184 relations: Abdullah II of Jordan, Afonso VI of Portugal, Akihito, Albert II of Belgium, Alexandra Feodorovna (Alix of Hesse), Alfonso XIII of Spain, Amanullah Khan, Ammachi Panapillai Amma, Anna Pavlovna of Russia, Anne of Kiev, Antoine of Navarre, Asandhimitra, Ashoka, Baudouin of Belgium, Bhumibol Adulyadej, Bindusara, Boris III of Bulgaria, Brunei, Bulgaria, Byzantine Empire, Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, Carlota Joaquina of Spain, Catherine of Aragon, Catherine of Austria, Queen of Portugal, Chandragupta Maurya, Charles IV of Spain, Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Chulalongkorn, Constitution, Courtier, Durdhara, Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont, Emperor, Empress Dowager Ci'an, Empress Michiko, Felipe VI of Spain, Ferdinand II of Portugal, France, Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, George III of the United Kingdom, George V, George VI, Giovanna of Italy, Great Wife, Harald V of Norway, Haseki sultan, Hassanal Bolkiah, Helen of Greece and Denmark, Henry I of France, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, ..., Henry VIII of England, Holy Roman Empire, Hortense de Beauharnais, Hui-bin Jang, Hurrem Sultan, Jahangir, Jetsun Pema, Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck, John VI of Portugal, Justinian I, Kalākaua, Karuvaki, Kösem Sultan, King, King consort, Kingdom of Great Britain, Kingdom of Hawaii, Kingdom of Holland, Lady, Letsie III of Lesotho, List of ancient Philippine consorts, List of Bohemian consorts, List of British consorts, List of British monarchy records, List of Bulgarian consorts, List of Burmese consorts, List of consorts of Georgia, List of consorts of Portugal, List of consorts of Tonga, List of Danish consorts, List of Dutch consorts, List of French consorts, List of Hawaiian consorts, List of Hungarian consorts, List of monarchs of Brazil, List of Norwegian consorts, List of Spanish consorts, List of Swedish consorts, Louis Bonaparte, Louis XIII of France, Louis XVI of France, Luisa de Guzmán, Maharaja, Mahendra of Nepal, Maria Christina of Austria, Maria Leopoldina of Austria, Maria Luisa of Parma, Maria Theresa, Marie Antoinette, Marie de' Medici, Marie José of Belgium, Mary of Guise, Mary of Teck, Mary, Queen of Scots, Michael I of Romania, Mohammed VI of Morocco, Monarch, Morocco, Mughal Empire, Murad IV, Muwenda Mutebi II of Buganda, Myeongjong of Joseon, Nanasipauʻu Tukuʻaho, Navarre, Nicholas II of Russia, Nnabagereka of Buganda, Nur Jahan, Ottoman Empire, Padmavati (wife of Ashoka), Pedro I of Brazil, Philippe of Belgium, Polygamy, Portugal, Prince consort, Princess consort, Princess Lalla Salma of Morocco, Qing dynasty, Queen 'Masenate Mohato Seeiso, Queen dowager, Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, Queen Fabiola of Belgium, Queen Kapiolani, Queen Letizia of Spain, Queen Mathilde of Belgium, Queen Máxima of the Netherlands, Queen mother, Queen Munjeong, Queen Paola of Belgium, Queen Rania of Jordan, Queen Ratna of Nepal, Queen regnant, Queen Saleha of Brunei, Queen Silvia of Sweden, Queen Sonja of Norway, Queen Sylvia of Buganda, Rani of Jhansi, Reforms of Amānullāh Khān and civil war, Regent, Regnal number, Royal and noble ranks, Royal descent, Royal Noble Consort of Korean Kings, Russian Empire, Saovabha Phongsri, Scotland, Sebastian of Portugal, Sirikit, Sophie of Württemberg, Soraya Tarzi, Statute, Subhadrangi, Sukjong of Joseon, Suleiman the Magnificent, Sultan, Sultana (title), Thailand, Theodora (6th century), Tishyaraksha, Title, Travancore, Tribal chief, Tsar, Tupou VI, Umberto II of Italy, Wilhelmina of the Netherlands, Wilhelmine of Prussia, Queen of the Netherlands, Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands, William I of the Netherlands, William II of the Netherlands, William III of the Netherlands, Xianfeng Emperor, Yoruba people, Yorubaland, Zulu people. Expand index (134 more) » « Shrink index
Abdullah II bin Al-Hussein (عبد الله الثاني بن الحسين., ʿAbdullāh ath-thānī ibn Al-Ḥusayn, born 30 January 1962) has been King of Jordan since 1999.
