parliament of Canada

The Parliament of Canada (Parlement du Canada) is the federal legislature of Canada, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, the national capital.

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Parliament of the United Kingdom

The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.

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Parti Québécois

The Parti Québécois (French for Quebec Party; PQ) is a sovereignist provincial political party in Quebec in Canada.

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Pastrami

Pastrami (pastırma, Romanian: pastramă, Bulgarian: пастърма) is a meat product usually made from beef, and sometimes from pork, mutton, or turkey.

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Patriation

Patriation was the political process that led to full Canadian sovereignty, culminating with the Constitution Act, 1982.

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Patriote movement

The Patriotes movement was a political movement that existed in Lower Canada (present-day Quebec) from the turn of the 19th century to the Patriote Rebellion of 1837 and 1838 and the subsequent Act of Union of 1840.

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Paul-Émile Borduas

Paul-Émile Borduas (November 1, 1905 – February 22, 1960) was a Québec painter known for his abstract paintings.

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Pauline Marois

Pauline Marois (born March 29, 1949) served as the 30th Premier of Quebec (2012–2014) and was leader of the Parti Québécois (2007–2014).

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Pâté chinois

Pâté chinois is a French Canadian dish similar to English cottage pie or shepherd's pie, or French hachis Parmentier.

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Percé Rock

Percé Rock (French Rocher Percé, "pierced rock") is a huge sheer rock formation in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence on the tip of the Gaspé Peninsula in Quebec, Canada, off Percé Bay.

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Peregrine falcon

The peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), also known as the peregrine, and historically as the duck hawk in North America, is a widespread bird of prey (raptor) in the family Falconidae.

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Pharmaceutical industry

The pharmaceutical industry (or medicine industry) is the commercial industry that discovers, develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as different types of medicine and medications.

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Philippe Couillard

Philippe Couillard (born June 26, 1957) is the 31st and current Premier of Quebec, leader of the Quebec Liberal Party and a former university professor and neurosurgeon in Quebec, Canada.

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Physical geography

Physical geography (also known as geosystems or physiography) is one of the two major sub-fields of geography.

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Picea glauca

Picea glauca, the white spruce, is a species of spruce native to the northern temperate and boreal forests in North America.

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Picea mariana

Picea mariana, the black spruce, is a North American species of spruce tree in the pine family.

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Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, sieur de La Vérendrye

Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, sieur de La Vérendrye (November 17, 1685 – December 5, 1749) was a French Canadian military officer, fur trader and explorer.

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Pierre Gauvreau

Pierre Gauvreau (23 August 19227 April 2011) was a Québécois painter who has also worked in film and television productions.

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Pierre Laporte

Pierre Laporte (25 February 1921 – 17 October 1970) was a French Canadian lawyer, journalist and politician who was the Deputy Premier and Minister of Labour of the province of Quebec before being kidnapped and assassinated by members of the group Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) during the October Crisis.

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Pierre Trudeau

Joseph Philippe Pierre Yves Elliott Trudeau (October 18, 1919 – September 28, 2000), often referred to by the initials PET, was a Canadian statesman who served as the 15th Prime Minister of Canada (1968–1979 and 1980–1984).

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Pierre-Esprit Radisson

Pierre-Esprit Radisson (1636/1640–1710) was a French fur trader and explorer.

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Pinniped

Pinnipeds, commonly known as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals.

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Pinus strobus

Pinus strobus, commonly denominated the eastern white pine, northern white pine, white pine, Weymouth pine (British), and soft pine accessed 12 August 2013 is a large pine native to eastern North America.

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Place des Arts

View of the Place des Arts esplanade. The Musée d'art contemporain is on the left; behind it is the Salle Wilfrid-Pelletier, with the Théâtre Maisonneuve on the right Place des Arts cultural complex entrance, view from Sainte-Catherine Street. Place des Arts is a major performing arts centre in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, and the largest cultural and artistic complex in Canada.

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Pointe-à-Callière Museum

Pointe-à-Callière Museum is a museum of archaeology and history in Old Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

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Polar bear

The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is a hypercarnivorous bear whose native range lies largely within the Arctic Circle, encompassing the Arctic Ocean, its surrounding seas and surrounding land masses.

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Politics of Quebec

The politics of Quebec are centred on a provincial government resembling that of the other Canadian provinces, namely a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy.

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Populus

Populus is a genus of 25–35 species of deciduous flowering plants in the family Salicaceae, native to most of the Northern Hemisphere.

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Populus tremuloides

Populus tremuloides is a deciduous tree native to cooler areas of North America, one of several species referred to by the common name aspen.

