330 relations: Aaron, Aasim ibn Abi al-Najud, Abd al-Qahir al-Jurjani, Abd Allah ibn Abbas, Abdullah ibn Masud, Abdullah ibn Umar, Abdus Salam, Abraham, Abraham Hinckelmann, Abu Bakr, Abu Bakr Ibn Mujāhid, Abu Hafs Umar an-Nasafi, Adam, Africa, Ahmadiyya, Aisha, Al-Azhar University, Al-Baqillani, Al-Battani, Al-Biruni, Al-Fatiha, Al-Ghazali, Al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya, Al-Tabari, Alexander Ross (writer), Alexander the Great in the Quran, Ali, Allah, Alternation (linguistics), André du Ryer, Apocrypha, Apologetics, Arabian Peninsula, Arabic, Arabic alphabet, Argument from authority, Arthur John Arberry, Article (grammar), Asia, Assimilation (phonology), Ayah, Ẓāhirī, Baghdad, Bahá'í Faith, Bara Gumbad, Basmala, Basra, Batin (Islam), Battle of Badr, Battle of Yamama, ..., Bi-la kaifa, Bible, Biblical and Quranic narratives, Birmingham Quran manuscript, Bloomsbury Publishing, Books of the Bible, Brooklyn Museum, Calligraphy, Catherine the Great, Challenge of the Quran, Christianity, Christianity in the Middle East, Christoph Luxenberg, Clairvoyance, Classical Arabic, Common Era, Consonant, Cosmological argument, Criticism of Islam, Criticism of the Quran, Damascus, David, Dhikr, Dhu al-Hijjah, Diatessaron, Digital Quran, Druze, Elijah, Elisha, Elision, Elocution, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān, Enoch (ancestor of Noah), Eschatology, Esoteric interpretation of the Quran, Europe, Exegesis, Existence of God, Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, Fiqh, First Constitutional Era, Francis Edward Peters, Fred Donner, Gabriel, Günter Lüling, Gemination, George Sale, Gerd R. Puin, Gnosiology, God, God in Islam, Gospel, Gospel harmony, Gospel in Islam, Gospel of James, Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew, Greater Khorasan, Gurmukhi script, Gustav Leberecht Flügel, Hadith, Hadith of the Quran and Sunnah, Hafiz (Quran), Hafs, Hafsa bint Umar, Hamburg, Hürriyet Daily News, Hegira, Henry Corbin, Heraclius, Hermeneutics, Hijazi script, Hikmah, History of the Quran, Holy Spirit in Islam, Homs, Hud (prophet), Huda (name), Ibn al-Haytham, Ibn Amir ad-Dimashqi, Ibn Warraq, Ibrahim Muteferrika, Ilkhanate, Immortality, India, Infancy Gospel of Thomas, International Journal of Middle East Studies, Iran, Isaac, Ishmael, Islam, Islamic art, Islamic calligraphy, Islamic eschatology, Islamic philosophy, Islamic pottery, Ismail al-Faruqi, Issa J. 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Dawood, Nafi‘ al-Madani, Names of God in Islam, Naskh (script), Naskh (tafsir), Nastaʿlīq script, Nidhal Guessoum, Noah, Norman Geisler, Norman O. Brown, Oral tradition, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman illumination, Padua, Paganino Paganini, Pakistan, Palimpsest, Persian language, Peter the Venerable, Philip Sherrard, Phoneme, Phonetic transcription, Phonetics, Polysemy, Pope Julius II, Pre-Islamic Arabia, Princeton University Press, Prophets and messengers in Islam, Qaf (surah), Qajar dynasty, Qira'at, Queen of Sheba, Quran and miracles, Quranic createdness, Quraysh, Radiocarbon dating, Ramadan, Religious text, Resurrection, Revelation, Richard Bell (Arabist), Robert of Ketton, Romanization of Arabic, Root (linguistics), Ruku, Rumi, Sad (surah), Sahabah, Sahih al-Bukhari, Saint John's Abbey, Collegeville, Saint Petersburg, Salafi movement, Salah, Salman the Persian, Samanid Empire, Sana'a, Sana'a manuscript, Self-reference, Shadda, Sharia, Shelah (son of Judah), Shia Islam, Sindh, Slate (magazine), SOAS, University of London, Solomon, Soul, Sufism, Sunni Islam, Surah, Synonym, Syriac Infancy Gospel, Syriac language, Ta-Ha, Tafsir, Tafsir al-Mizan, Tafsir al-Tabari, Taha Jabir Alalwani, Tajwid, Tanakh, Tanzil, Tarawih, Textual criticism, Thawab, The English Commentary of the Holy Quran, The event of Ghadir Khumm, The Holy Quran: Arabic Text and English translation, The Syro-Aramaic Reading of the Koran, Theme (narrative), Torah, Torah in Islam, Translation, Ubay ibn Ka'b, Ulama, Unitarian Universalism, University of Birmingham, University of Chicago, Uthman, Venice, Verbal noun, Verse of light, Vowel, W. Montgomery Watt, Wahy, Warsh, Women in the Quran, Woodcut, Word stem, Ya Sin, Yemen, You, Youngstown State University, Zahir (Islam), Zakat, Zayd ibn Thabit, Zechariah (priest), Ziauddin Sardar. Expand index (280 more) » « Shrink index
Aaron is a prophet, high priest, and the brother of Moses in the Abrahamic religions (elder brother in the case of Judaism).
Abu Bakr ‘Aasim Ibn Abi al-Najud al-'Asadi (died 127AH/745CE),Shady Hekmat Nasser,, p. 57.
Abu Bakr Abd al-Qāhir bin Abd ar-Rahman bin Muhammad al-Jurjānī (400 – 471 or 474 A.H.) (died 1078 AD) was a renowned Persian scholar of the Arabic language, literary theorist, grammarian and Shafi'i Muslim.
Abd Allah ibn Abbas (عبد الله ابن عباس) or ′Abd Allah ibn al-′Abbas otherwise called (Ibn Abbas; Al-Habr; Al-Bahr; The Doctor; The Sea) was born c. 619 CE.
ʿAbdallāh ibn Masʿūd (عبدالله بن مسعود; c.594-c.653) was a companion of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad.
Abdullah ibn Umar (عبدالله بن عمر بن الخطاب) (c.610–693 CE) was the son of the second Caliph Umar and a brother-in-law and companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Mohammad Abdus Salam Salam adopted the forename "Mohammad" in 1974 in response to the anti-Ahmadiyya decrees in Pakistan, similarly he grew his beard.
Abraham (Arabic: إبراهيم Ibrahim), originally Abram, is the common patriarch of the three Abrahamic religions.
Abraham Hinckelmann (2 May 1652, Döbeln, Electorate of Saxony – 11 February 1695), a German Protestant theologian, was an Islamologist who was one of the first to print a complete Qur'an in Hamburg.
