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Index Quraysh

The Quraysh (قريش) were a mercantile Arab tribe that historically inhabited and controlled Mecca and its Ka'aba. [1]

105 relations: Abū Lahab, Abbasid Caliphate, Abd Allah ibn Abbas, Abd Manaf ibn Qusai, Abd-al-Dar ibn Qusai, Abd-al-Uzza ibn Qusai, Abu Bakr, Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib, Adnan, Adnanites, Al-'As ibn Wa'il, Al-Akhnas ibn Shurayq, Alaouite dynasty, Ali, Amr ibn Hishām, Arabic, Arabs, Arish, Awan (tribe), Ba 'Alawiyya, Banu 'Adiy, Banu 'Amir, Banu Abd ad-Dar, Banu Abd-Shams, Banu Asad ibn Khuzaymah, Banu Hashim, Banu Jumah, Banu Khuza'a, Banu Kinanah, Banu Makhzum, Banu Nawfal, Banu Sahm, Banu Sulaym, Banu Taym, Banu Thaqif, Banu Umayya, Banu Zuhrah, Battle of Badr, Battle of the Trench, Bedouin, Bosra, Caliphate, Conquest of Mecca, Damascus, Early Muslim conquests, Family tree of Muhammad, Fatimah, Fihr ibn Malik, First Fitna, ..., Francis Edward Peters, Fred Donner, G. R. Hawting, Gaza City, Genealogy, Hadith, Hakim ibn Hizam, Hawazin, Hawk of Quraish, Hejaz, Hisham ibn al-Kalbi, Ibn Ishaq, Islam, Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy, Kaaba, Khawarij, Kilab ibn Murrah, Lakhmids, List of expeditions of Muhammad, Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib, Mecca, Medina, Muawiyah I, Mughirah ibn Abd Allah, Muhammad, Murrah ibn Ka'b, Mut‘im ibn ‘Adi, Muttalib ibn Abd Manaf, Najd, Nisba (onomastics), Palestine (region), Progenitor, Qays, Qedarite, Quran, Quraysh (surah), Qusai ibn Kilab, Rashidun Caliphate, Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia, Sahabah, Second Fitna, Sheikh, Suhayl ibn Amr, Ta'if, Talhah, The Twelve Imams, Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, Umar, Umayyad Caliphate, Umayyah ibn Khalaf, Utbah ibn Rabi'ah, Uthman, W. Montgomery Watt, Yemen, Zubayr ibn al-Awam. Expand index (55 more) »

Abū Lahab

According to Islamic narrations and inline with Arabic history, Abū Lahab (أبو لهب) (c. 549 – 624) was Muhammad's paternal uncle.

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Abbasid Caliphate

The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Abd Allah ibn Abbas

Abd Allah ibn Abbas (عبد الله ابن عباس) or ′Abd Allah ibn al-′Abbas otherwise called (Ibn Abbas; Al-Habr; Al-Bahr; The Doctor; The Sea) was born c. 619 CE.

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Abd Manaf ibn Qusai

‘Abd Manāf al-Mughirah ibn Quṣai (عبد مناف المغيرة بن قصي) was a Quraishi and great-great-grandfather of Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Abd-al-Dar ibn Qusai

Abd-al-Dar ibn Qusai forms an important link between his father, Qusai ibn Kilab (c. 400–480), the great-great-grandfather of Shaiba ibn Hashim (Abdul-Mutallib) and his own sons, since he is the progenitor of the Banu Abd-al-dar.

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Abd-al-Uzza ibn Qusai

In Islam, ʻAbdu l-ʻUzzá ibn Qusai (عبدالعزى) forms an important link between his father, Qusai ibn Kilab (c. 400–480), the great-great-grandfather of Shaiba ibn Hashim (ʻAbdu l-Mutallib) and his son Asad ibn Abd-Al-Uzza.

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Abu Bakr

Abū Bakr aṣ-Ṣiddīq ‘Abdallāh bin Abī Quḥāfah (أبو بكر الصديق عبد الله بن أبي قحافة; 573 CE23 August 634 CE), popularly known as Abu Bakr (أبو بكر), was a senior companion (Sahabi) and—through his daughter Aisha—the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Abu Bakr became the first openly declared Muslim outside Muhammad's family.Muhammad Mustafa Al-A'zami (2003), The History of The Qur'anic Text: From Revelation to Compilation: A Comparative Study with the Old and New Testaments, p.26, 59. UK Islamic Academy.. Abu Bakr served as a trusted advisor to Muhammad. During Muhammad's lifetime, he was involved in several campaigns and treaties.Tabqat ibn al-Saad book of Maghazi, page no:62 He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632 to 634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad's death. As caliph, Abu Bakr succeeded to the political and administrative functions previously exercised by Muhammad. He was commonly known as The Truthful (الصديق). Abu Bakr's reign lasted for 2 years, 2 months, 2 weeks and 1 day ending with his death after an illness.