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Poutine

Poutine (Quebec French) is a dish originating from the Canadian province of Quebec consisting of French fries and cheese curds topped with a brown gravy.

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Premier of Quebec

The Premier of Quebec (French: Premier ministre du Québec (masculine) or Première ministre du Québec (feminine)) is the head of government of the Canadian province of Quebec.

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Primary sector of the economy

An industry involved in the extraction and collection of natural resources, such as copper and timber, as well as by activities such as farming and fishing.

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Prince Edward Island

Prince Edward Island (PEI or P.E.I.; Île-du-Prince-Édouard) is a province of Canada consisting of the island of the same name, and several much smaller islands.

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Privateer

A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war.

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Prix du Québec

The Prix du Québec are awards given by the Government of Quebec to individuals for cultural and scientific achievements.

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Prix Iris

The Prix Iris is Canadian film award, presented annually by, which recognizes talent and achievement in the mainly francophone feature film industry in Quebec.

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Progressive tax

A progressive tax is a tax in which the tax rate increases as the taxable amount increases.

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Prohibition

Prohibition is the illegality of the manufacturing, storage in barrels or bottles, transportation, sale, possession, and consumption of alcohol including alcoholic beverages, or a period of time during which such illegality was enforced.

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Protestantism

Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

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Province of Canada

The Province of Canada (or the United Province of Canada or the United Canadas) was a British colony in North America from 1841 to 1867.

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Province of Quebec (1763–1791)

The Province of Quebec was a colony in North America created by Great Britain after the Seven Years' War.

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Provinces and territories of Canada

The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution.

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Psychology

Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.

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Pulp and paper industry in Canada

The pulp and paper industry in Canada is one of the country's most important and profitable industries.

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Purchasing power parity

Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.

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Quadrille

The quadrille is a dance that was fashionable in late 18th- and 19th-century Europe and its colonies.

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Quartier Latin, Montreal

The Quartier Latin is an area in the Ville-Marie borough of Montreal, surrounding UQAM and lower Saint-Denis Street, between downtown and the Gay Village.

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Québécois (word)

Québécois (pronounced; feminine: Québécoise (pronounced), (fem.), or (fem.) is a word used primarily to refer to a native or inhabitant of the Canadian province of Quebec, the majority of which speak French as a mother tongue. It can refer to French spoken in Quebec. It may also be used, with an upper or lower case initial, as an adjective relating to Quebec, or to the French culture of Quebec. A resident or native of Quebec is usually referred to in English as a Quebecer or Quebecker. In French, Québécois or Québécoise usually refers to any native or resident of Quebec. "Specialt. (répandu v. 1965). Du groupe ethnique et linguistique canadien français composant la majorité de la population du Québec. Littérature québécoise; cinéma québécoise." Its use became more prominent in the 1960s as French Canadians from Quebec increasingly self-identified as Québécois.

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Québécois nation motion

The Québécois nation motion was a parliamentary motion tabled by Prime Minister of Canada Stephen Harper on Wednesday, November 22, 2006 and approved by the House of Commons of Canada on Monday, November 27, 2006.

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Québécois people

Quebecers or Quebeckers (Québécois in French, and sometimes also in English) are people living in the province of Quebec in Canada.

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Quebec Act

The Quebec Act of 1774 (Acte de Québec), (the Act) formally known as the British North America (Quebec) Act 1774, was an act of the Parliament of Great Britain (citation 14 Geo. III c. 83) setting procedures of governance in the Province of Quebec.

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Quebec Boundaries Extension Act, 1912

The Quebec Boundaries Extension Act, 1912 is an act passed by the Parliament of Canada on April 1, 1912, that expanded the territory of the Province of Quebec.

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Quebec Boundary Extension Act, 1898

The Quebec Boundary Extension Act of 1898 was an act of the Parliament of Canada that expanded the territory of the province of Quebec.

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Quebec Bridge

The Quebec Bridge (Pont de Québec in French) is a road, rail and pedestrian bridge across the lower Saint Lawrence River between Sainte-Foy (since 2002 a western suburb of Quebec City) and Lévis, Quebec, Canada.

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Quebec Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms

The Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms (Charte des droits et libertés de la personne) is a statutory bill of rights and human rights code passed by the National Assembly of Quebec on June 27, 1975.