Abū Bakr aṣ-Ṣiddīq ‘Abdallāh bin Abī Quḥāfah (أبو بكر الصديق عبد الله بن أبي قحافة; 573 CE23 August 634 CE), popularly known as Abu Bakr (أبو بكر), was a senior companion (Sahabi) and—through his daughter Aisha—the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Abu Bakr became the first openly declared Muslim outside Muhammad's family.Muhammad Mustafa Al-A'zami (2003), The History of The Qur'anic Text: From Revelation to Compilation: A Comparative Study with the Old and New Testaments, p.26, 59. UK Islamic Academy.. Abu Bakr served as a trusted advisor to Muhammad. During Muhammad's lifetime, he was involved in several campaigns and treaties.Tabqat ibn al-Saad book of Maghazi, page no:62 He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632 to 634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad's death. As caliph, Abu Bakr succeeded to the political and administrative functions previously exercised by Muhammad. He was commonly known as The Truthful (الصديق). Abu Bakr's reign lasted for 2 years, 2 months, 2 weeks and 1 day ending with his death after an illness.
Abū Bakr Ibn Mujāhid (Arabic: ابن مجاهد) (Full name: أبو بكر أحمد بن موسى بن العباس بن مجاهد التميمي) (born 245AH/859-860CE in Baghdad and died 324AH/936CE) was a scholar of Islamic studies.
Najm ad-Dīn Abū Ḥafṣ ‘Umar ibn Muḥammad an-Nasafī (نجم الدين أبو حفص عمر بن محمد النسفي‎; 1067–1142) was a Muslim jurist, theologian, mufassir, muhaddith and historian.
Adam (ʾĀdam; Adám) is the name used in the opening chapters of the Book of Genesis for the first man created by God, but it is also used in a collective sense as "mankind" and individually as "a human".
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Ahmadiyya (officially, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at; الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, transliterated: al-Jamā'ah al-Islāmiyyah al-Aḥmadiyyah; احمدیہ مسلم جماعت) is an Islamic religious movement founded in Punjab, British India, in the late 19th century.
‘Ā’ishah bint Abī Bakr (613/614 – 678 CE;عائشة بنت أبي بكر or عائشة, transliteration: ‘Ā’ishah, also transcribed as A'ishah, Aisyah, Ayesha, A'isha, Aishat, Aishah, or Aisha) was one of Muhammad's wives.
Al-Azhar University (1,, "the (honorable) Azhar University") is a university in Cairo, Egypt.
Abu Bakr Muḥammad ibn al-Ṭayyib al-Bāqillānī (أبو بكر محمد بن الطيب الباقلاني; c. 940 - 5 June 1013), often known as al-Bāqillānī for short, or reverentially as Imam al-Bāqillānī by Sunni Muslims, was a famous Sunni Islamic theologian, jurist, and logician who spent much of his life defending and strengthening orthodox Sunni Islam.
Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Jābir ibn Sinān al-Raqqī al-Ḥarrānī aṣ-Ṣābiʾ al-Battānī (Arabic: محمد بن جابر بن سنان البتاني) (Latinized as Albategnius, Albategni or Albatenius) (c. 858 – 929) was an Arab astronomer, astrologer, and mathematician.
Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī (Chorasmian/ابوریحان بیرونی Abū Rayḥān Bērōnī; New Persian: Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī) (973–1050), known as Al-Biruni (البيروني) in English, was an IranianD.J. Boilot, "Al-Biruni (Beruni), Abu'l Rayhan Muhammad b. Ahmad", in Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden), New Ed., vol.1:1236–1238.
Sūrat al-Fātiḥah (سُورَةُ الْفَاتِحَة) is the first chapter (surah) of the Quran.
Al-Ghazali (full name Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī أبو حامد محمد بن محمد الغزالي; latinized Algazelus or Algazel, – 19 December 1111) was one of the most prominent and influential philosophers, theologians, jurists, and mysticsLudwig W. Adamec (2009), Historical Dictionary of Islam, p.109.
Al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya (الصحیفه السجادیه,; "Scripture of Sajjad") (صحیفۀ امام سجاد,; "Scripture of Imam Sajjad") is a book of supplications attributed to Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin, the great-grandson of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad ibn Jarīr al-Ṭabarī (محمد بن جریر طبری, أبو جعفر محمد بن جرير بن يزيد الطبري) (224–310 AH; 839–923 AD) was an influential Persian scholar, historian and exegete of the Qur'an from Amol, Tabaristan (modern Mazandaran Province of Iran), who composed all his works in Arabic.
Alexander Ross (c. 1590–1654) was a prolific Scottish writer and controversialist.
The story of Dhul-Qarnayn (in Arabic ذو القرنين, literally "The Two-Horned One", also transliterated as Zul-Qarnain or Zulqarnain), mentioned in the Quran, may be a reference to Alexander III of Macedon (356–323 BC), popularly known as Alexander the Great.
Ali (ʿAlī) (15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam.
Allah (translit) is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions.
In linguistics, an alternation is the phenomenon of a morpheme exhibiting variation in its phonological realization.
André Du Ryer (b. Marcigny, Bourgogne, c. 1580; d. 1660 or 1672) was a French orientalist who gave the third western translation of the Qur'an.
Apocrypha are works, usually written, of unknown authorship or of doubtful origin.
Apologetics (from Greek ἀπολογία, "speaking in defense") is the religious discipline of defending religious doctrines through systematic argumentation and discourse.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.
An argument from authority, also called an appeal to authority, or argumentum ad verecundiam is a form of defeasible argument in which a claimed authority's support is used as evidence for an argument's conclusion.
Arthur John Arberry (12 May 1905 in Portsmouth – 2 October 1969 in Cambridge) FBA was a respected British orientalist.
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.
In the Islamic Quran, an Āyah (آية; plural: āyāt آيات) is a "verse".
Ẓāhirī (ظاهري) madhhab or al-Ẓāhirīyyah (الظاهرية) is a school of thought in Islamic jurisprudence founded by Dawud al-Zahiri in the 9th century CE, characterised by reliance on the manifest (zahir) meaning of expressions in the Qur'an and hadith, as well as rejection of analogical deduction (qiyas).
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
Bara Gumbad (literally "big dome") is an ancient monument located in Lodhi Gardens in Delhi, India.
The Basmala (بسملة), also known by its incipit Bismillah (بسم الله, "In the name of God"), is the name of the Islamic phrase بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ "In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful".
Basra (البصرة al-Baṣrah), is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab between Kuwait and Iran.
Bāṭin (باطن) literally means "inner", "inward", "hidden", etc.
The Battle of Badr (غزوة بدر), fought on Tuesday, 13 March 624 CE (17 Ramadan, 2 AH in the Islamic calendar) in the Hejaz region of western Arabia (present-day Saudi Arabia), was a key battle in the early days of Islam and a turning point in Muhammad's struggle with his opponents among the Quraish in Mecca.
The Battle of Yamama was fought in December 632 as part as the Ridda Wars against a rebellion within the Rashidun Caliphate in the region of Al-Yamama (in present-day Saudi Arabia) between the forces of Abu Bakr and Musaylimah, a self-proclaimed prophet.
The Arabic phrase bi-la kayfa, also bilā kaifa, (بلا كيف) is roughly translated as "without asking how", or "without how" which means without modality.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
The Quran, the central religious text of Islam, contains references to more than fifty people and events also found in the Bible.
The Birmingham Quran manuscript is a parchment on which two leaves of an early Quranic manuscript are written.
Bloomsbury Publishing plc (formerly M.B.N.1 Limited and Bloomsbury Publishing Company Limited) is a British independent, worldwide publishing house of fiction and non-fiction.
Different religious groups include different books in their biblical canons, in varying orders, and sometimes divide or combine books.