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Abu Sufyan ibn Harb

Sakhr ibn Harb (صخر بن حرب), more commonly known as Abu Sufyan (560–650), was the leader of the Quraysh of Mecca, the most powerful tribe of pre-Islamic Arabia.

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Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib

Abū Ṭālib ibn ‘Abd al-Muṭṭalib (ابو طالب بن عبد المطلب), was the leader of Banu Hashim, a clan of the Qurayshi tribe of Mecca in the Hijaz, Arabian Peninsula.

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Adnan (عدنان) is the traditional ancestor of the Adnanite Arabs of Northern, Western and Central Arabia, as opposed to the Qahtanite Arabs of Southern Arabia who descend from Qahtan.

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According to Arab genealogical tradition, the Adnanites (عدنانيون) are "Arabized Arabs", descended from Ishmael through Adnan, distinguished from the "pure" Qahtanite Arabs of southern Arabia.

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Al-'As ibn Wa'il

al-'As ibn Wa'il (العاص بن وائل) was the father of the Sahaba 'Amr ibn al-'As and Hisham ibn al-A'as.

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Al-Akhnas ibn Shurayq

Al-Akhnas ibn Shurayq al-Thaqifi was a contemporary to Muhammad and one of the leaders of Mecca.

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Alaouite dynasty

The Alaouite dynasty, or Alawite dynasty (سلالة العلويين الفيلاليين, Sulālat al-ʿAlawiyyīn al-Fīlālīyn), is the current Moroccan royal family.

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Ali (ʿAlī) (15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam.

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Amr ibn Hishām

Amr ibn Hisham (عمرو بن هشام), often known as Abu Jahl (أبو جهل), (born 556? — died 17 March 624), was one of the Meccan polytheist pagan Qurayshi leaders known for his critical opposition towards Muhammad the Islamic prophet and the early Muslims in Mecca.

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.

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Arish or el Arīsh (العريش, Hrinokorura) is the capital and largest city (with 164,830 inhabitants) of the Egyptian governorate of North Sinai, as well as the largest city on the entire Sinai Peninsula, lying on the Mediterranean coast of the Sinai peninsula, northeast of Cairo.

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Awan (tribe)

Awan (اعوان) is a tribe living predominantly in northern, central, and western parts of Pakistani Punjab, with significant numbers also residing in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Azad Kashmir and to a lesser extent in Sindh and Balochistan.

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Ba 'Alawiyya

The Ba'Alawi tariqa (طريقة آل باعلوي), also known as the Tariqa Alawiyya is a Sufi order centered in Hadhramawt, Yemen, but now spread across the Indian Ocean rim along with the Hadhrami diaspora.

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Banu 'Adiy

Banu 'Adiy was a clan of the Quraysh tribe descended from 'Adiy ibn Ka'b.

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Banu 'Amir

Banu 'Amir ibn Sa'sa'ah (بنو عامر بن صعصعة) was a large and ancient Arab tribe originating from central and southwestern Arabia that dominated Nejd for centuries after the rise of Islam.

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Banu Abd ad-Dar

Banū ‘Abd ad-Dār (بَـنُـو عَـبْـد الـدَّار, "Sons of the Servant of the House" — referring to the Kaaba) is a sub-clan of the Arabian Qurayshi tribe.

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Banu Abd-Shams

Banu Abd Shams refers to a clan within the Meccan tribe of Quraysh.

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Banu Asad ibn Khuzaymah

Banu Asad ibn Khuzaymah (Arabic: بني أسد/ بنو أسد) is an Arab tribe.

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Banu Hashim

Banū Hāshim (بنو هاشم) is a clan in the Quraysh tribe with a unique maternal bloodline of Israelite ancestry through Salma bint Amr of Banu Najjar.

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Banu Jumah

The Banu Jumah (بنو جُمح) is a clan of the Quraish tribe.

