87 relations: Albert Augustus Isaacs, Amir Drori, Amman, Ancient Qumran: A Virtual Reality Tour, École Biblique, Benjamin Mazar, Cemetery, Charles Simon Clermont-Ganneau, Cistern, City of Salt, Copper Scroll, David Stacey, Dead Sea, Dead Sea Scrolls, Desert, Ein Feshkha, Ein Gedi, Eleazar Sukenik, Ernest-Marie Laperrousaz, Essenes, Excavation (archaeology), First Jewish–Roman War, Fortification, Frank Moore Cross, Gerald Lankester Harding, Godfrey Rolles Driver, Golan Heights, Gorgias Press, Hanan Eshel, Hasmonean dynasty, Hellenistic period, Israel, Israeli settlement, James H. Charlesworth, Józef Milik, Jean-Baptiste Humbert, Jericho, Jerusalem, Jesus, John Hyrcanus, John M. Allegro, John the Baptist, Joseph M. Baumgarten, Josephus, Kalya, Katharina Galor, Kibbutz, Lawrence Schiffman, Library, LMLK seal, ..., Marl, Masada, Mikveh, Mount Hermon, Negev, Norman Golb, Nubian ibex, OmniScriptum, Opus sectile, Ostracon, Papyrus, Parchment, Philo, Plateau, Pliny the Elder, Priest, Qumran Caves, Right of asylum, Rockefeller Museum, Roland de Vaux, Roman Empire, Sadducees, Scriptorium, Scroll, Secacah, Sect, Solomon H. Steckoll, Solomon Zeitlin, Talmud, Temple in Jerusalem, Temple Mount, Tetradrachm, Villa, Villa rustica, West Bank, Yigael Yadin, Yizhar Hirschfeld. Expand index (37 more) » « Shrink index
Amir Drori (אמיר דרורי; 1937–2005) was an Israeli general, founder and the first director general of the Israel Antiquities Authority.
Amman (عمّان) is the capital and most populous city of Jordan, and the country's economic, political and cultural centre.
Ancient Qumran: A Virtual Reality Tour is the title of a computer-generated film that presents a theoretical reconstruction of the ancient Khirbet Qumran site.
The École biblique et archéologique française de Jérusalem, commonly known as École Biblique, is a French academic establishment in Jerusalem, founded by Dominicans, and specialising in archaeology and Biblical exegesis.
Benjamin Mazar (בנימין מזר; born Binyamin Zeev Maisler, June 28, 1906 – September 9, 1995) was a pioneering Israeli historian, recognized as the "dean" of biblical archaeologists.
A cemetery or graveyard is a place where the remains of dead people are buried or otherwise interred.
Charles Simon Clermont-Ganneau (19 February 1846 – 15 February 1923) was a noted French Orientalist and archaeologist.
A cistern (Middle English cisterne, from Latin cisterna, from cista, "box", from Greek κίστη, "basket") is a waterproof receptacle for holding liquids, usually water.
The City of Salt or Ir-melah (עיר המלח in Hebrew) is a town referred to in the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament.
The Copper Scroll (3Q15) is one of the Dead Sea Scrolls found in Cave 3 near Khirbet Qumran, but differs significantly from the others.
David Stacey (born 22 February 1965) is a British swimmer.
The Dead Sea (יָם הַמֶּלַח lit. Sea of Salt; البحر الميت The first article al- is unnecessary and usually not used.) is a salt lake bordered by Jordan to the east and Israel and Palestine to the west.
Dead Sea Scrolls (also Qumran Caves Scrolls) are ancient Jewish religious, mostly Hebrew, manuscripts found in the Qumran Caves near the Dead Sea.
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
Ein Feshkha (عين فشخة; עינות צוקים, Einot Tzukim; lit. "Cliff springs") is a nature reserve and archaeological site on the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea, about three kilometers south of Qumran in the West Bank.
Ein Gedi (עֵין גֶּדִי, ‘ayn jady), literally "spring of the kid (young goat)" is an oasis and a nature reserve in Israel, located west of the Dead Sea, near Masada and the Qumran Caves.
Eleazar Lipa Sukenik (12 August 1889, Białystok – 28 February 1953, Jerusalem) was an Israeli archaeologist and professor at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Ernest-Marie Laperrousaz (2 August 1924 – 20 August 2013) was a French historian and archaeologist.
The Essenes (Modern Hebrew:, Isiyim; Greek: Ἐσσηνοί, Ἐσσαῖοι, or Ὀσσαῖοι, Essenoi, Essaioi, Ossaioi) were a sect of Second Temple Judaism which flourished from the 2nd century BC to the 1st century AD.
In archaeology, excavation is the exposure, processing and recording of archaeological remains.
The First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 AD), sometimes called the Great Revolt (המרד הגדול), was the first of three major rebellions by the Jews against the Roman Empire, fought in the Eastern Mediterranean.
A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.