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Quebec City

Quebec City (pronounced or; Québec); Ville de Québec), officially Québec, is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. The city had a population estimate of 531,902 in July 2016, (an increase of 3.0% from 2011) and the metropolitan area had a population of 800,296 in July 2016, (an increase of 4.3% from 2011) making it the second largest city in Quebec, after Montreal, and the seventh-largest metropolitan area in Canada. It is situated north-east of Montreal. The narrowing of the Saint Lawrence River proximate to the city's promontory, Cap-Diamant (Cape Diamond), and Lévis, on the opposite bank, provided the name given to the city, Kébec, an Algonquin word meaning "where the river narrows". Founded in 1608 by Samuel de Champlain, Quebec City is one of the oldest cities in North America. The ramparts surrounding Old Quebec (Vieux-Québec) are the only fortified city walls remaining in the Americas north of Mexico, and were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985 as the 'Historic District of Old Québec'. The city's landmarks include the Château Frontenac, a hotel which dominates the skyline, and the Citadelle of Quebec, an intact fortress that forms the centrepiece of the ramparts surrounding the old city and includes a secondary royal residence. The National Assembly of Quebec (provincial legislature), the Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec (National Museum of Fine Arts of Quebec), and the Musée de la civilisation (Museum of Civilization) are found within or near Vieux-Québec.

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Quebec City Summer Festival

The Quebec City Summer Festival (Festival d'été de Québec in French, also known as by its acronym FEQ) is an annual 11-day music festival in downtown Quebec City normally starting on the first Thursday of July.

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Quebec Conference, 1864

Beginning on 10 October 1864, and lasting over two weeks, the Quebec Conference was held to discuss a proposed Canadian confederation.

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Quebec English

Quebec English encompasses the English dialects (both native and non-native) of the predominantly French-speaking Canadian province of Quebec.

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Quebec French

Québec French (français québécois; also known as Québécois French or simply Québécois) is the predominant variety of the French language in Canada, in its formal and informal registers.

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Quebec law

Quebec law is unique in Canada because Quebec is the only province in Canada to have a juridical legal system (pertaining to the administration of justice) under which civil matters are regulated by French-heritage civil law.

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Quebec Liberal Party

The Quebec Liberal Party (QLP, Parti libéral du Québec) is a federalist provincial political party in Quebec, Canada.

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Quebec nationalism

Quebec nationalism or Québécois nationalism asserts that the Québécois people are a nation, distinct from the rest of Canada, and promotes the unity of the Québécois people in the province of Quebec.

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Quebec referendum, 1980

The 1980 Quebec independence referendum was the first referendum in Quebec on the place of Quebec within Canada and whether Quebec should pursue a path toward sovereignty.

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Quebec referendum, 1995

The 1995 Quebec independence referendum was the second referendum to ask voters in the Canadian French-speaking province of Quebec whether Quebec should proclaim national sovereignty and become an independent country, with the condition precedent of offering a political and economic agreement to Canada.

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Quebec sovereignty movement

The Quebec sovereignty movement (Mouvement souverainiste du Québec) is a political movement as well as an ideology of values, concepts and ideas that advocates independence for the Canadian province of Quebec.

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Quebec Winter Carnival

The Quebec Winter Carnival (Carnaval de Québec), commonly known in both English and French as Carnaval, is a pre-Lenten festival held in Quebec City.

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Quercus rubra

Quercus rubra, commonly called northern red oak, or champion oak, (syn. Quercus borealis), is an oak in the red oak group (Quercus section Lobatae).

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Quiet Revolution

The Quiet Revolution (Révolution tranquille) was a period of intense socio-political and socio-cultural change in the Canadian province of Quebec, characterized by the effective secularization of government, the creation of a welfare state (état-providence), and realignment of politics into federalist and sovereignist factions and the eventual election of a pro-sovereignty provincial government in the 1976 election.

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Raccoon

The raccoon (or, Procyon lotor), sometimes spelled racoon, also known as the common raccoon, North American raccoon, or northern raccoon, is a medium-sized mammal native to North America.

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Radarsat-1

RADARSAT-1 is Canada's first commercial Earth observation satellite.

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Radarsat-2

RADARSAT-2 is an Earth observation satellite that was successfully launched December 14, 2007 for the Canadian Space Agency by Starsem, using a Soyuz FG launch vehicle, from Kazakhstan's Baikonur Cosmodrome.

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Radisson, Quebec

Radisson is a small unconstituted locality situated near the Robert-Bourassa hydroelectric power station on the La Grande River in the James Bay region of Quebec, Canada.

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Railway Gazette International

Railway Gazette International is a monthly business journal covering the railway, metro, light rail and tram industries worldwide.

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Rainbow trout

The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is a trout and species of salmonid native to cold-water tributaries of the Pacific Ocean in Asia and North America.

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Régiment de la Chaudière

The Régiment de la Chaudière is a Primary Reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Army.

