66 relations: Adrenal insufficiency, Agonist, Allopregnanediol, Androgen, Anesthesia, Barbiturate, Bioavailability, Biological half-life, Biological target, Carl Clauberg, Chemical structure, Combined oral contraceptive pill, Cyclopentane, Derivative (chemistry), Dydrogesterone, Enol, Ether, Ethinylestradiol, Fat, Gastrointestinal tract, Glucocorticoid, Hexobarbital, Hydrolysis, Hydroxyprogesterone caproate, Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, Intraperitoneal injection, Italy, Lipophilicity, Liver, Medroxyprogesterone acetate, Mestranol, Metabolic intermediate, Metabolism, Metabolite, Micronization, Miscarriage, Neurosteroid, Oral administration, Organic compound, Pentagestrone acetate, Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics, Potency (pharmacology), Pregnancy, Pregnane, Pregnanediol, Pregnanolone, Prodrug, Progesterone, Progesterone (medication), ..., Progesterone 3-acetyl enol ether, Progesterone receptor, Progestin, Progestogen, Progestogen ester, Retroprogesterone, Sesame oil, Side effect, Steroid, Subcutaneous injection, Teratology, Trademark distinctiveness, Urine, Virilization, 3α-Dihydroprogesterone, 3β-Dihydroprogesterone. Expand index (16 more) » « Shrink index
Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol; but may also include impaired production of aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid), which regulates sodium conservation, potassium secretion, and water retention.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Allopregnanediol, or 5α-pregnane-3α,20α-diol, is an endogenous metabolite of progesterone and allopregnanolone and an isomer of pregnanediol (5β-pregnan-3α,20α-diol).
An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.
In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness.
A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.
In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA or F) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.
The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.
A biological target is anything within a living organism to which some other entity (like an endogenous ligand or a drug) is directed and/or binds, resulting in a change in its behavior or function.
Carl Clauberg (28 September 1898 – 9 August 1957) was a German gynecologist who conducted medical experiments on human subjects (mainly Jewish) at Auschwitz concentration camp.
A chemical structure determination includes a chemist's specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid.
The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), often referred to as the birth control pill or colloquially as "the pill", is a type of birth control that is designed to be taken orally by women.
Cyclopentane is a highly flammable alicyclic hydrocarbon with chemical formula C5H10 and CAS number 287-92-3, consisting of a ring of five carbon atoms each bonded with two hydrogen atoms above and below the plane.
In chemistry, a derivative is a compound that is derived from a similar compound by a chemical reaction.
Dydrogesterone, sold under the brand name Duphaston among others, is a progestin medication which is used for a variety of indications, including threatened or recurrent miscarriage during pregnancy, dysfunctional bleeding, infertility due to luteal insufficiency, dysmenorrhea, endometriosis, secondary amenorrhea, irregular cycles, premenstrual syndrome, and as a component of menopausal hormone therapy.
Enols, or more formally, alkenols, are a type of reactive structure or intermediate in organic chemistry that is represented as an alkene (olefin) with a hydroxyl group attached to one end of the alkene double bond.
Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups.
Ethinylestradiol (EE) is an estrogen medication which is used widely in birth control pills in combination with progestins.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
Hexobarbital or hexobarbitone, sold both in acid and sodium salt forms as Citopan, Evipan, and Tobinal, is a barbiturate derivative having hypnotic and sedative effects.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Hydroxyprogesterone caproate (OHPC), sold under the brand names Proluton and Makena among others, is a progestin medication which is used to prevent preterm birth in pregnant women with a history of the condition and to treat gynecological disorders.
The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis or HTPA axis) is a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions among three components: the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the thalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands (small, conical organs on top of the kidneys).
Intraperitoneal injection or IP injection is the injection of a substance into the peritoneum (body cavity).
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Lipophilicity (from Greek λίπος "fat" and φίλος "friendly"), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), sold under the brand name Depo-Provera among others, is a hormonal medication of the progestin type.
Mestranol, sold under the brand names Enovid, Norinyl, and Ortho-Novum among others, is an estrogen medication which has been used in birth control pills, menopausal hormone therapy, and the treatment of menstrual disorders.
Metabolic intermediates are molecules which are the precursors or metabolites of biologically significant molecules.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
Micronization is the process of reducing the average diameter of a solid material's particles.
Miscarriage, also known as spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss, is the natural death of an embryo or fetus before it is able to survive independently.
Neurosteroids, also known as neuroactive steroids, are endogenous or exogenous steroids that rapidly alter neuronal excitability through interaction with ligand-gated ion channels and other cell surface receptors.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Pentagestrone acetate, sold under the brand names Gestovis and Gestovister and also known as 17α-acetoxyprogesterone 3-cyclopentyl enol ether, is a progestin of the 17α-hydroxyprogesterone group which was described in the literature in 1960 and was introduced by Vister in Italy in 1961.
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs).
Pharmacokinetics (from Ancient Greek pharmakon "drug" and kinetikos "moving, putting in motion"; see chemical kinetics), sometimes abbreviated as PK, is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to determining the fate of substances administered to a living organism.
In the field of pharmacology, potency is a measure of drug activity expressed in terms of the amount required to produce an effect of given intensity.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Pregnane is a C21 steroid and, indirectly, a parent of progesterone.
Pregnanediol, or 5β-pregnane-3α,20α-diol, is an inactive metabolic product of progesterone.
Pregnanolone, also known as eltanolone, is an endogenous neurosteroid that is biosynthesized from progesterone.
A prodrug is a medication or compound that, after administration, is metabolized (i.e., converted within the body) into a pharmacologically active drug.
Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.
Progesterone is a medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone.
Progesterone 3-acetyl enol ether, also known as progesterone acetate,https://chem.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/sid/0004954067 as well as 3-acetoxypregna-3,5-dien-20-one, is a progestin which was never marketed.
The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found inside cells.
A progestin is a type of medication which is used most commonly in hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy.
Progestogens, also sometimes spelled progestagens or gestagens, are a class of steroid hormones that bind to and activate the progesterone receptor (PR).
A progestogen ester is an ester of a progestogen or progestin (a synthetic progestogen).
Retroprogesterone, also known as 9β,10α-progesterone or as 9β,10α-pregn-4-ene-3,20-dione, is a progestin which was never marketed.
Sesame oil is an edible vegetable oil derived from sesame seeds.
In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
A subcutaneous injection is administered as a bolus into the subcutis, the layer of skin directly below the dermis and epidermis, collectively referred to as the cutis.
Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.
Trademark distinctiveness is an important concept in the law governing trademarks and service marks.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Virilization or masculinization is the biological development of sex differences, changes that make a male body different from a female body.
3α-Dihydroprogesterone (3α-DHP), also known as 3α-hydroxyprogesterone, as well as pregn-4-en-3α-ol-20-one, is an endogenous neurosteroid.
3β-Dihydroprogesterone (3β-DHP), also known as 3β-hydroxyprogesterone, or pregn-4-en-3β-ol-20-one (4-pregnenolone, δ4-pregnenolone), is an endogenous steroid.