Frank Moore Cross, Jr. (July 13, 1921 – October 16, 2012) was the Hancock Professor of Hebrew and Other Oriental Languages Emeritus at Harvard University, notable for his work in the interpretation of the Dead Sea Scrolls, his 1973 magnum opus Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic, and his work in Northwest Semitic epigraphy.
Gerald Lankester Harding (8 December 1901 – 11 February 1979) was a British archaeologist who was the Director of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan from 1936–1956.
Sir Godfrey Rolles Driver, CBE, FBA (20 August 1892 – 22 April 1975), known as G. R. Driver, was an English Orientalist noted for his studies of Semitic languages and Assyriology.
The Golan Heights (هضبة الجولان or مرتفعات الجولان, רמת הגולן), or simply the Golan, is a region in the Levant, spanning about.
Gorgias Press is an independent academic publisher of books and journals covering a range of religious and language studies that include Syriac language, Eastern Christianity, Ancient Near East, Arabic and Islam, Early Christianity, Judaism, and more.
Hanan Eshel (Born at Rehovot on July 25, 1958, died April 8, 2010) was an Israeli archaeologist and historian, well known in the field of Dead Sea Scrolls studies, although he did research in the Hasmonean and Bar Kokhba periods as well.
The Hasmonean dynasty (חַשְׁמוֹנַּאִים, Ḥašmōna'īm) was a ruling dynasty of Judea and surrounding regions during classical antiquity.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Israeli settlements are civilian communities inhabited by Israeli citizens, almost exclusively of Jewish ethnicity, built predominantly on lands within the Palestinian territories, which Israel has militarily occupied since the 1967 Six-Day War, and partly on lands considered Syrian territory also militarily occupied by Israel since the 1967 war.
James Hamilton Charlesworth (born May 30, 1940) is the George L. Collord Professor of New Testament Language and Literature and Director of the Dead Sea Scrolls Project at Princeton Theological Seminary.
Józef Tadeusz Milik (Seroczyn, Poland, March 24, 1922 – Paris, January 6, 2006) was a Polish biblical scholar and a Catholic priest, well-known researcher of the Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS) through the deserts of Judea/Jordana, and translator and editor of Enoch book in Aramaic (fragments).
Jean-Baptiste Humbert (born December 8, 1940) is a French archaeologist who has excavated in Jordan, Palestine, Iran and Israel.
Jericho (יְרִיחוֹ; أريحا) is a city in the Palestinian Territories and is located near the Jordan River in the West Bank.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
John Hyrcanus (Yōḥānān Hurqanōs; Ἰωάννης Ὑρκανός Iōánnēs Urkanós) was a Hasmonean (Maccabeean) leader and Jewish high priest of the 2nd century BCE (born 164 BCE, reigned from 134 BCE until his death in 104 BCE).
John Marco Allegro (17 February 1923 – 17 February 1988) was an English archaeologist and Dead Sea Scrolls scholar.
John the Baptist (יוחנן המטביל Yokhanan HaMatbil, Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, Iōánnēs ho baptistḗs or Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτίζων, Iōánnēs ho baptízōn,Lang, Bernhard (2009) International Review of Biblical Studies Brill Academic Pub p. 380 – "33/34 CE Herod Antipas's marriage to Herodias (and beginning of the ministry of Jesus in a sabbatical year); 35 CE – death of John the Baptist" ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ ⲡⲓⲡⲣⲟⲇⲣⲟⲙⲟⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ ⲡⲓⲣϥϯⲱⲙⲥ, يوحنا المعمدان) was a Jewish itinerant preacherCross, F. L. (ed.) (2005) Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd ed.
Joseph M. Baumgarten (Vienna, September 7, 1928 – December 4, 2008) was a Semitic scholar known for his knowledge in the field of Jewish legal texts from biblical law to Mishnaic law and including the legal texts among the Dead Sea Scrolls.
Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
Kalya (קַלְיָה) is an Israeli settlement and kibbutz in the West Bank.
Katharina Galor (born 1966) is a German-born Israeli archaeologist specializing in ancient Israel-Palestine and Syria, mainly focusing on the Roman and Byzantine periods.
A kibbutz (קִבּוּץ /, lit. "gathering, clustering"; regular plural kibbutzim /) is a collective community in Israel that was traditionally based on agriculture.
Lawrence H. Schiffman (born 1948) is a professor at New York University (as of 2014); he was formerly Vice-Provost of Undergraduate Education at Yeshiva University and Professor of Jewish Studies (from early 2011 to 2014).
A library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing.
LMLK seals are ancient Hebrew seals stamped on the handles of large storage jars dating from reign of King Hezekiah (circa 700 BC) discovered mostly in and around Jerusalem.
Marl or marlstone is a calcium carbonate or lime-rich mud or mudstone which contains variable amounts of clays and silt.
Masada (מצדה, "fortress") is an ancient fortification in the Southern District of Israel situated on top of an isolated rock plateau, akin to a mesa.
Mikveh or mikvah (mikva'ot, mikvoth, mikvot, or (Yiddish) mikves, "a collection") is a bath used for the purpose of ritual immersion in Judaism to achieve ritual purity.