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RCAF Station Mont Apica

RCAF Mont Apica (later Canadian Forces Station or CFS Mont Apica) (ADC ID: C-1) was a radar station of the Pinetree Line, located in Mont-Apica, Quebec, Canada, during the Cold War.

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Reasonable accommodation

A reasonable accommodation is an adjustment made in a system to accommodate or make fair the same system for an individual based on a proven need.

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Red-winged blackbird

The red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) is a passerine bird of the family Icteridae found in most of North America and much of Central America.

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Reel (dance)

The reel is a folk dance type as well as the accompanying dance tune type.

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Regional county municipality

The term regional county municipality or RCM ('''.municipalité régionale de comté, MRC) is used in Quebec to refer to one of 87 county-like political entities.

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Reindeer

The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), also known as the caribou in North America, is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic, tundra, boreal and mountainous regions of northern Europe, Siberia and North America.

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Renaissance

The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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René Lévesque

René Lévesque (Quebec French pronunciation:; August 24, 1922 – November 1, 1987) was a reporter, a minister of the government of Quebec (1960–1966), the founder of the Parti Québécois political party and the 23rd Premier of Quebec (November 25, 1976 – October 3, 1985).

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René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle

René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, or Robert de La Salle (November 22, 1643 – March 19, 1687) was a French explorer.

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Rendez-vous du cinéma québécois

The Rendez-vous du cinéma québécois is a festival created in 1982 to celebrate the cinematographic production of Quebec, Canada.

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Renewable energy

Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.

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Report on the Affairs of British North America

The Report on the Affairs of British North America, commonly known as the Durham Report, or Lord Durham's Report is an important document in the history of Quebec, Ontario, Canada and the British Empire.

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Responsible government

Responsible government is a conception of a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability, the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy.

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Richelieu River

The Richelieu River rises at Lake Champlain, from which it flows to the north in the province of Quebec, Canada and empties into the St. Lawrence river.

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Rift valley

A rift valley is a linear-shaped lowland between several highlands or mountain ranges created by the action of a geologic rift or fault.

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Robert Bourassa

Robert Bourassa, (July 14, 1933 – October 2, 1996) was a politician in Quebec, Canada.

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Robert Nelson (insurrectionist)

Robert Nelson (August 8, 1794 – March 1, 1873) was an Anglo-Quebecer physician and a leading figure in the Lower Canada Rebellion in 19th century Quebec (Lower Canada).

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Rock dove

The rock dove, IOC World Bird List, rock pigeon, or common pigeon (also; Columba livia) is a member of the bird family Columbidae (doves and pigeons).

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Route Verte

The Route Verte (in English, the "Green Route," or the "Greenway") is a network of bicycling and multiuse trails and designated roads, lanes, and surfaces, spanning as of October 31, 2013, in the Canadian province of Quebec, inaugurated on August 10, 2007.

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Royal Proclamation of 1763

The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763, by King George III following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War.

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Rule of law

The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".

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Rupert River

The Rupert River is one of the largest rivers in Quebec, Canada. From its headwaters in Lake Mistassini, the largest natural lake in Quebec, it flows west into Rupert Bay on James Bay. The Rupert drains an area of sqmi. There is some extremely large whitewater on the river, but paddlers can avoid much of it by portage routes on the side. The most impressive falls, which cannot be avoided except by portaging, are the "Oatmeal Rapids" right at the James Bay Road (a set of cascades dropping) and "The Fours" near the end of the river (a drop). The Rupert has long been an important river for the Cree of the area. Every year, a group of Cree youth from the village of Waskaganish, at the mouth of the Rupert, travel up the river to Lake Nemiscau. Major tributaries of the Rupert are (in downstream order).

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Rupert's Land

Rupert's Land, or Prince Rupert's Land, was a territory in British North America comprising the Hudson Bay drainage basin, a territory in which a commercial monopoly was operated by the Hudson's Bay Company for 200 years from 1670 to 1870.

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Saguenay River

The Saguenay River (French: Rivière Saguenay) is a major river of Quebec, Canada.

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Saguenay, Quebec

Saguenay (in English or) is a city in the Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean region of Quebec, Canada, on the Saguenay River, about north of Quebec City by overland route.

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Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean

Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean is a region in Quebec, Canada.

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Saguenay–St. Lawrence Marine Park

The Saguenay–St.

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Saint Lawrence Lowlands

The Great Lakes-St.

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Saint Lawrence River

The Saint Lawrence River (Fleuve Saint-Laurent; Tuscarora: Kahnawáʼkye; Mohawk: Kaniatarowanenneh, meaning "big waterway") is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America.