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Banu Khuza'a

The Banū Khuza’ah (Arabic بنو خزاعة singular خزاعيّ Khuzā’ī) is the name of an Azdite, Qaḥṭānite tribe (some say Muḑarite ‘Adnānite), which is one of the main ancestral tribes of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Banu Kinanah

Banu Kinanah (also Bani Kinanah) (بنو كنانة or بني كنانة) are the largest Mudhari Adnanite tribe of western Saudi Arabia in Hejaz and Tihama.

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Banu Makhzum

Banū Makhzūm was one of the wealthy clans of Quraysh.

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Banu Nawfal

Banu Nawfal is a notable Arabic sub-clan of the Quraish tribe.

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Banu Sahm

The Banu Sahm (بنو سهم) is a clan of the Quraish tribe.

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Banu Sulaym

The Banu Sulaym (بنو سليم) were an Arab tribe that dominated part of the Hejaz in the pre-Islamic era.

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Banu Taym

Banu Taym (بنو تيم; alternatively transliterated as Banu Taim or Banu Tahim) is a sub-clan of the Quraish tribe, descended from Fihr ibn Malik and Adnan.

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Banu Thaqif

Banū Thaqīf is a Saudi tribe that inhabit the Ta'if area, they are a branch of Qays 'Aylan.

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Banu Umayya

The Banu Umayya (بنو أمية), also known as the Umayyads (الأمويون / بنو أمية al-Umawiyyun), were a clan of the Quraysh tribe descended from Umayya ibn Abd Shams.

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Banu Zuhrah

Banu Zuhrah (بنو زُهرة) is a clan of the Quraish tribe.

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Battle of Badr

The Battle of Badr (غزوة بدر), fought on Tuesday, 13 March 624 CE (17 Ramadan, 2 AH in the Islamic calendar) in the Hejaz region of western Arabia (present-day Saudi Arabia), was a key battle in the early days of Islam and a turning point in Muhammad's struggle with his opponents among the Quraish in Mecca.

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Battle of the Trench

The Battle of the Trench (Ghazwat al-Khandaq) also known as the Battle of the Confederates (Ghazwat al-Ahzab), was a 30-day-long siege of Yathrib (now Medina) by Arab and Jewish tribes. The strength of the confederate armies is estimated around 10,000 men with six hundred horses and some camels, while the Medinan defenders numbered 3,000. The largely outnumbered defenders of Medina, mainly Muslims led by Islamic prophet Muhammad, dug a trench on the suggestion of Salman Farsi, which together with Medina's natural fortifications, rendered the confederate cavalry (consisting of horses and camels) useless, locking the two sides in a stalemate. Hoping to make several attacks at once, the confederates persuaded the Muslim-allied Medinan Jews, Banu Qurayza, to attack the city from the south. However, Muhammad's diplomacy derailed the negotiations, and broke up the confederacy against him. The well-organised defenders, the sinking of confederate morale, and poor weather conditions caused the siege to end in a fiasco. The siege was a "battle of wits", in which the Muslims tactically overcame their opponents while suffering very few casualties. Efforts to defeat the Muslims failed, and Islam became influential in the region. As a consequence, the Muslim army besieged the area of the Banu Qurayza tribe, leading to their surrender and enslavement or execution. The defeat caused the Meccans to lose their trade and much of their prestige.

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The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.

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Bosra (Buṣrā), also spelled Bostra, Busrana, Bozrah, Bozra and officially known Busra al-Sham (Buṣrā al-Shām, Busra el-Şam)Günümüzde Suriye Türkmenleri.

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A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).

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Conquest of Mecca

The conquest of Mecca (فتح مكة) refers to the event when Mecca was conquered by Muslims led by Muhammad on 11 January, 630 AD, (Julian), 20 Ramadan, 8 AH.

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Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.

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Early Muslim conquests

The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.

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Family tree of Muhammad

This article is about the family tree of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad.

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Fatimah bint Muhammad (فاطمة;; especially colloquially: born c. 609 (or 20 Jumada al-Thani 5 BH ?) – died 28 August 632) was the youngest daughter and according to Shia Muslims, the only child of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and Khadijah who lived to adulthood, and therefore part of Muhammad's household.

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Fihr ibn Malik

Fihr ibn Malik (فهر بن مالك, Fihr ibn Mālik), or simply Fihr (فهر), is counted among the direct ancestors of Muhammad.

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First Fitna

The First Fitna (فتنة مقتل عثمان fitnat maqtal ʿUthmān "strife/sedition of the killing of Uthman") was a civil war within the Rashidun Caliphate which resulted in the overthrowing of the Rashidun caliphs and the establishment of the Umayyad dynasty.