The Brooklyn Museum is an art museum located in the New York City borough of Brooklyn.
Calligraphy (from Greek: καλλιγραφία) is a visual art related to writing.
Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; –), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.
The challenge of the Quran or Tahaddi (Arabic: تحدي), in Islamic theology, is the invitation to challenge Islam and the Quran.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christianity, which originated in the Middle East in the 1st century AD, is a significant minority religion of the region. Christianity in the Middle East is characterized by the diversity of its beliefs and traditions, compared to other parts of the Old World. Christians now make up approximately 5% of the Middle Eastern population, down from 20% in the early 20th century. Cyprus is the only Christian Majority country in the Middle East, with the Christian percentage ranging between 76% and 78% of mainly Eastern Orthodox Christianity (i.e. most of the Greek population). Proportionally, Lebanon has the 2nd highest rate of Christians in the Middle East, with a percentage ranging between 39% and 41% of mainly Maronite Christians, followed by Egypt where Christians (especially Coptic Christians) and others account for about 11%. The largest Christian group in the Middle East is the previously Coptic speaking but today mostly Arabic-speaking Egyptian Copts, who number 15–20 million people, "estimates ranged from 6 to 11 million; 6% (official estimate) to 20% (Church estimate)" although Coptic sources claim the figure is closer to 12–16 million. "In 2008, Pope Shenouda III and Bishop Morkos, bishop of Shubra, declared that the number of Copts in Egypt is more than 12 million." (Arabic) "In 2008, father Morkos Aziz the prominent priest in Cairo declared that the number of Copts (inside Egypt) exceeds 16 million." Copts reside mainly in Egypt, but also in Sudan and Libya, with tiny communities in Israel, Cyprus, Jordan, Lebanon, and Tunisia. The Eastern Aramaic speaking indigenous Assyrians of Iraq, southeastern Turkey, northwestern Iran and northeastern Syria, who number 2–3 million, have suffered both ethnic and religious persecution for many centuries, such as the Assyrian Genocide conducted by the Ottoman Turks and their allies, leading to many fleeing and congregating in areas in the north of Iraq and northeast of Syria. The great majority of Assyrians are followers of the Assyrian Church of the East, Chaldean Catholic Church, Syriac Orthodox Church, Ancient Church of the East, Assyrian Pentecostal Church and Assyrian Evangelical Church. In Iraq, the numbers of Assyrians has declined to between 300,000 and 500,000 (from 0.8 to 1.4 million before 2003 US invasion). Assyrian Christians were between 800,000 and 1.2 million before 2003. In 2014, the Assyrian population of the Nineveh Plains In Northern Iraq largely collapsed due to an Invasion by ISIS. But after the fall of ISIS the Assyrian population of the Nineveh Plainsis rreturning home. The next largest Christian group in the Middle East is the once Aramaic speaking but now Arabic-speaking Maronites who are Catholics and number some 1.1–1.2 million across the Middle East, mainly concentrated within Lebanon. Many Lebanese Christians avoid an Arabic ethnic identity in favour of a pre-Arab Phoenician-Canaanite heritage, to which most of the general Lebanese population originates from. In Israel, Israeli Maronites (Palestinians) together with smaller Aramaic-speaking Christian populations of Syriac Orthodox and Greek Catholic adherence are legally classified ethnically as either Arameans or Arabs per their choice. The Arab Christians mostly descended from Arab Christian tribes, from Arabized Greeks or are recent converts to Protestantism, and number about 5 million in the region. Most Arab Christians are adherents of the Eastern Orthodox Church. Roman Catholics of the Latin Rite are small in numbers and Protestants altogether number about 400,000. Most Arab Christian Catholics are originally non-Arab, with Melkites and Rum Christians descending from Arabized Greek-speaking Byzantine populations. They are members of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church, a Eastern Catholic Church. They number over 1 million in the Middle East. They came into existence as a result of a schism within the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch due to the election of a Patriarch in 1724. The Armenians number around 1 million in the Middle East, with their largest community in Iran with 200,000 members. The number of Armenians in Turkey is disputed having a wide range of estimations. More Armenian communities reside in Lebanon, Jordan and to lesser degree in other Middle Eastern countries such as Iraq, Israel and Egypt. The Armenian Genocide during and after World War I drastically reduced the once sizeable Armenian population. The Greeks who had once inhabited large parts of the western Middle East and Asia Minor, declined after of the Arab conquests, then the later Turkish conquests, and all but vanished from Turkey as a result of the Greek Genocide and expulsions which followed World War I. Today the biggest Middle Eastern Greek community resides in Cyprus and numbers around 793,000 (2008). Cypriot Greeks constitute the only Christian majority state in the Middle East, although Lebanon was founded with a Christian majority in the first half of the 20th century. In addition, some of the modern Arab Christians (especially Melkites) constitute Arabized Greco-Roman communities rather than ethnic Arabs. Smaller Christian groups include: Arameans, Georgians, Ossetians and Russians. There are currently several million Christian foreign workers in the Gulf area, mostly from the Philippines, India, Sri Lanka and Indonesia. In the Persian Gulf states, Bahrain has 1,000 Christian citizens and Kuwait has 400 native Christian citizens, in addition to 450,000 Christian foreign residents in Kuwait. Although the vast majority of Middle Eastern populations descend from Pre-Arab and Non-Arab peoples extant long before the 7th century AD Arab Islamic conquest, a 2015 study estimates there are also 483,500 Christian believers from a previously Muslim background in the Middle East, most of them being adherents of various Protestant churches. Converts to Christianity from other religions such as Islam, Yezidism, Mandeanism, Yarsan, Zoroastrianism, Bahaism, Druze, and Judaism exist in relatively small numbers amongst the Kurdish, Turks, Turcoman, Iranian, Azeri, Circassian, Israelis, Kawliya, Yezidis, Mandeans and Shabaks. Middle Eastern Christians are relatively wealthy, well educated, and politically moderate, as they have today an active role in social, economic, sporting and political spheres in their societies in the Middle East.
Christoph Luxenberg is the pseudonym of the author of The Syro-Aramaic Reading of the Koran: A Contribution to the Decoding of the Language of the Qur'an (German edition 2000, English translation 2007) and several articles in anthologies about early Islam.
Clairvoyance (from French clair meaning "clear" and voyance meaning "vision") is the alleged ability to gain information about an object, person, location, or physical event through extrasensory perception.
Classical Arabic is the form of the Arabic language used in Umayyad and Abbasid literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
In natural theology and philosophy, a cosmological argument is an argument in which the existence of a unique being, generally seen as some kind of god, is deduced or inferred from facts or alleged facts concerning causation, change, motion, contingency, or finitude in respect of the universe as a whole or processes within it.
Criticism of Islam has existed since its formative stages.
The Quran is viewed to be the scriptural foundation of Islam and is believed by Muslims to have been revealed, without issue, to Muhammad by the angel Gabriel.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
David is described in the Hebrew Bible as the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
Dhikr (also Zikr, Zekr, Zikir, Jikir, and variants; ḏikr; plural أذكار aḏkār, meaning "mentioning") is the name of devotional acts in Islam in which short phrases or prayers are repeatedly recited silently within the mind or aloud.
Dhu'l-Hijjah or alternatively Zulhijja (ذو الحجة; properly transliterated, also called Zil-Hajj) is the twelfth and final month in the Islamic calendar.