Afonso VI (English: Alphonzo or Alphonse, Old Portuguese: Affonso; 21 August 164312 September 1683), known as "the Victorious" (o Vitorioso), was the second King of Portugal and the Algarves of the House of Braganza from 1656 until his death.
is the current Emperor of Japan.
Albert II (born 6 June 1934) reigned as the sixth King of the Belgians from 1993 until his abdication in 2013.
Alexandra Feodorovna (6 June 1872 – 17 July 1918) was Empress of Russia as the spouse of Nicholas II—the last ruler of the Russian Empire—from their marriage on 26 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917.
Alfonso XIII (Spanish: Alfonso León Fernando María Jaime Isidro Pascual Antonio de Borbón y Habsburgo-Lorena; 17 May 1886 – 28 February 1941) was King of Spain from 1886 until the proclamation of the Second Republic in 1931.
Amānullāh Khān (امان الله خان) was the sovereign of the Kingdom of Afghanistan from 1919 to 1929, first as Emir and after 1926 as Malik (King).
Ammachi Panapillai Amma was the title held by the consort of the ruling Maharajah of Travancore as well as those of other title holding male members of the Travancore Royal Family.
Anna Pavlovna of Russia (Анна Павловна; Dutch: Anna Paulowna; 18 January 1795 — 1 March 1865) was a queen consort of the Netherlands.
Anne of Kiev (c. 1030 – 1075), Anna Yaroslavna, Anna of Rus also called Agnes, in France known initially as Anne de Russie or Agnes de Russie, was the queen consort of Henry I of France, and regent of France during the minority of her son, Philip I of France, from 1060 until 1065.
Antoine (in English, Anthony; 22 April 1518 – 17 November 1562) was the King of Navarre through his marriage (jure uxoris) to Queen Jeanne III, from 1555 until his death.
Asandhimitra (d. 240 BCE) also known as Asandhimittā, was the Chief Queen (Agramahisi) of the Mauryan emperor Ashoka, for the majority of his reign.
Ashoka (died 232 BCE), or Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from to 232 BCE.
Baudouin (Boudewijn, Balduin; 7 September 1930 – 31 July 1993) reigned as the fifth King of the Belgians, following his father's abdication, from 1951 until his death in 1993.
Bhumibol Adulyadej (ภูมิพลอดุลยเดช;;; see full title below; 5 December 1927 – 13 October 2016), conferred with the title King Bhumibol the Great in 1987, was the ninth monarch of Thailand from the Chakri dynasty as Rama IX.
Bindusara was the second Mauryan emperor of India.
Boris III (Борѝс III; 28 August 1943), originally Boris Klemens Robert Maria Pius Ludwig Stanislaus Xaver (Boris Clement Robert Mary Pius Louis Stanislaus Xavier), was Tsar of Bulgaria from 1918 until his death.
Brunei, officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi), is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Carl XVI Gustaf (full name: Carl Gustaf Folke Hubertus; born 30 April 1946) is the King of Sweden.
Doña Carlota Joaquina of Spain (Carlota Joaquina Teresa Cayetana; 25 April 1775 – 7 January 1830), was by birth a member of the Spanish branch of the House of Bourbon and Infanta of Spain and by marriage Queen consort of Portugal and the Algarves (and later of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves) and titular Empress consort of Brazil.
Catherine of Aragon (16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536), was Queen of England from June 1509 until May 1533 as the first wife of King Henry VIII; she was previously Princess of Wales as the wife of Henry's elder brother Arthur.
Catherine of Austria (Catarina; 14 January 1507 – 12 February 1578) was Queen of Portugal as wife of King John III, and regent during the minority of her grandson, King Sebastian, from 1557 until 1562.
Chandragupta Maurya (reign: 321–297 BCE) was the founder of the Maurya Empire in ancient India.