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Saint Lawrence Seaway

The Saint Lawrence Seaway (la Voie Maritime du Saint-Laurent) is a system of locks, canals, and channels in Canada and the United States that permits oceangoing vessels to travel from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes of North America, as far inland as the western end of Lake Superior.

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Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Saint Pierre and Miquelon, officially the Overseas Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon (Collectivité d'Outre-mer de Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon), is a self-governing territorial overseas collectivity of France, situated in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean near the Newfoundland and Labrador province of Canada.

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Saint-François River

The Saint-François River is a river in the Canadian province of Quebec.

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Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day

Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day (Fête de la Saint-Jean-Baptiste, la Saint-Jean, Fête nationale du Québec) is a holiday celebrated on June 24 in the Canadian province of Quebec and by French Canadians across Canada and the United States.

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Saint-Maurice River

The Saint-Maurice River (Atikamekw: Tapiskwan sipi) flows North to South in central Quebec from Gouin Reservoir to empty into the Saint Lawrence River at Trois-Rivières, in province of Quebec, in Canada.

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Samuel de Champlain

Samuel de Champlain (born Samuel Champlain; on or before August 13, 1574Fichier OrigineFor a detailed analysis of his baptismal record, see RitchThe baptism act does not contain information about the age of Samuel, neither his birth date or his place of birth. – December 25, 1635), known as "The Father of New France", was a French navigator, cartographer, draftsman, soldier, explorer, geographer, ethnologist, diplomat, and chronicler.

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Sandhill crane

The sandhill crane (Antigone canadensis) is a species of large crane of North America and extreme northeastern Siberia.

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Saskatchewan

Saskatchewan is a prairie and boreal province in western Canada, the only province without natural borders.

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Saskatchewan River

The Saskatchewan River (Cree: kisiskāciwani-sīpiy, "swift flowing river") is a major river in Canada, about long, flowing roughly eastward across Saskatchewan and Manitoba to empty into Lake Winnipeg.

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Satellite

In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.

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Séraphin: Heart of Stone

Séraphin: Heart of Stone (Séraphin: un homme et son péché, Lit. "Séraphin: A man and his sin") is a Quebec film released in 2002.

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SCISAT-1

SCISAT-1 is a Canadian satellite designed to make observations of the Earth's atmosphere.

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Scottish Canadians

Scottish Canadians are people of Scottish descent or heritage living in Canada.

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Sedimentary rock

Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.

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Seigneurial system of New France

The manorial system of New France was the semi-feudal system of land tenure used in the North American French colonial empire.

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Separation of church and state

The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state.

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Sept-Îles, Quebec

Sept-Îles (Quebec French pronunciation:, French for "Seven Islands") is a city in the Côte-Nord region of eastern Quebec, Canada.

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Seven Years' War

The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.

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Sherbrooke

Sherbrooke is a city in southern Quebec, Canada.

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Sikh

A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.

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Sikhism in Canada

Canadian Sikhs number roughly 468,670 people and account for roughly 1.4% of Canada's population.

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Skunk

Skunks are North and South American mammals in the family Mephitidae.

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Smoked meat

Smoked meat is a method of preparing red meat (and fish) which originates in prehistory.

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Snowshoe hare

The snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus), also called the varying hare, or snowshoe rabbit, is a species of hare found in North America.

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Snowy owl

The snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus), also known as the polar owl or white owl, is a large, white owl of the typical owl family.

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Société de développement des entreprises culturelles

The Société de développement des entreprises culturelles (SODEC) is a Quebec government agency founded in 1983 under the name of Société générale du cinéma du Québec (SGCQ).

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Société de l'assurance automobile du Québec

The Société de l'assurance automobile du Québec or SAAQ (Quebec Automobile Insurance Corporation) is a Quebec crown corporation responsible for licensing drivers and vehicles in the province and providing public auto insurance which insures all drivers, passengers, pedestrians, bicyclists and motorcyclists involved in road collisions whether or not they are at fault (no-fault insurance).

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Solar irradiance

Solar irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.

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Sorbus

Sorbus is a genus of about 100–200 species of trees and shrubs in the rose family, Rosaceae.

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Sovereign Council of New France

The Sovereign Council (French: Conseil Souverain) was a governing body in New France.

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Sovereignty

Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.

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Spanish language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.

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Spoon (musical instrument)

Spoons can be played as a makeshift percussion instrument, or more specifically, an idiophone related to the castanets.

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Spruce

A spruce is a tree of the genus Picea, a genus of about 35 species of coniferous evergreen trees in the family Pinaceae, found in the northern temperate and boreal (taiga) regions of the Earth.

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Spruce beer

Spruce beer is a beverage flavored with the buds, needles, or essence of spruce trees.