The Diatessaron; (Ewangeliyôn Damhalltê), (c. 160–175) is the most prominent early Gospel harmony, and was created by Tatian, an early Christian Assyrian apologist and ascetic.
The term digital Quran is used to refer to the text of the Qur'an processed or distributed as an electronic text, or more specifically to an electronic device dedicated to displaying the text of the Qur'an and playing digital recordings of Qur'an readings.
The Druze (درزي or, plural دروز; דרוזי plural דרוזים) are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group originating in Western Asia who self-identify as unitarians (Al-Muwaḥḥidūn/Muwahhidun).
Elijah (meaning "My God is Yahu/Jah") or latinized form Elias (Ἡλίας, Elías; ܐܸܠܝܼܵܐ, Elyāe; Arabic: إلياس or إليا, Ilyās or Ilyā) was, according to the Books of Kings in the Hebrew Bible, a prophet and a miracle worker who lived in the northern kingdom of Israel during the reign of King Ahab (9th century BC).
Elisha (Greek: Ἐλισαῖος, Elisaîos or Ἐλισαιέ, Elisaié) was, according to the Hebrew Bible, a prophet and a wonder-worker.
In linguistics, an elision or deletion is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase.
Elocution is the study of formal speaking in pronunciation, grammar, style, and tone.
The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is an encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies published by Brill.
The Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān (abbreviated EQ) is an encyclopedia dedicated to the Qur'an published with Brill.
Enoch is a character of the Antediluvian period in the Hebrew Bible.
Eschatology is a part of theology concerned with the final events of history, or the ultimate destiny of humanity.
Esoteric interpretation of the Quran, taʾwīl (تأويل), is the allegorical interpretation of the Quran or the quest for its hidden, inner meanings.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Exegesis (from the Greek ἐξήγησις from ἐξηγεῖσθαι, "to lead out") is a critical explanation or interpretation of a text, particularly a religious text.
The existence of God is a subject of debate in the philosophy of religion and popular culture.
Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī or Fakhruddin Razi (فخر الدين رازي) was an Iranian Sunni Muslim theologian and philosopher He was born in 1149 in Rey (in modern-day Iran), and died in 1209 in Herat (in modern-day Afghanistan).
Fiqh (فقه) is Islamic jurisprudence.
The First Constitutional Era (مشروطيت; Birinci Meşrutiyet Devri) of the Ottoman Empire was the period of constitutional monarchy from the promulgation of the Kanûn-ı Esâsî (meaning Basic Law or Fundamental Law in Ottoman Turkish), written by members of the Young Ottomans, on 23 November 1876 until 13 February 1878.
Francis Edward Peters (born June 23, 1927, New York City), who generally publishes as F.E. Peters, is Professor Emeritus of History, Religion and Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies at New York University (NYU).
Fred McGraw Donner (born 1945) is a scholar of Islam and Professor of Near Eastern History at the University of Chicago.
Gabriel (lit, lit, ⲅⲁⲃⲣⲓⲏⲗ, ܓܒܪܝܝܠ), in the Abrahamic religions, is an archangel who typically serves as God's messenger.
Günter Lüling (* October 25, 1928 in Varna, Bulgaria † 10. September 2014) was a German Protestant theologian, philological scholar (Dr. in Arabistics and Islamics) and pioneer in the study of early Islamic origins.
Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.
George Sale (1697, Canterbury, Kent, England – 1736, London, England) was an Orientalist and practising solicitor, best known for his 1734 translation of the Qur'an into English.
Gerd Rüdiger Puin (born 1940) is a German scholar on Qur'anic historical palaeography, the study and scholarly interpretation of ancient manuscripts.
Gnosiology ("study of knowledge"), a term of 18th century aesthetics, is "the philosophy of knowledge and cognition".
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
In Islam, God (Allāh, contraction of الْإِلٰه al-ilāh, lit. "the god") is indivisible, the God, the absolute one, the all-powerful and all-knowing ruler of the universe, and the creator of everything in existence within the universe.
Gospel is the Old English translation of Greek εὐαγγέλιον, evangelion, meaning "good news".
A gospel harmony is an attempt to compile the canonical gospels of the Christian New Testament into a single account.
Injil (ʾInjīl, alternative spellings: Ingil or Injeel) is the Arabic name for the Gospel of Jesus (Isa).
The Gospel of James, also known as the Infancy Gospel of James or the Protoevangelium of James, is an apocryphal Gospel probably written about AD 145, which expands backward in time the infancy stories contained in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke, and presents a narrative concerning the birth and upbringing of Mary herself.
The Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew is a part of the New Testament apocrypha, and sometimes goes by the name of The Infancy Gospel of Matthew, but the actual name of the text in antiquity was The Book About the Origin of the Blessed Mary and the Childhood of the Savior.
Khorasan (Middle Persian: Xwarāsān; خراسان Xorāsān), sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region lying in northeast of Greater Persia, including part of Central Asia and Afghanistan.
Gurmukhi (Gurmukhi (the literal meaning being "from the Guru's mouth"): ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ) is a Sikh script modified, standardized and used by the second Sikh Guru, Guru Angad (1563–1606).
Gustav Leberecht Flügel (February 18, 1802 – July 5, 1870) was a German orientalist.
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Several hadith (oral tradition about the words and deeds of the Islamic prophet Muhammad) indicate the importance as sources of Islam not only the Quran (the revelation of God to Muhammad, infallible but containing compressed information), but also of the Sunnah of the Islamic prophet Muhammad (a detailed explanation of the everyday application of the principles established in the Qur'an that is based on ahadith).
Hafiz (ḥāfiẓ, حُفَّاظ, pl. ḥuffāẓ, حافظة f. ḥāfiẓa), literally meaning "guardian" or "memorizer", depending on the context, is a term used by Muslims for someone who has completely memorized the Qur'an.
Abu ‘Amr Hafs Ibn Sulayman Ibn al-Mughirah Ibn Abi Dawud al-Asadi al-Kufi, better known as Hafs (706–796 AD; 90–180AH according to the Islamic calendar),Muhammad Ghoniem and MSM Saifullah,.
Ḥafṣah bint ʿUmar (حفصة بنت عمر; c. 605–665) was a wife of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and therefore a Mother of the Believers.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
The Hürriyet Daily News, formerly Hürriyet Daily News and Economic Review and Turkish Daily News, is the oldest current English-language daily in Turkey, founded in 1961.
The Hegira (also called Hijrah, هِجْرَة) is the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Yathrib, later renamed by him to Medina, in the year 622.
Henry Corbin (14 April 1903 – 7 October 1978) was a philosopher, theologian, Iranologist and professor of Islamic Studies at the École pratique des hautes études in Paris, France.
Heraclius (Flavius Heracles Augustus; Flavios Iraklios; c. 575 – February 11, 641) was the Emperor of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire from 610 to 641.
Hermeneutics is the theory and methodology of interpretation, especially the interpretation of biblical texts, wisdom literature, and philosophical texts.
Hijazi script, also Hejazi; خط حجازي, literally "Hejazi writing", is the collective name for a number of early Arabic alphabets that developed in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula, which includes the cities of Mecca and Medina.