Charles IV (Spanish: Carlos Antonio Pascual Francisco Javier Juan Nepomuceno José Januario Serafín Diego; 11 November 1748 – 20 January 1819) was King of Spain from 14 December 1788, until his abdication on 19 March 1808.
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (Sophia Charlotte; 19 May 1744 – 17 November 1818) was a British queen consort and wife of King George III.
Phra Bat Somdet Phra Poraminthra Maha Chulalongkorn Phra Chunla Chom Klao Chao Yu Hua (พระบาทสมเด็จพระปรมินทรมหาจุฬาลงกรณ์ พระจุลจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว), or Rama V (20 September 1853 – 23 October 1910), was the fifth monarch of Siam under the House of Chakri.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
A courtier is a person who is often in attendance at the court of a monarch or other royal personage.
Durdhara was the wife of Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the 4th-century BCE Maurya Empire of ancient India, according to the 12th century CE Jain text Parishishtaparvan by Hemachandra.
Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont (2 August 1858 – 20 March 1934) was Queen consort of the Netherlands and Grand Duchess consort of Luxembourg by marriage to King-Grand Duke William III.
An emperor (through Old French empereor from Latin imperator) is a monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm.
Empress Xiaozhenxian (Manchu: Hiyoošungga jekdun iletu Hūwangheo; 12 August 1837 – 8 April 1881), better known as Empress Dowager Ci'an (Manchu: Hiyoošungga Jekdun Iletu Hūwanghu) and informally as the East Empress Dowager, was the Empress Consort of the Xianfeng Emperor of the Qing dynasty in China.
, born on 20 October 1934, is the as the wife of Akihito, the current Emperor of Japan reigning from 7 January 1989 until April 30, 2019.
Felipe VI (Felipe Juan Pablo Alfonso de Todos los Santos de Borbón y de Grecia; born 30 January 1968) is the King of Spain.
Dom Ferdinand II (Portuguese: Fernando II) (29 October 1816 – 15 December 1885) was a German prince of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha-Koháry, and King of Portugal jure uxoris as the husband of Queen Maria II, from the birth of their son in 1837 to her death in 1853.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francis I (Franz Stefan, François Étienne; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions.
George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.
George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936.
George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death in 1952.
Giovanna of Italy (Йоанна Савойска, Giovanna Elisabetta Antonia Romana Maria) (13 November 1907 – 26 February 2000) was the Tsaritsa of Bulgaria.
Great Wife is an honorific applied to contemporary royal consorts in states throughout modern Africa (e.g., Mantfombi Dlamini of Swaziland, chief consort of the Zulu King).
Harald V (born 21 February 1937) is the King of Norway, having ascended the throne following the death of his father on 17 January 1991.
Haseki Sultan (خاصکى سلطان, Ḫāṣekī Sulṭān) was the imperial title used for the chief consort of an Ottoman Sultan.
Hassanal Bolkiah, GCB GCMG (full name: Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah ibn Al-Marhum Sultan Haji Omar Ali Saifuddien Sa'adul Khairi Waddien Sultan and Yang Di-Pertuan of Brunei Darussalam; born 15 July 1946) is the 29th and current Sultan and Yang Di-Pertuan of Brunei.
Helen of Greece and Denmark (Ελένη, Eleni;; 2 May 1896 – 28 November 1982), was a queen mother of Romania during the reign of her son King Michael (1940–1947).
Henry I (4 May 1008 – 4 August 1060) was King of the Franks from 1031 to his death.
Henry Stuart (or Stewart), Duke of Albany (7 December 1545 – 10 February 1567), styled as Lord Darnley until 1565, was king consort of Scotland from 1565 until his murder at Kirk o' Field in 1567.
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Hortense Eugénie Cécile Bonaparte (née de Beauharnais) (10 April 1783 – 5 October 1837), Queen consort of Holland, was the stepdaughter of Emperor Napoléon I, being the daughter of his first wife, Joséphine de Beauharnais.
Royal Noble Consort Hui of the Indong Jang clan (3 November 1659 – 9 November 1701), also known as Jang Ok-jeong, is one of the best known royal concubines of Joseon.
Hurrem Sultan (خرم سلطان, Ḫurrem Sulṭān, Hürrem Sultan; 1502 – 15 April 1558), often called Roxelana, was the favourite and later the chief consort and legal wife of Ottoman Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent.