Mount Hermon (جبل الشيخ or جبل حرمون / ALA-LC: Jabal al-Shaykh ("Mountain of the Sheikh") or Jabal Haramun; הר חרמון, Har Hermon) is a mountain cluster constituting the southern end of the Anti-Lebanon mountain range.
The Negev (הַנֶּגֶב, Tiberian vocalization:; النقب an-Naqab) is a desert and semidesert region of southern Israel.
Norman Golb (born 1928) is the Ludwig Rosenberger Professor in Jewish History and Civilization at the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.
The Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana) is a desert-dwelling goat species found in mountainous areas of Algeria, Egypt, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Yemen.
Omniscriptum Publishing Group, formerly known as VDM Verlag Dr.
Opus sectile is an art technique popularized in the ancient and medieval Roman world where materials were cut and inlaid into walls and floors to make a picture or pattern.
An ostracon (Greek: ὄστρακον ostrakon, plural ὄστρακα ostraka) is a piece of pottery, usually broken off from a vase or other earthenware vessel.
Papyrus is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface.
Parchment is a writing material made from specially prepared untanned skins of animals—primarily sheep, calves, and goats.
Philo of Alexandria (Phílōn; Yedidia (Jedediah) HaCohen), also called Philo Judaeus, was a Hellenistic Jewish philosopher who lived in Alexandria, in the Roman province of Egypt.
In geology and physical geography a plateau (or; plural plateaus or plateaux),is also called a high plain or a tableland, it is an area of a highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain that is raised significantly above the surrounding area, often with one or more sides with steep slopes.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
A priest or priestess (feminine) is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities.
Qumran Caves are a series of caves, some natural, some artificial, found around the archaeological site of Qumran in the Judaean Desert of the West Bank.
The right of asylum (sometimes called right of political asylum, from the Ancient Greek word ἄσυλον) is an ancient juridical concept, under which a person persecuted by his own country may be protected by another sovereign authority, such as another country or church official, who in medieval times could offer sanctuary.
The Rockefeller Museum, formerly the Palestine Archaeological Museum, is an archaeology museum located in East Jerusalem that houses a large collection of artifacts unearthed in the excavations conducted in Mandate Palestine, in the 1920s and 1930s.
Father Roland Guérin de Vaux OP (17 December 1903 – 10 September 1971) was a French Dominican priest who led the Catholic team that initially worked on the Dead Sea Scrolls.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Sadducees (Hebrew: Ṣĕḏûqîm) were a sect or group of Jews that was active in Judea during the Second Temple period, starting from the second century BCE through the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE.
Scriptorium, literally "a place for writing", is commonly used to refer to a room in medieval European monasteries devoted to the writing, copying and illuminating of manuscripts by monastic scribes.
A scroll (from the Old French escroe or escroue), also known as a roll, is a roll of papyrus, parchment, or paper containing writing.
Secacah (סְכָכָה, səkākā) is a town mentioned in the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament as well as in the Dead Sea Scrolls.
A sect is a subgroup of a religious, political, or philosophical belief system, usually an offshoot of a larger group.
Solomon H. Steckoll was a journalist with an interest in ancient Jewish matters.
Solomon Zeitlin, שְׁלֹמֹה צײטלין, Шломо Цейтлин Shlomo Cejtlin (Tseitlin, Tseytlin) (28 May 1886 or 31 May 1892, in Chashniki, Vitebsk Governorate (now in Vitebsk Region) in Russia – 28 December 1976, in United States) was a Jewish historian, Talmudic scholar and in his time the world’s leading authority on the Second Commonwealth.
The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.
The Temple in Jerusalem was any of a series of structures which were located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem, the current site of the Dome of the Rock and Al-Aqsa Mosque.
The Temple Mount (הַר הַבַּיִת, Har HaBáyit, "Mount of the House "), known to Muslims as the Haram esh-Sharif (الحرم الشريف, al-Ḥaram al-Šarīf, "the Noble Sanctuary", or الحرم القدسي الشريف, al-Ḥaram al-Qudsī al-Šarīf, "the Noble Sanctuary of Jerusalem") and the Al Aqsa Compound is a hill located in the Old City of Jerusalem that for thousands of years has been venerated as a holy site, in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam alike.
The tetradrachm (τετράδραχμον, tetrádrakhmon) was an Ancient Greek silver coin equivalent to four drachmae.
A villa was originally an ancient Roman upper-class country house.
Villa rustica (countryside villa) was the term used by the ancient Romans to denote a villa set in the open countryside, often as the hub of a large agricultural estate (latifundium).
The West Bank (الضفة الغربية; הגדה המערבית, HaGadah HaMa'aravit) is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, the bulk of it now under Israeli control, or else under joint Israeli-Palestinian Authority control.
Yigael Yadin (יִגָּאֵל יָדִין, born Yigael Sukenik 20 March 1917 – 28 June 1984) was an Israeli archeologist, politician, and the second Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces.
Yizhar Hirschfeld (1950 – 16 November 2006) was an Israeli archaeologist studying Greco-Roman and Byzantine archaeology.