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St. Catherine's taffy

St.

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St. Lawrence Iroquoians

The St.

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Standard & Poor's

Standard & Poor's Financial Services LLC (S&P) is an American financial services company.

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Statistics Canada

Statistics Canada (Statistique Canada), formed in 1971, is the Government of Canada government agency commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture.

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Stephen Harper

Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is a Canadian economist, entrepreneur, and retired politician who served as the 22nd Prime Minister of Canada, from February 6, 2006, to November 4, 2015.

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Subarctic

The subarctic is a region in the Northern Hemisphere immediately south of the true Arctic and covering much of Alaska, Canada, Iceland, the north of Scandinavia, Siberia, and the Shetland Islands.

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Subarctic climate

The subarctic climate (also called subpolar climate, subalpine climate, or boreal climate) is a climate characterised by long, usually very cold winters, and short, cool to mild summers.

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Sugar shack

A sugar shack (French: cabane à sucre), also known as sap house, sugar house, sugar shanty or sugar cabin is a semi-commercial establishment, primarily found in Eastern Canada and northern New England.

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Sugarcane

Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.

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Surrender of Quebec

The surrender of Quebec in 1629 was the taking of Quebec City, during the Anglo-French War (1627-29).

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Suzanne Jacob

Suzanne Jacob (born 1943) is a French Canadian novelist, poet, playwright, singer-songwriter, and critic.

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Swallow

The swallows and martins, or Hirundinidae, are a family of passerine birds found around the world on all continents except Antarctica.

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Taiga

Taiga (p; from Turkic), also known as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces and larches.

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Télé-Québec

The Société de télédiffusion du Québec (Quebec Television Broadcasting Corporation), branded as Télé-Québec, is a Canadian French language public educational television network in the province of Quebec.

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Téléroman

A téléroman ("telenovel") is a genre of French-language drama television series in Canada, similar to a soap opera or a Spanish language telenovela.

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Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest

Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest is a temperate climate terrestrial biome, with broadleaf tree ecoregions, and with conifer and broadleaf tree mixed coniferous forest ecoregions.

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Tertiary sector of the economy

The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory.

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Théâtre Saint-Denis

Théâtre Saint-Denis is a theatre located on Saint Denis Street in Montreal, Quebec, in the city's Quartier Latin, which is now part of the Quartier des spectacles arts and entertainment district.

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Thuja occidentalis

Thuja occidentalis, also known as northern white-cedar or eastern arborvitae, is an evergreen coniferous tree, in the cypress family Cupressaceae, which is native to eastern Canada and much of the north, central and upper Northeastern United States, but widely cultivated as an ornamental plant.

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Thunderstorm

A thunderstorm, also known as an electrical storm, lightning storm, or thundershower, is a storm characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustic effect on the Earth's atmosphere, known as thunder.

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Tiger beetle

Tiger beetles are a large group of beetles, from the Cicindelinae subfamily, known for their aggressive predatory habits and running speed.

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Tilia americana

Tilia americana is a species of tree in the Malvaceae family, native to eastern North America, from southeast Manitoba east to New Brunswick, southwest to northeast Oklahoma, southeast to South Carolina, and west along the Niobrara River to Cherry County, Nebraska.

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Titanium

Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.

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Tornado

A tornado is a rapidly rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the Earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud.

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Torngat Mountains

The Torngat Mountains are a mountain range on the Labrador Peninsula at the northern tip of Newfoundland and Labrador and eastern Quebec.

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Total fertility rate

The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.

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Tourtière

Tourtière (Quebec French: is a Canadian meat pie dish originating from the province of Quebec, usually made with minced pork, veal or beef and potatoes. Wild game is often added to enhance the taste of the pie. A traditional part of the Christmas réveillon and New Year's Eve meal in Quebec, it is also popular in New Brunswick, and is sold in grocery stores across the rest of Canada, all year long. Tourtière is not exclusive to Quebec. It is a traditional French-Canadian dish served by generations of French-Canadian families throughout Canada and the bordering areas of the United States. In the New England region of the U.S., especially in Maine, Rhode Island, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts (e.g., Chicopee and Attleboro), late 19th and early 20th century immigrants from Quebec introduced the dish. There is no one correct filling; the meat depends on what is regionally available. In coastal areas, fish such as salmon is commonly used, whereas pork, beef, rabbit and game are often included inland. The name derives from the vessel in which it was originally cooked, a tourtière. Tourtière has become the traditional and iconic dish of the region of Saguenay, Quebec since the Second World War, and It has undergone several metamorphoses according to the culinary history. The first recipe for what we consider today as pies was documented back to 1600 BCE. After that around 400 CE, some evidence proved the existence of patina (the prototype of tourtière), which was slightly different from the pie we have today in terms of the pie crust and composition. In the Middle Ages, patina and artocreas reappeared in some European countries. In Italy, the pie was named as “pasticcio”, “timballo” or “timpano de macaroni”. Something similar also occurred in England which was named “battle pies” and also the“tourte parmenienne” in France. During the 18th Century, a dish named “sea pie” became popular among French and British colonists. Jean-Pierre Lemasson (2009) described sea pie as “the direct forerunner of the tourtière of Lac-Saint-Jean”(p. 109).