Mirza Nur-ud-din Beig Mohammad Khan Salim مرزا نور الدین محمد خان سلیم, known by his imperial name (جہانگیر) Jahangir (31 August 1569 – 28 October 1627), was the fourth Mughal Emperor who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627.
Jetsun Pema (རྗེ་བཙུན་པདྨ་; Wylie: rje btsun padma; born 4 June 1990) is the queen consort (Druk Gyaltsuen, literally meaning "Dragon Queen") of Bhutan, as the wife of King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck.
Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck (Wylie: jigs med ge sar rnam rgyal dbang phyug born 21 February 1980) is the current reigning Druk Gyalpo or "Dragon King" of the Kingdom of Bhutan.
John VI (Portuguese: João VI; –), nicknamed "the Clement", was King of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves from 1816 to 1825.
Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.
Kalākaua (November 16, 1836 – January 20, 1891), born David Laamea Kamananakapu Mahinulani Naloiaehuokalani Lumialani Kalākaua and sometimes called The Merrie Monarch, was the last king and penultimate monarch of the Kingdom of HawaiOkinai.
Karuvaki (or Charuvaki) was the second queen of the third Mauryan emperor, Ashoka.
Kösem Sultan (كوسم سلطان) (1589 – 2 September 1651) – also known as Mahpeyker SultanDouglas Arthur Howard, The official History of Turkey, Greenwood Press,, p. 195 (Māh-peyker) – was one of the most powerful women in Ottoman history.
King, or King Regnant is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts.
A king consort or emperor consort is an alternative title to the more usual "prince consort" – which is a position given in some monarchies to the husband of a queen regnant.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
The Kingdom of Hawaiʻi originated in 1795 with the unification of the independent islands of Hawaiʻi, Oʻahu, Maui, Molokaʻi, and Lānaʻi under one government.
The Kingdom of Holland (Koninkrijk Holland, Royaume de Hollande) was set up by Napoléon Bonaparte as a puppet kingdom for his third brother, Louis Bonaparte, in order to better control the Netherlands.
The word lady is a term of respect for a woman, the equivalent of gentleman.
Letsie III (born David Mohato Bereng Seeiso; 17 July 1963) is the current king of Lesotho.
This is a list of the queen consorts of the major kingdoms and states that existed in present-day Philippines.
This is a list of the royal consorts of the rulers of Bohemia.
A royal consort is the spouse of a ruling king or queen.
This List of British monarchy records lists various statistical records relating to the monarchy of the United Kingdom and its predecessors and constituents.
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This is a list of the queen consorts of the major kingdoms that existed in present-day Myanmar.
Georgia split into three independent kingdoms by 1490.
Throughout its history, the Portuguese monarchy has had only two queens regnant: Maria I and Maria II of Portugal (and, arguably, Beatriz for a short period of time in the 14th century).
This list of Danish consorts includes each queen consort (wife of a reigning king) and each prince consort (husband of a reigning queen).
A consort of the Netherlands is a person married to a Dutch monarch during his or her reign.
This is a list of the women who have been queens consort or empresses consort of the French monarchy.
A royal consort is a spouse of a monarch.
This is a list of the queens consorts of Hungary, the consorts of the kings of Hungary.
Brazil was ruled by a series of monarchs in the period 1815–1889; first as a kingdom united with Portugal in the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves (1815–1822), subsequently as a sovereign and independent state, the Empire of Brazil (1822–1889).
This is a list of Norwegian queens.
This is a list of Swedish queens consort and spouses of Swedish monarchs and regents.
Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (born Luigi Buonaparte; 2 September 1778 – 25 July 1846) was a younger brother of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French.
Louis XIII (27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown.
Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793), born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution.
Luisa María Francisca de Guzmán y Sandoval (Luísa Maria Francisca de Gusmão; 13 October 1613 – 27 February 1666) was a queen consort of Portugal.
Mahārāja (महाराज, also spelled Maharajah, Moharaja) is a Sanskrit title for a "great ruler", "great king" or "high king".
Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev (महेन्द्र वीर विक्रम शाह; 11 June 1920 – 31 January 1972) was King of Nepal from 1955 to 1972.