Hikmah (also Hikmat, حكمة,, literally wisdom, philosophy; rationale, underlying reason) is a concept in Islamic philosophy and law.
The history of the Quran refers to the oral revelation of the Quran to Islamic prophet Muhammad and its subsequent written compilation into a manuscript.
The Holy Spirit (روح القدس, Rūḥ al-Qudus) in the Islamic faith refers to the source of prophetic or divine revelation.
Homs (حمص / ALA-LC: Ḥimṣ), previously known as Emesa or Emisa (Greek: Ἔμεσα Emesa), is a city in western Syria and the capital of the Homs Governorate.
Hud (هود) was a prophet of ancient Arabia mentioned in the Qur’an.
Huda, Hoda or Houda (Arabic: هُدى) is an Arabic gender neutral name, pronounced: which means "right guidance".
Hasan Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized Alhazen; full name أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم) was an Arab mathematician, astronomer, and physicist of the Islamic Golden Age.
‘Abdullah Ibn ‘Amir Ibn Yazid Ibn Tamim Ibn Rabi‘ah al-Yahsibi, better known as Ibn Amir (118 AH - 736 CE),Muhammad Ghoniem and MSM Saifullah,.
Ibn Warraq is the pen name of an anonymous author critical of Islam.
Ibrahim Müteferrika (İbrahim Müteferrika; 1674–1745) was a Hungarian-born Ottoman diplomat, polymath, publisher, printer, courtier, economist, man of letters, astronomer, historian, historiographer, Islamic scholar and theologian, sociologist, and the first Muslim to run a printing press with movable Arabic type.
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (ایلخانان, Ilxānān; Хүлэгийн улс, Hu’legīn Uls), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu.
Immortality is eternal life, being exempt from death, unending existence.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Infancy Gospel of Thomas is a biographical gospel about the childhood of Jesus, believed to date latest to the 2nd century or earlier.
The International Journal of Middle East Studies is a scholarly journal published by the Middle East Studies Association of North America (MESA), a learned society.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
According to the biblical Book of Genesis, Isaac (إسحٰق/إسحاق) was the son of Abraham and Sarah and father of Jacob; his name means "he will laugh", reflecting when Sarah laughed in disbelief when told that she would have a child.
Ishmael Ἰσμαήλ Ismaēl; Classical/Qur'anic Arabic: إِسْمَٰعِيْل; Modern Arabic: إِسْمَاعِيْل ʾIsmāʿīl; Ismael) is a figure in the Tanakh and the Quran and was Abraham's first son according to Jews, Christians and Muslims. Ishmael was born to Abraham and Sarah's handmaiden Hagar (Hājar).. According to the Genesis account, he died at the age of 137. The Book of Genesis and Islamic traditions consider Ishmael to be the ancestor of the Ishmaelites and patriarch of Qaydār. According to Muslim tradition, Ishmael the Patriarch and his mother Hagar are said to be buried next to the Kaaba in Mecca.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islamic art encompasses the visual arts produced from the 7th century onward by people who lived within the territory that was inhabited by or ruled by culturally Islamic populations.
Islamic calligraphy is the artistic practice of handwriting and calligraphy, based upon the alphabet in the lands sharing a common Islamic cultural heritage.
Islamic eschatology is the branch of Islamic theology concerning the end of the world, and the "Day of resurrection" after that, known as Yawm al-Qiyāmah (يوم القيامة,, "the Day of Resurrection") or Yawm ad-Dīn (يوم الدين,, "the Day of Judgment").
In the religion of Islam, two words are sometimes translated as philosophy—falsafa (literally "philosophy"), which refers to philosophy as well as logic, mathematics, and physics; and Kalam (literally "speech"), which refers to a rationalist form of Islamic philosophy and theology based on the interpretations of Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism as developed by medieval Muslim philosophers.
Medieval Islamic pottery occupied a geographical position between Chinese ceramics, then the unchallenged leaders of Eurasian production, and the pottery of the Byzantine Empire and Europe.
Isma'il Raji al-Faruqi (إسماعيل راجي الفاروقي January 1, 1921 – May 27, 1986), was a Palestinian-American philosopher, widely recognised by his peers as an authority on Islam and comparative religion.
Issa J. Boullata (Arabic: عيسى بُلاطه) is a Palestinian scholar, writer, and translator of Arabic literature.
Jabal an-Nour (lit or 'Hill of the Illumination') is a mountain near Mecca in the Hejazi region of Saudi Arabia.
Jacob, later given the name Israel, is regarded as a Patriarch of the Israelites.
Jakarta, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta (Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
In the Hebrew Bible, Jethro (יִתְרוֹ, Standard Yitro Tiberian Yiṯerô; "His Excellence/Posterity"; Arabic شعيب Shu-ayb) or Reuel was Moses' father-in-law, a Kenite shepherd and priest of Midian.
Job is the central figure of the Book of Job in the Bible.
John the Baptist (יוחנן המטביל Yokhanan HaMatbil, Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, Iōánnēs ho baptistḗs or Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτίζων, Iōánnēs ho baptízōn,Lang, Bernhard (2009) International Review of Biblical Studies Brill Academic Pub p. 380 – "33/34 CE Herod Antipas's marriage to Herodias (and beginning of the ministry of Jesus in a sabbatical year); 35 CE – death of John the Baptist" ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ ⲡⲓⲡⲣⲟⲇⲣⲟⲙⲟⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ ⲡⲓⲣϥϯⲱⲙⲥ, يوحنا المعمدان) was a Jewish itinerant preacherCross, F. L. (ed.) (2005) Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd ed.
John Edward Wansbrough (February 19, 1928 – June 10, 2002) was an American historian who taught at the University of London's School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS).
Jonah or Jonas is the name given in the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh/Old Testament) to a prophet of the northern kingdom of Israel in about the 8th century BCE.
Joseph (יוֹסֵף meaning "Increase", Standard Yosef Tiberian Yôsēp̄; يوسف Yūsuf or Yūsif; Ἰωσήφ Iōsēph) is an important figure in the Bible's Book of Genesis.
The Journal of Qur'anic Studies is a peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the study of the Qur’an from a wide range of scholarly perspectives, reflecting a diversity of approaches.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
A juzʼ (جُزْءْ, plural أَجْزَاءْ ajzāʼ, literally meaning "part") is one of thirty parts of varying lengths into which the Quran is divided.
Karbala'i Kazem Karimi Saruqi (Persian:کربلایی کاظم ساروقی) (born:1262 SH, Saruq, Markazi Arak, Iran - died 1339 SH, Qom) as illiterate person.
The Kazan Governorate (Каза́нская губе́рния; قازان عوبئرناسئ; Хусан кӗперниӗ, Husan kĕperniĕ), or the Government of Kazan, was a governorate (a guberniya) of the Tsardom of Russia, the Russian Empire, and the Russian SFSR from 1708–1920, with its seat in the city of Kazan.
Hazrat Shaikh Abu Ismaïl Abdullah al-Herawi al-Ansari or Khajah Abdullah Ansari of Herat (1006–1088) (خواجه عبدالله انصاری) also known as Pir-i Herat (پیر هرات) (sage of Herat) was a Persian Sufi saint of Arab origin who lived in the 11th century in Herat (then Khorasan, now Herat province, Afghanistan).