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Francis Edward Peters

Francis Edward Peters (born June 23, 1927, New York City), who generally publishes as F.E. Peters, is Professor Emeritus of History, Religion and Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies at New York University (NYU).

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Fred Donner

Fred McGraw Donner (born 1945) is a scholar of Islam and Professor of Near Eastern History at the University of Chicago.

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G. R. Hawting

Gerald R. Hawting (born 1944) is a British historian and Islamicist.

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Gaza City

Gaza (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998),, p. 761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory in Palestine, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". غزة,; Ancient Ġāzā), also referred to as Gaza City, is a Palestinian city in the Gaza Strip, with a population of 515,556, making it the largest city in the State of Palestine.

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Genealogy (from γενεαλογία from γενεά, "generation" and λόγος, "knowledge"), also known as family history, is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history.

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Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Hakim ibn Hizam

Hakīm ibn Hizām was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a nephew of Khadija.

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The Banu Hawazin (هوازن / ALA-LC: Hawāzin) were an ancient Pre-Islamic Arab tribe considered to be the descendants of Hawazin son of Mansur son of Ikrimah son of Khasafah son of Qays ʿAylān son of Mudar son of Nizar son of Ma'ad son of Adnan son of Aa'd son of U'dud son of Sind son of Ya'rub son of Yashjub son of Nabeth son of Qedar son of Ishmael, or Ishmaelites, son of Abraham.

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Hawk of Quraish

The so-called Hawk of Quraish is a symbol which is found on a number of emblems, coat of arms and flags of several states of the Arab League.

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The Hejaz (اَلْـحِـجَـاز,, literally "the Barrier"), is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia.

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Hisham ibn al-Kalbi

Hisham ibn al-Kalbi (737 AD - 819 AD/204 AH), also known as Ibn al-Kalbi was an Arab historian.

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Ibn Ishaq

Muḥammad ibn Isḥāq ibn Yasār ibn Khiyār (according to some sources, ibn Khabbār, or Kūmān, or Kūtān, محمد بن إسحاق بن يسار بن خيار, or simply ibn Isḥaq, ابن إسحاق, meaning "the son of Isaac"; died 767 or 761) was an Arab Muslim historian and hagiographer.

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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy

In Islamic tradition, Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy is an ancestor of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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The Kaaba (ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة, "The Cube"), also referred as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah (ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة الْـمُـشَـرًّفَـة, the Holy Ka'bah), is a building at the center of Islam's most important mosque, that is Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـد الْـحَـرَام, The Sacred Mosque), in the Hejazi city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

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The Khawarij (الخوارج, al-Khawārij, singular خارجي, khāriji), Kharijites, or the ash-Shurah (ash-Shurāh "the Exchangers") are members of a school of thought, that appeared in the first century of Islam during the First Fitna, the crisis of leadership after the death of Muhammad.

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Kilab ibn Murrah

Kilab ibn Murrah (كلاب بن مُرة) (born 373 CE) was the paternal great-great-great-great grandfather and maternal great-great-great grandfather of the Islamic prophet Muḥammad.

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The Lakhmids (اللخميون) or Banu Lakhm (بنو لخم) were an Arab kingdom of southern Iraq with al-Hirah as their capital, from about 300 to 602 AD.

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List of expeditions of Muhammad

The list of expeditions of Muhammad includes the expeditions undertaken by the Muslim community during the lifetime of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib

In Islamic tradition Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib was an ancestor of Muhammad.

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Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.

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Medina (المدينة المنورة,, "the radiant city"; or المدينة,, "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia.

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Muawiyah I

Muawiyah I (Muʿāwiyah ibn Abī Sufyān; 602 – 26 April 680) established the Umayyad dynasty of the caliphate, and was the second caliph from the Umayyad clan, the first being Uthman ibn Affan.

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Mughirah ibn Abd Allah

Mughirah, Mughira or Muggeera (المغيرة بن عبد الله) (full name: al-Mughira ibn Abd-Allah ibn Umar ibnn Makhzum ibn Yaqaza ibn Murrah) was one of the Leaders of Quraish from Banu Makhzum tribe.

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MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.

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Murrah ibn Ka'b

Murrah ibn Ka'b (مرة بن كعب) ibn Luay ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr ibn Malik was a man from Quraish tribe, supposed to have lived in the 4th century.