Maria Christina Henriette Desideria Felicitas Raineria of Austria, also known as Maria Christina Henrietta Désirée Félicité Rénière (21 July 1858 – 6 February 1929) was Queen of Spain as the second wife of King Alfonso XII.
She was born in Vienna, Austria, as the daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, and his second wife, Maria Teresa of Naples and Sicily.
Maria Luisa of Parma (9 December 1751 – 2 January 1819) was Queen consort of Spain from 1788 to 1808 by marriage to King Charles IV of Spain.
Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina (Maria Theresia; 13 May 1717 – 29 November 1780) was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg.
Marie Antoinette (born Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna; 2 November 1755 – 16 October 1793) was the last Queen of France before the French Revolution.
Marie de' Medici (Marie de Médicis, Maria de' Medici; 26 April 1575 – 3 July 1642) was Queen of France as the second wife of King Henry IV of France, of the House of Bourbon.
Marie José of Belgium (Marie-José Charlotte Sophie Amélie Henriette Gabrielle; 4 August 1906 – 27 January 2001) was the last Queen of Italy.
Mary of Guise (Marie; 22 November 1515 – 11 June 1560), also called Mary of Lorraine, ruled Scotland as regent from 1554 until her death.
Mary of Teck (Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes; 26 May 1867 – 24 March 1953) was Queen consort of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Empress of India as the wife of King George V. Although technically a princess of Teck, in the Kingdom of Württemberg, she was born and raised in England.
Mary, Queen of Scots (8 December 1542 – 8 February 1587), also known as Mary Stuart or Mary I, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567.
Michael I (Mihai I; 25 October 1921 – 5 December 2017) was the last King of Romania, reigning from 20 July 1927 to 8 June 1930 and again from 6 September 1940 until his abdication on 30 December 1947.
Mohammed VI (محمد السادس,; born 21 August 1963) is the King of Morocco.
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
Murad IV (مراد رابع, Murād-ı Rābiʿ; 26/27 July 1612 – 8 February 1640) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1623 to 1640, known both for restoring the authority of the state and for the brutality of his methods.
Ronald Edward Frederick Kimera Muwenda Mutebi II (born 13 April 1955) is the reigning Kabaka (also known as king) of the Kingdom of Buganda, a constitutional kingdom in modern-day Uganda.
Myeongjong of Joseon (3 July 1534 – 3 August 1567, r. 1545–1567) was the 13th king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea.
Nanasipauu, (née Nanasipauʻu Vaea; born 8 March 1954) is the Queen consort of Tonga as the wife of Tupou VI (and his second cousin), who ascended the throne in 2012.
Navarre (Navarra, Nafarroa; Navarra), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre (Spanish: Comunidad Foral de Navarra; Basque: Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea), is an autonomous community and province in northern Spain, bordering the Basque Autonomous Community, La Rioja, and Aragon in Spain and Nouvelle-Aquitaine in France.
Nicholas II or Nikolai II (r; 1868 – 17 July 1918), known as Saint Nicholas II of Russia in the Russian Orthodox Church, was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917.
The Nnabagereka is the official title of the Queen consort of the Kingdom of Buganda, a traditional kingdom in modern-day Uganda.
Nur Jahan (born Mehr-un-Nissa) (31 May 1577 – 17 December 1645) was the twentieth (and last) wife of the Mughal emperor Jahangir.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Rani Padmavati was a queen of the Mauryan Emperor, Ashoka and the mother of his son, Kunala.
Dom Pedro I (English: Peter I; 12 October 1798 – 24 September 1834), nicknamed "the Liberator", was the founder and first ruler of the Empire of Brazil.
Philippe or Filip (Philippe Léopold Louis Marie, Filip Leopold Lodewijk Maria, Philipp Leopold Ludwig Maria; born 15 April 1960) is the seventh King of the Belgians, having ascended the throne on 21 July 2013, following his father's abdication.
Polygamy (from Late Greek πολυγαμία, polygamía, "state of marriage to many spouses") is the practice of marrying multiple spouses.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
A prince consort is the husband of a queen regnant who is not himself a king in his own right.
Princess consort is an official title or an informal designation that is normally accorded to the wife of a sovereign prince.