Kitab (کتاب), also transcribed as kitaab, kitáb, or kitāb, is the Arabic word for book, from the root K-T-B. The word is also used in the Persian, Hindi, Bengali, Sylheti, Nepalese, Azerbaijani, Kazakh, Punjabi, Indonesian, Urdu, as (kitab), while in Assamese (as "kitap"), Swahili (as "kitabu"), Tatar, Kyrgyz, Turkish (as "kitap"), Serbo-Croatian (as "ćitap") languages and in some contexts in Greek ("κιτάπι").
Kufa (الْكُوفَة) is a city in Iraq, about south of Baghdad, and northeast of Najaf.
Kufic is the oldest calligraphic form of the various Arabic scripts and consists of a modified form of the old Nabataean script.
L'Alcoran de Mahomet ("The Qur'an of Muhammad") was the third Western translation of the Qur'an, preceded by Lex Mahumet pseudoprophete (" Law of the False Prophet Muhammad") and the translation by Mark of Toledo.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
In morphology and lexicography, a lemma (plural lemmas or lemmata) is the canonical form, dictionary form, or citation form of a set of words (headword).
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Lex Mahumet pseudoprophete (Law of Muhammad the pseudo-prophet/false prophet) is the translation of the Qur'an into Medieval Latin by Robert of Ketton (1110 – 1160 AD).
The Abbasid caliphs were the holders of the Islamic title of caliph who were members of the Abbasid dynasty, a branch of the Quraysh tribe descended from the uncle of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib.
Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group, according to its beliefs, customs and traditions.
Lot was a patriarch in the biblical Book of Genesis chapters 11–14 and 19.
Louis (or Ludovico) Maracci (6 October 1612 – 5 February 1700), best known by name Lewis Maracci, was an Italian Oriental scholar and professor of Arabic in the College of Wisdom at Rome.
Maghrebi (or Maghribi) script is a cursive form of the Arabic alphabet influenced by Kufic letters that developed in the Maghreb (North Africa) and later in Spain, particularly Andalusia.
Magic is a category in Western culture into which have been placed various beliefs and practices considered separate from both religion and science.
Abu Salih Mansur (died 13 June 976) was amir of the Samanids (961–976).
For the convenience of people who wish to read the Qur'an in a week the text may be divided into 7 portions, each portion is known as Manzil.
Hajjah Maria Ulfah (born 21 December 1955) is an Indonesian qāriʾah (reciter of the Quran) and manager of the Central Institute for the Development of Quranic Recitation.
Mary (translit), the mother of Jesus (Isa), holds a singularly exalted place in Islam as the only woman named in the Quran, which refers to her seventy times and explicitly identifies her as the greatest of all women, stating, with reference to the angelic saluation during the annunciation, "O Mary, God has chosen you, and purified you; He has chosen you above all the women of creation." In the Quran, her story is related in three Meccan chapters (19, 21, 23) and four Medinan chapters (3, 4, 5, 66), and the nineteenth chapter of the scripture, titled "Mary" (Surat Maryam), is named after her.
The Masnavi, or Masnavi-i Ma'navi (مثنوی معنوی), also written Mesnevi, Mathnawi, or Mathnavi, is an extensive poem written in Persian by Jalal al-Din Muhammad Balkhi also known as Rumi, the celebrated Persian Sufi poet.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
The Meccan surahs are the chronologically earlier chapters (surahs) of the Qur'an that were, according to Islamic tradition, revealed anytime before the migration of the Islamic prophet Muhammed and his followers from Mecca to Medina (Hijra).
Medina (المدينة المنورة,, "the radiant city"; or المدينة,, "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia.
The Madaniy Surahs (Surah Madaniyyah) or Madaniy chapters of the Quran are the latest 24 Surahs that, according to Islamic tradition, were revealed at Medina after Muhammad's hijra from Mecca.
Metatextuality is a form of intertextual discourse in which one text makes critical commentary on another text.
Michael Anthony Sells (Born in Butte MT, on May 8, 1949) is the John Henry Barrows Professor of Islamic History and Literature at the Divinity School of the University of Chicago.
In Judaism, the midrash (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. מִדְרָשׁ; pl. מִדְרָשִׁים midrashim) is the genre of rabbinic literature which contains early interpretations and commentaries on the Written Torah and Oral Torah (spoken law and sermons), as well as non-legalistic rabbinic literature (aggadah) and occasionally the Jewish religious laws (halakha), which usually form a running commentary on specific passages in the Hebrew Scripture (Tanakh).
Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.
Moga district is one of the twenty two districts in the state of Punjab in North-West Republic of India.
Mohammad Hashim Kamali (born February 7, 1944, Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan) is an Afghan Islamic scholar and former professor of law at the International Islamic University of Malaysia.
Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.
Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.
Mûsâ ibn 'Imran (Mūsā) known as Moses in the Hebrew Bible, considered a prophet, messenger, and leader in Islam, is the most frequently mentioned individual in the Quran.
Mosque lamps of glass, enamelled and often with gilding, survive in considerable numbers from the Islamic art of the Middle Ages, especially the 13th and 14th centuries, with Cairo in Egypt and Aleppo and Damascus in Syria the most important centres of production.
Movable type (US English; moveable type in British English) is the system and technology of printing and typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters or punctuation) usually on the medium of paper.
Muʿtazila (المعتزلة) is a rationalist school of Islamic theology"", Encyclopaedia Britannica.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i or Seyed Mohammad Hossein Tabataba'i (علامه سید محمد حسین طباطبائی, 16 March 1903 – 15 November 1981) was one of the most prominent thinkers of philosophy and contemporary Shia Islam.
Muḥammad ibn ʿAbdullāh ibn ʿAbdul-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim (مُـحَـمَّـد ابْـن عَـبْـد الله ابْـن عَـبْـد الْـمُـطَّـلِـب ابْـن هَـاشِـم) (circa 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE), in short form Muhammad, is the last Messenger and Prophet of God in all the main branches of Islam.
Muhammad Iqbal (محمد اِقبال) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938), widely known as Allama Iqbal, was a poet, philosopher, and politician, as well as an academic, barrister and scholar in British India who is widely regarded as having inspired the Pakistan Movement.
Muhammad's first revelation was an event described in Islam as taking place in 610 AD, during which the Islamic prophet, Muhammad was visited by the Angel Jibril Gabriel, who revealed to him the beginnings of what would later become the Quran.
According to al-Tabari in his History of the Prophets and Kings, Muhammad decided after the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah to send letters to many rulers of the world, inviting them to Islam.
Muhaqqaq is one of the main six types of calligraphic script in Arabic.
Mujawwad is an adjective which comes from the noun tajweed which means pronouncing the words and letters of the Quran correctly and according to the classic Arabic.
The Muqattaʿāt (حروف مقطعات ḥurūf muqaṭṭaʿāt "disjoined letters" or "disconnected letters"; also "mysterious letters") are combinations of between one and five Arabic letters figuring at the beginning of 29 out of the 114 surahs (chapters) of the Quran just after the Bismillah.
A Muraqqa (Murakka, مورّقة, مُرَقّع) is an album in book form containing Islamic miniature paintings and specimens of Islamic calligraphy, normally from several different sources, and perhaps other matter.
A mus'haf (مصحف, with the ṣ and ḥ as two separate consonants, not, plural "suhuf") is a is an arabic word for a codex or collection of sheets, but also refers to a physical bound volume of the Quran.