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Transat Québec–Saint-Malo

The Transat Québec–Saint-Malo is a sailing transoceanic race taking place every four years, from Quebec City, Canada, to Saint-Malo, France.

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Transports Québec

Le ministère des Transports de la Mobilité durable et de l'Électrification des Transports du Québec (Ministry of Transport, Urban Mobility and Electrification of Transportation of Quebec.), known by its short form name Transports Québec, is a Quebec government ministry responsible for transport, infrastructure and law in Quebec, Canada.

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Treaty of Paris (1763)

The Treaty of Paris, also known as the Treaty of 1763, was signed on 10 February 1763 by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement, after Great Britain's victory over France and Spain during the Seven Years' War.

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Treaty of Paris (1783)

The Treaty of Paris, signed in Paris by representatives of King George III of Great Britain and representatives of the United States of America on September 3, 1783, ended the American Revolutionary War.

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Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1632)

The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye was signed on March 29, 1632.

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Trois-Rivières

Trois-Rivières is a city in the Mauricie administrative region of Quebec, Canada, at the confluence of the Saint-Maurice and Saint Lawrence rivers, on the north shore of the Saint Lawrence River across from the city of Bécancour.

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Troubadour

A troubadour (trobador, archaically: -->) was a composer and performer of Old Occitan lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages (1100–1350).

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Tundra

In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.

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Types of municipalities in Quebec

The following is a list of the types of local and supralocal territorial units in Quebec, including those used solely for statistical purposes, as defined by the Ministry of Municipal Affairs, Regions and Land Occupancy and compiled by the Institut de la statistique du Québec.

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U.S. state

A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.

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Ubisoft

Ubisoft Entertainment SA (formerly Ubi Soft Entertainment SA) is a French video game publisher headquartered in Montreuil.

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Ulmus americana

Ulmus americana, generally known as the American elm or, less commonly, as the white elm or water elm, is a species native to eastern North America, naturally occurring from Nova Scotia west to Alberta and Montana, and south to Florida and central Texas.

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Ungava Bay

Ungava Bay (French: baie d'Ungava, Inuktitut (syllabics/Roman) ᐅᖓᕙ ᑲᖏᖅᓗᒃ/ungava kangiqluk) is a large bay in northeastern Canada separating Nunavik (far northern Quebec) from Baffin Island.

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Ungava Peninsula

The Ungava Peninsula of Nunavik, Quebec, Canada, is bounded by Hudson Bay to the west, Hudson Strait to the north, and Ungava Bay to the east.

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Unibroue

Unibroue is a brewery in Chambly, Quebec, Canada that was started by Serge Racine and Quebec native André Dion.

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Unicameralism

In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.

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Union Jack

The Union Jack, or Union Flag, is the national flag of the United Kingdom.

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Union Nationale (Quebec)

The Union Nationale was a conservative and nationalist provincial political party in Quebec, Canada, that identified with Québécois autonomism.

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United Church of Canada

The United Church of Canada (Église unie du Canada) is a mainline Reformed denomination and the largest Protestant Christian denomination in Canada, and the largest Canadian Christian denomination after the Catholic Church.

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Université de Montréal

The Université de Montréal (UdeM) is a public research university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

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Upper Canada

The Province of Upper Canada (province du Haut-Canada) was a part of British Canada established in 1791 by the Kingdom of Great Britain, to govern the central third of the lands in British North America and to accommodate Loyalist refugees of the United States after the American Revolution.

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Urban agglomeration of Montreal

Montréal is one of the administrative regions of the Canadian province of Quebec.

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Urban agglomerations in Quebec

An agglomeration, or urban agglomeration, is an administrative subdivision of Quebec at the local level that may group together a number of municipalities which were abolished as independent entities on 1 January 2002 but reconstituted on 1 January 2006.

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Vascular plant

Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.

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Vermont

Vermont is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.