Princess Lalla Salma (born Salma Bennani (سلمى بناني, Amazigh: ⵍⴰⵍⵍⴰ ⵙⵍⵎⴰ); 10 May 1978) is the princess consort of Morocco.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
'Masenate Mohato Seeiso (born June 2, 1976) is the queen consort of Lesotho as the wife of King Letsie III of Lesotho.
A queen dowager, dowager queen or queen mother (compare: princess dowager, dowager princess or princess mother) is a title or status generally held by the widow of a king.
Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon (4 August 1900 – 30 March 2002) was the wife of King George VI and the mother of Queen Elizabeth II and Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon.
Queen Fabiola of Belgium (born '''Doña''' Fabiola de Mora y Aragón on 11 June 1928 – 5 December 2014) was Queen of the Belgians from her marriage to King Baudouin in 1960 until his death in 1993.
Queen Kapiʻolani (1834–1899) was married to King Kalākaua and reigned as Queen Consort of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi.
Letizia Ortiz Rocasolano (born 15 September 1972) is the current Queen of Spain as the wife of King Felipe VI.
Queen Mathilde of Belgium (born Jonkvrouw Mathilde d'Udekem d'Acoz on 20 January 1973) is the wife of King Philippe, who ascended the throne following the abdication of his father, King Albert II, on 21 July 2013.
Queen Máxima of the Netherlands (born Máxima Zorreguieta Cerruti; 17 May 1971) is the wife of King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands.
A queen mother is a dowager queen who is the mother of the reigning monarch (or an empress mother in the case of an empire).
Queen Munjeong or Queen Moon-Jung (Hangul: 문정왕후, Hanja: 文定王后) (2 December 1501 – 5 May 1565), also known as Queen Dowager Seongryeol (성렬왕대비), was a Queen consort of Korea by marriage to King Jungjong of Joseon, and Regent of Korea from 1545 until 1565.
Queen Paola of Belgium (born '''Donna'''Although attributes the title of "Princess" to Queen Paola prior to marriage, Burke's Peerage 1973, The Descendants of Louis XIII 1999, Genealogisches Handbuch des Adels 2001, La Descendance de Marie-Thérèse de Habsburg 1996, and Le Petit Gotha 2002 among others, accord only the noble prefix of Donna to her and her sisters, reserving the title Principessa for the wife of the head of the family Paola Ruffo di Calabria on 11 September 1937) is the wife of the former King Albert II and was Queen of the Belgians from 1993 until his abdication in 2013 in favour of their son King Philippe.
Rania Al-Abdullah (رانيا العبد الله,; born Rania Al-Yassin on 31 August 1970) is the queen consort of Jordan.
Ratna Rajya Lakshmi Devi Shah (born 19 August 1928) was Queen consort of Nepal from 1955 to 1972 and Queen Mother from 1972 to 2008 when the royal family were stripped of all titles and privileges.
A queen regnant (plural: queens regnant) is a female monarch, equivalent in rank to a king, who reigns in her own right, in contrast to a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king, or a queen regent, who is the guardian of a child monarch and reigns temporarily in the child's stead.
Saleha (full name: Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Hajah Saleha binti Al-Marhum Pengiran Pemancha Pengiran Anak Haji Mohamed Alam; born 7 October 1946) is the Queen consort of Brunei as the wife of Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah, the current Sultan of Brunei.
Queen Silvia of Sweden (born Silvia Renate Sommerlath on 23 December 1943) is the spouse of King Carl XVI Gustaf and mother of the heir apparent to the throne, Crown Princess Victoria.
Queen Sonja of Norway (born Sonja Haraldsen on 4 July 1937) is the wife of King Harald V.
Sylvia Nagginda (born 9 November 1964) is the current Nnabagereka or Queen of Buganda, a historic kingdom in modern-day Uganda, the third-largest economy in the East African Community.
Lakshmibai, the Rani of Jhansi (19 November 1828 – 18 June 1858Though the day of the month is regarded as certain historians disagree about the year: among those suggested are 1827 and 1835.), was the queen of the princely state of Jhansi in North India currently present in Jhansi district in Uttar Pradesh, India.
The reforms of Amānullāh Khān began following his accession in 1919 and his securing independence for Afghanistan in 1920.
A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.
Regnal numbers are ordinal numbers used to distinguish among persons with the same name who held the same office.
Traditional rank amongst European royalty, peers, and nobility is rooted in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.