Musaylimah (مسيلمة) or Maslamah bin Ḥabīb (مسلمة بن حبيب) was one of a series of people (including his future wife) who claimed prophethood in 7th century Arabia, after meeting Muhammad.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Nessim Joseph Dawood (27 August 1927 – 20 November 2014) was an Iraqi translator, who is best known for his translation of the Quran.
Abu Ruwaym Ibn ‘Abd ar-Rahman Ibn Abi Na‘im al-Laythi (70-169AH), better known as Nafi‘ al-Madani, was one of the transmitters of the seven canonical Qira'at, or methods of reciting the Qur'an.
According to a hadith, there are at least 99 names of God in Islam, known as the (Beautiful Names of God).
(نسخ /; also known as Naskhi or by its Turkish name Nesih) is a specific style of the Arabic alphabet, said to have been invented by Persian calligrapher Ibn Muqlah Shirazi (d. 940).
Naskh (نسخ) is an Arabic word usually translated as "abrogation"; It is a term used in Islamic legal exegesis for seemingly contradictory material within, or between, the two primary sources of Islamic law: the Quran and the Sunna.
Nastaʿlīq (نستعلیق, from نسخ Naskh and تعلیق Taʿlīq) is one of the main calligraphic hands used in writing the Persian alphabet, and traditionally the predominant style in Persian calligraphy.
Nidhal Guessoum M.Sc, P.hD.
In Abrahamic religions, Noah was the tenth and last of the pre-Flood Patriarchs.
Norman Leo Geisler (born July 21, 1932) is a Christian systematic theologian and philosopher.
Norman Oliver Brown (September 25, 1913 – October 2, 2002) was an American scholar, writer, and social philosopher.
Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication where in knowledge, art, ideas and cultural material is received, preserved and transmitted orally from one generation to another.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Turkish or Ottoman illumination covers non-figurative painted or drawn decorative art in books or on sheets in muraqqa or albums, as opposed to the figurative images of the Ottoman miniature.
Padua (Padova; Pàdova) is a city and comune in Veneto, northern Italy.
Paganino Paganini (Latin: Paganinus de Paganinis; –1538), was an Italian printer and publisher from the Republic of Venice during the Renaissance.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
In textual studies, a palimpsest is a manuscript page, either from a scroll or a book, from which the text has been scraped or washed off so that the page can be reused for another document.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Peter the Venerable (c. 1092 – 25 December 1156), also known as Peter of Montboissier, abbot of the Benedictine abbey of Cluny, was born to Blessed Raingarde in Auvergne, France.
Philip Owen Arnould Sherrard (23 September 1922 – 30 May 1995) was a British author, translator and philosopher.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Phonetic transcription (also known as phonetic script or phonetic notation) is the visual representation of speech sounds (or phones).
Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
Polysemy (or; from πολυ-, poly-, "many" and σῆμα, sêma, "sign") is the capacity for a sign (such as a word, phrase, or symbol) to have multiple meanings (that is, multiple semes or sememes and thus multiple senses), usually related by contiguity of meaning within a semantic field.
Pope Julius II (Papa Giulio II; Iulius II) (5 December 1443 – 21 February 1513), born Giuliano della Rovere, and nicknamed "The Fearsome Pope" and "The Warrior Pope".
Pre-Islamic Arabia refers to the Arabian Peninsula prior to the rise of Islam in the 630s.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Prophets in Islam (الأنبياء في الإسلام) include "messengers" (rasul, pl. rusul), bringers of a divine revelation via an angel (Arabic: ملائكة, malāʾikah);Shaatri, A. I. (2007).
Sūrat Qaf (سورة ق, "The Letter Qāf") is the 50th sura of the Qur'an with 45 ayat.
The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.
In Islam, Qira'at, which means literally the readings, terminologically means the method of recitation.
The Queen of Sheba (Musnad: 𐩣𐩡𐩫𐩩𐩪𐩨𐩱) is a figure first mentioned in the Hebrew Bible.
Islam considers the Quran to be a holy book, the word of Allah, and a miracle.
Createdness refers to the doctrinal position that the Qur’an was created, rather than having always existed and thus being "uncreated".
The Quraysh (قريش) were a mercantile Arab tribe that historically inhabited and controlled Mecca and its Ka'aba.
Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.
Ramadan (رمضان,;In Arabic phonology, it can be, depending on the region. also known as Ramazan, romanized as Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (Sawm) to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief.
Religious texts (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin scriptura, meaning "writing") are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs.
Resurrection is the concept of coming back to life after death.
In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.
Richard Bell (1876–1952) was a British Arabist at the University of Edinburgh.
Robert of Ketton, known in Latin as Rodbertus Ketenensis (1141–1157), was an English astronomer, translator, priest and diplomat active in Spain.
The romanization of Arabic writes written and spoken Arabic in the Latin script in one of various systematic ways.
A root (or root word) is a word that does not have a prefix in front of the word or a suffix at the end of the word.
Rukūʿ (رُكوع) refers to two things in ISLAM.
Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī (جلالالدین محمد رومی), also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī (جلالالدین محمد بلخى), Mevlânâ/Mawlānā (مولانا, "our master"), Mevlevî/Mawlawī (مولوی, "my master"), and more popularly simply as Rumi (30 September 1207 – 17 December 1273), was a 13th-century PersianRitter, H.; Bausani, A. "ḎJ̲alāl al-Dīn Rūmī b. Bahāʾ al-Dīn Sulṭān al-ʿulamāʾ Walad b. Ḥusayn b. Aḥmad Ḵh̲aṭībī." Encyclopaedia of Islam.
Sūrat Ṣād (سورة ص, "The Letter Sad") is the 38th sura of the Qur'an with 88 ayat and 1 sajdah (39:24).
The term (الصحابة meaning "the companions", from the verb صَحِبَ meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") refers to the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī (صحيح البخاري.), also known as Bukhari Sharif (بخاري شريف), is one of the Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadith collections) of Sunni Islam.
Saint John's Abbey is a Benedictine monastery in Collegeville Township, Minnesota, United States, affiliated with the American-Cassinese Congregation.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
The Salafi movement or Salafist movement or Salafism is a reform branch or revivalist movement within Sunni Islam that developed in Egypt in the late 19th century as a response to European imperialism.
Salah ("worship",; pl.; also salat), or namāz (نَماز) in some languages, is one of the Five Pillars in the faith of Islam and an obligatory religious duty for every Muslim.
Salman the Persian or Salman al-Farsi (سلمان الفارسي Salmān al-Fārisī), born Rouzbeh (روزبه), was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the first Persian who converted to Islam.
The Samanid Empire (سامانیان, Sāmāniyān), also known as the Samanian Empire, Samanid dynasty, Samanid Emirate, or simply Samanids, was a Sunni Iranian empire, ruling from 819 to 999.
Sana'a (صنعاء, Yemeni Arabic), also spelled Sanaa or Sana, is the largest city in Yemen and the centre of Sana'a Governorate.
The Sana'a palimpsest (also Ṣanʿā’ 1 or DAM 01-27.1) is one of the oldest Quranic manuscripts in existence.
Self-reference occurs in natural or formal languages when a sentence, idea or formula refers to itself.
Shaddah (شَدّة " emphasis", also called by the verbal noun from the same root, tashdid "emphasis") is one of the diacritics used with the Arabic alphabet, marking a long consonant (geminate).