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Mut‘im ibn ‘Adi

Mut‘im ibn ‘Adi (مطعم بن عدي) was a non-Muslim contemporary of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the chief of the Banu Nawfal clan of the Banu Quraish tribe.

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Muttalib ibn Abd Manaf

Muttalib ibn Abd al-Manaf (مطلب ابن عبدالمناف) was one of the ancestors of the Sahaba (Muhammad's companions).

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Najd or Nejd (نجد, Najd) is a geographical central region of Saudi Arabia, alone accounting for almost a third of the population of the country.

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Nisba (onomastics)

In Arabic names, a nisba (also spelled nesba, sometimes nesbat; نسبة, "attribution") is an adjective indicating the person's place of origin, tribal affiliation, or ancestry, used at the end of the name and occasionally ending in the suffix -iyy(ah).

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Palestine (region)

Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.

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In genealogy, the progenitor (rarer: primogenitor; Stammvater or Ahnherr) is the – sometimes legendary – founder of a family, line of descent, clan or tribe, noble house or people group.

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Qays ʿAylān (قيس عيلان), often referred to simply as Qays (also spelled Qais, Kais or Kays) were an Arab tribal confederation that branched from the Mudhar section of the Adnanites.

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The Qedarite Kingdom or Qedar (مملكة قيدار, Mamlakat Qaydar), were a largely nomadic, ancient Arab tribal confederation.

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The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).

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Quraysh (surah)

Sūrat Quraysh (سورة قريش, "The Quraysh") is the 106th chapter of the Qur'an.

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Qusai ibn Kilab

Qusayy ibn Kilāb ibn Murrah (قُـصَيّ ابْـن كِـلَاب ابْـن مُـرَّة; ca. 400 – 480), also known as Qusai, Kusayy or Cossai, né Zayd (زَيْـد), was the great-grandfather of Shaiba ibn Hashim, who was the paternal grandfather of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.

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Rashidun Caliphate

The Rashidun Caliphate (اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.

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Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia

Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia was a mix of polytheism, Christianity, Judaism, and Iranian religions.

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The term (الصحابة meaning "the companions", from the verb صَحِبَ meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") refers to the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Second Fitna

The Second Fitna was a period of general political and military disorder that afflicted the Islamic empire during the early Umayyad dynasty, following the death of the first Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I. Historians date its start variously as 680 AD and its end as being somewhere between 685 and 692.

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Sheikh (pronounced, or; شيخ, mostly pronounced, plural شيوخ)—also transliterated Sheik, Shykh, Shaik, Shayk, Shaykh, Cheikh, Shekh, and Shaikh—is an honorific title in the Arabic language.

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Suhayl ibn Amr

Suhayl ibn Amr was a prominent leader among the Quraysh, being known as the Khatib or orator of the tribe.

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Ta'if (الطائف) is a city in Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia at an elevation of on the slopes of Sarawat Mountains (Al-Sarawat Mountains).

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Talhah ibn Ubaydullah (طلحة بن عبيدالله) (594-656) was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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The Twelve Imams

The Twelve Imams are the spiritual and political successors to the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the Twelver or Athnā‘ashariyyah branch of Shia Islam, including that of the Alawite and the Alevi sects.

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Treaty of Hudaybiyyah

The Treaty of Hudaybiyyah (Arabic: صلح الحديبية) was an important event that took place during the formation of Islam.

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Umar, also spelled Omar (عمر بن الخطاب, "Umar, Son of Al-Khattab"; c. 584 CE 3 November 644 CE), was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history.

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Umayyad Caliphate

The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.

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Umayyah ibn Khalaf

Umayyah ibn Khalaf ibn Safwan was a Meccan Arab, a leading member of the Quraish and head of Bani Jumah.

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Utbah ibn Rabi'ah

ʿUtbah ibn Rabīʿah (c.563-624) was one of the prominent Pagan Leaders of Quraish during the era of Muhammad.

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Uthman ibn Affan (ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān), also known in English by the Turkish and Persian rendering, Osman (579 – 17 June 656), was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the third of the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided Caliphs".

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W. Montgomery Watt

William Montgomery Watt (14 March 1909 – 24 October 2006) was a Scottish historian, Orientalist, Anglican priest, and academic.

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Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Zubayr ibn al-Awam

Az-Zubayr ibn Al-Awam (594–656) was a companion of Muhammad and a commander in the Rashidun army.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quraysh

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