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Vertebrate

Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Via Rail

Via Rail Canada (generally shortened to Via Rail or Via; styled corporately as VIA Rail Canada) is an independent Crown corporation, subsidized by Transport Canada, mandated to offer intercity passenger rail services in Canada.

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Victoria Bridge (Montreal)

The Victoria Bridge (Pont Victoria), previously known as Victoria Jubilee Bridge, is a bridge over the St. Lawrence River, linking Montreal, Quebec, to the south shore city of Saint-Lambert.

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Village Québécois d'Antan

The site of the Village Québécois d'Antan is a historical and tourist village depicting life in Québec during the 19th century.

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Visible minority

A visible minority is defined by the Canadian government as "persons, other than aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour".

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Voyageurs

The voyageurs (travelers) were French Canadians who engaged in the transporting of furs by canoe during the fur trade years.

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Walleye

Walleye (Sander vitreus, synonym Stizostedion vitreum) is a freshwater perciform fish native to most of Canada and to the Northern United States.

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Walrus

The walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) is a large flippered marine mammal with a discontinuous distribution about the North Pole in the Arctic Ocean and subarctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere.

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War Measures Act

The War Measures Act (Loi sur les mesures de guerre) (5 George V, Chap. 2) was a statute of the Parliament of Canada that provided for the declaration of war, invasion, or insurrection, and the types of emergency measures that could thereby be taken.

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White-tailed deer

The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), also known as the whitetail or Virginia deer, is a medium-sized deer native to the United States, Canada, Mexico, Central America, and South America as far south as Peru and Bolivia.

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Wilder Penfield

Wilder Graves Penfield (January 26, 1891April 5, 1976) was an American-Canadian neurosurgeon.

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William Osler

Sir William Osler, 1st Baronet, (July 12, 1849 – December 29, 1919) was a Canadian physician and one of the four founding professors of Johns Hopkins Hospital.

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Wind chill

Wind-chill or windchill, (popularly wind chill factor) is the lowering of body temperature due to the passing-flow of lower-temperature air.

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Wind power

Wind power is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators for electricity.

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Winter Olympic Games

The Winter Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'hiver) is a major international sporting event held once every four years for sports practised on snow and ice.

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Wisconsin glaciation

The Wisconsin Glacial Episode, also called the Wisconsinan glaciation, was the most recent glacial period of the North American ice sheet complex.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Wyandot people

The Wyandot people or Wendat, also called the Huron Nation and Huron people, in most historic references are believed to have been the most populous confederacy of Iroquoian cultured indigenous peoples of North America.

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Yukon

Yukon (also commonly called the Yukon) is the smallest and westernmost of Canada's three federal territories (the other two are the Northwest Territories and Nunavut).

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Yves Beauchemin

Yves Beauchemin (born 26 June 1941) is a Quebec novelist.

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Zinc

Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.

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1976 Summer Olympics

The 1976 Summer Olympics, officially called the Games of the XXI Olympiad (French: Les XXIes olympiques d'été), was an international multi-sport event in Montreal, Quebec, in 1976, and the first Olympic Games held in Canada.

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2010 Winter Olympics

The 2010 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXI Olympic Winter Games (Les XXIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) and commonly known as Vancouver 2010, informally the 21st Winter Olympics, was an international winter multi-sport event that was held from 12 to 28 February 2010 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, with some events held in the surrounding suburbs of Richmond, West Vancouver and the University Endowment Lands, and in the nearby resort town of Whistler.

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2014 Winter Olympics

The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially called the XXII Olympic Winter Games (Les XXIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) (r) and commonly known as Sochi 2014, was an international winter multi-sport event that was held from 7 to 23 February 2014 in Sochi, Krasnodar Krai, Russia, with opening rounds in certain events held on the eve of the opening ceremony, 6 February 2014.

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2018 Winter Olympics

The 2018 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXIII Olympic Winter Games (Jeisipsamhoe Donggye Ollimpik) and commonly known as PyeongChang 2018, was an international winter multi-sport event that was held between 9 and 25 February 2018 in Pyeongchang County, Gangwon Province, South Korea, with the opening rounds for certain events held on 8 February 2018, the eve of the opening ceremony.

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Redirects here:

British Conquest of New France, CA-QC, Capture of Quebec, Capture of quebec, Foreign relations of Quebec, Lower Quebec, Natural resources of Quebec, Political culture of Quebec, Province de Quebec, Province de Québec, Province of Quebec, Province of Québec, Quebec (Province), Quebec (province), Quebec Province, Quebec province, Quebec, Canada, Quebecer, Quebecers, Quebéc, Quèbec, Québec, Québec (Province), Québec Province, Québec, Canada.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quebec

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