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
According to the Bible, Shelah/Shela was the youngest brother among Judah's first three sons, and was born at Chezib.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Sindh (سنڌ; سِندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country.
Slate is an online magazine that covers current affairs, politics, and culture in the United States from a liberal perspective.
SOAS University of London (the School of Oriental and African Studies), is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
Solomon (שְׁלֹמֹה, Shlomoh), also called Jedidiah (Hebrew Yədidya), was, according to the Hebrew Bible, Quran, Hadith and Hidden Words, a fabulously wealthy and wise king of Israel who succeeded his father, King David. The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are circa 970 to 931 BCE, normally given in alignment with the dates of David's reign. He is described as the third king of the United Monarchy, which would break apart into the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah shortly after his death. Following the split, his patrilineal descendants ruled over Judah alone. According to the Talmud, Solomon is one of the 48 prophets. In the Quran, he is considered a major prophet, and Muslims generally refer to him by the Arabic variant Sulayman, son of David. The Hebrew Bible credits him as the builder of the First Temple in Jerusalem, beginning in the fourth year of his reign, using the vast wealth he had accumulated. He dedicated the temple to Yahweh, the God of Israel. He is portrayed as great in wisdom, wealth and power beyond either of the previous kings of the country, but also as a king who sinned. His sins included idolatry, marrying foreign women and, ultimately, turning away from Yahweh, and they led to the kingdom's being torn in two during the reign of his son Rehoboam. Solomon is the subject of many other later references and legends, most notably in the 1st-century apocryphal work known as the Testament of Solomon. In the New Testament, he is portrayed as a teacher of wisdom excelled by Jesus, and as arrayed in glory, but excelled by "the lilies of the field". In later years, in mostly non-biblical circles, Solomon also came to be known as a magician and an exorcist, with numerous amulets and medallion seals dating from the Hellenistic period invoking his name.
In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
A Surah (also spelled Sura; سورة, plural سور suwar) is the term for a chapter of the Quran.
A synonym is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language.
The Syriac Infancy Gospel (also known as the Arabic Infancy Gospel) is one of the texts among the New Testament apocryphal writings concerning the infancy of Jesus.
Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.
Sūrat Ṭā-Hā (سورة طه) is the 20th sura (chapter) of the Qur'an with 135 ayat (verses).
Tafsir (lit) is the Arabic word for exegesis, usually of the Qur'an.
Al-Mizan fi Tafsir al-Qur'an (الميزان في تفسير القرآن, "The balance in interpretation of Quran"), more commonly known as Tafsir al-Mizan (تفسير الميزان) or simply Al-Mizan (الميزان), is a tafsir (exegesis of the Quran) written by the Shia Muslim scholar and philosopher Allamah Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i (1892–1981).
Jāmiʿ al-bayān ʿan taʾwīl āy al-Qurʾān (also written with fī in place of ʿan), popularly Tafsīr al-Ṭabarī (تفسير الطبري), is a Sunni tafsir by the Persian scholar Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838–923).
Taha Jabir Al-Alwani (طه جابر علواني), Ph.D. (1935 – March 4, 2016), was the President of Cordoba University in Ashburn, Virginia, United States.
Tajweed (تجويد,, meaning "elocution"), sometimes rendered as tajwid, refers to the rules governing pronunciation during recitation of the Quran.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
Tanzeel and Inzal, or "to send down" (Arabic تنزيل), refers to the act of descent or revelation.
Tarawih (تراويح) refers to extra prayers performed by Sunni Muslims at night in the Islamic month of Ramadan.
Textual criticism is a branch of textual scholarship, philology, and literary criticism that is concerned with the identification of textual variants in either manuscripts or printed books.
Sawāb or Thawāb (ثواب) is an Arabic term meaning "reward".
The Holy Quran with English translation and commentary is a 5 volume commentary of the Quran published in 1963 by the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community.
The event of Ghadir Khumm (Arabic and Persian: واقعه غدیر خم) is an event that took place in March 632.
The Holy Quran: Arabic Text and English translation (completed 1936, published 1955) is a parallel text edition of the Quran compiled and translated by Maulvi Sher Ali, an Ahmadiyya missionary at the Fazl Mosque in London.
The Syro-Aramaic Reading of the Koran: A Contribution to the Decoding of the Language of the Koran is an English-language edition (2007) of Die syro-aramäische Lesart des Koran: Ein Beitrag zur Entschlüsselung der Koransprache (2000) by Christoph Luxenberg.
In contemporary literary studies, a theme is the central topic a text treats.
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
Tawrat (also Tawrah or Taurat; توراة) is the Arabic word for the Torah.
Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text.
Ubbay ibn Ka'ab (died 649), also known as Abu Mundhir (the father of Mundhir), was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a person of high esteem in the early Muslim community.
The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".
Unitarian Universalism (UU) is a liberal religion characterized by a "free and responsible search for truth and meaning".
The University of Birmingham (informally Birmingham University) is a public research university located in Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
Uthman ibn Affan (ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān), also known in English by the Turkish and Persian rendering, Osman (579 – 17 June 656), was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the third of the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided Caliphs".
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
A verbal noun is a noun formed from or otherwise corresponding to a verb.
The verse of light (āyat an-nūr) is the 35th verse of the 24th Sura of the Quran, Sura an-Nur.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
William Montgomery Watt (14 March 1909 – 24 October 2006) was a Scottish historian, Orientalist, Anglican priest, and academic.
Waḥy (وحي,; also spelled wahi) is the Arabic word for revelation or inspiration.
Abu Sa'id Uthman Ibn Sa‘id al-Qutbi, better known as Warsh (110-197AH), was a significant figure in the history of the Qira'at, or canonical methods of reciting the Qur'an.
Women in the Qur'an are important characters and subjects of discussion in the stories and morals taught in Islam.
Woodcut is a relief printing technique in printmaking.
In linguistics, a stem is a part of a word.
Sūrah Yā-Sīn (also Yaseen; سورة يس) is the 36th chapter (surah) of the Quran.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
The pronoun you is the second-person personal pronoun, both singular and plural, and both nominative and oblique case in Modern English.
Youngstown State University (YSU), founded in 1908, is an urban research university located in Youngstown, Ohio, United States.
Ẓāhir (ظاهر) is an Arabic term in some tafsir (interpretations of the Quran) for what is external and manifest.
Zakat (زكاة., "that which purifies", also Zakat al-mal زكاة المال, "zakat on wealth", or Zakah) is a form of alms-giving treated in Islam as a religious obligation or tax, which, by Quranic ranking, is next after prayer (salat) in importance.
According to Islamic traditions, Zayd ibn Thabit (زيد بن ثابت) was the personal scribe of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and was from the ansar (helpers).
Zechariah (זכריה, "remember God"; Ζαχαρίας; Zacharias in KJV; Zachary in the Douay-Rheims Bible; Zakariyyāʾ (زَكَـرِيَّـا) in Islamic tradition) is a figure in the New Testament Bible and the Quran, hence venerated in Christianity and Islam.
Ziauddin Sardar (ضیاء الدین سردار; born 31 October 1951) is a London-based scholar, award-winning writer, cultural critic and public intellectual who specialises in Muslim thought, the future of Islam, futures studies and science and cultural relations.
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