A royal descent is a genealogical line of descent from a past or present monarch.
Royal Noble Consort was the title of royal concubines of Korean kings (including the Three Kingdoms, Unified Silla, Goryeo and Joseon Dynasty periods).
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Queen Saovabha Phongsri (เสาวภาผ่องศรี; RTGS: Saowapha Phongsi) was an agnatic half-sister and consort of King Chulalongkorn (Rama V) of Thailand, and mother of both King Vajiravudh (Rama VI) and King Prajadhipok (Rama VII).
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Dom Sebastian I (Portuguese: Sebastião I; 20 January 1554 – 4 August 1578) was King of Portugal and the Algarves from 11 June 1557 to 4 August 1578 and the penultimate Portuguese monarch of the House of Aviz.
Sirikit (สิริกิติ์;;; born Mom Rajawongse Sirikit Kitiyakara (สิริกิติ์ กิติยากร) on 12 August 1932) is the queen mother of Thailand.
Sophie of Württemberg (Sophia Frederika Mathilde; 17 June 1818 – 3 June 1877) was Queen of the Netherlands as the first wife of King William III.
Soraya Tarzi, known mostly as Queen Soraya (Pashto/Dari: ملکه ثريا) (November 24, 1899 – April 20, 1968), was the Queen consort of Afghanistan in the early 20th century and the wife of King Amanullah Khan.
A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a city, state, or country.
Subhadrangi (also known as Dharma or Janapadakalyani) was, according to Buddhist sources, a wife of the Mauryan emperor, Bindusara and the mother of his successor, Ashoka.
Sukjong of Joseon (7 October 1661 – 12 July 1720) was the 19th king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1674 to 1720.
Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
Sultana or sultanah is a female royal title, and a feminine form of the word sultan.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
Theodora (Greek: Θεοδώρα; c. 500 – 28 June 548) was empress of the Eastern Roman Empire by marriage to Emperor Justinian I.
Tishyaraksha (died) was the last wife of the third Mauryan emperor, Ashoka.
A title is a prefix or suffix added to someone's name in certain contexts.
The Kingdom of Travancore was an Indian kingdom from 1729 until 1949.
A tribal chief is the leader of a tribal society or chiefdom.
Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.
Tupou VI (ʻAhoʻeitu ʻUnuakiʻotonga Tukuʻaho; born 12 July 1959) is the King of Tonga.
Umberto II (Umberto Nicola Tommaso Giovanni Maria di Savoia; 15 September 190418 March 1983) was the last King of Italy.
Wilhelmina (Wilhelmina Helena Pauline Maria; 31 August 1880 – 28 November 1962) was Queen of the Netherlands from 1890 until her abdication in 1948.
Friederike Luise Wilhelmine of Prussia (18 November 1774 – 12 October 1837) was the first wife of King William I of the Netherlands and so the first Queen of the Netherlands.
Willem-Alexander (born Willem-Alexander Claus George Ferdinand, 27 April 1967) is the King of the Netherlands, having ascended the throne following his mother's abdication in 2013.
William I (Willem Frederik, Prince of Orange-Nassau; 24 August 1772 – 12 December 1843) was a Prince of Orange and the first King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg.
William II (Willem Frederik George Lodewijk, anglicized as William Frederick George Louis; 6 December 1792 – 17 March 1849) was King of the Netherlands, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, and Duke of Limburg.
William III (Dutch: Willem Alexander Paul Frederik Lodewijk; English: William Alexander Paul Frederick Louis; 19 February 1817 – 23 November 1890) was King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg from 1849 until his death in 1890.
The Xianfeng Emperor (17 July 183122 August 1861), personal name I-ju (or Yizhu), was the ninth Emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the seventh Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1850 to 1861.
The Yoruba people (name spelled also: Ioruba or Joruba;, lit. 'Yoruba lineage'; also known as Àwon omo Yorùbá, lit. 'Children of Yoruba', or simply as the Yoruba) are an ethnic group of southwestern and north-central Nigeria, as well as southern and central Benin.
Yorubaland is the cultural region of the Yoruba people in West Africa.
The Zulu (amaZulu) are a Bantu ethnic group of Southern Africa and the largest ethnic group in South Africa, with an estimated 10–12 million people living mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal.