140 relations: Albanian language, Alphabet, Alveolar and postalveolar approximants, American English, Archaic Greek alphabets, ASCII, Ṛ, Ŕ, Ř, Ben Jonson, Blackletter, British English, Canadian English, Carolingian minuscule, Catalan language, Cedilla, Cherokee syllabary, Continuant, Cyrillic script, Czech language, D'Nealian, Danish language, Dental and alveolar flaps, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar trills, Devanagari, Diacritic, Dot (diacritic), Double grave accent, Duenos inscription, Dutch language, EBCDIC, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Electrical resistance and conductance, English alphabet, English language, Er (Cyrillic), Ȓ, Faroese language, Finnish language, Flux, French language, Gaelic type, Galician language, Gas constant, Ge'ez script, German language, Gothic alphabet, Greek alphabet, Gujarati alphabet, Gutnish, ..., Guttural R, Haitian Creole, Hiberno-English, History of the alphabet, Hopi language, Hungarian language, Icelandic language, Insular script, International Phonetic Alphabet, Irish language, ISO basic Latin alphabet, Italian language, Joule, Kilogram, Kurrent, Lapis Niger, Lapis Satricanus, Latin, Latin script, Latvian language, Leonese dialect, Letter (alphabet), List of hieroglyphs/D, List of Latin-script digraphs, Lithuanian language, Logogram, Macron below, Māori language, Medical prescription, Metre, Middle English, Newton's law of universal gravitation, Norwegian language, Obsolete and nonstandard symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, Ohm, Old Italic script, Oxford English Dictionary, Palatal hook, Phoenician alphabet, Pinyin, Polish language, Portuguese language, Position (vector), Pronunciation of English /r/, R rotunda, R with stroke, R with tail, R-colored vowel, Raido, Registered trademark symbol, Resh, Response (liturgy), Retroflex approximant, Retroflex flap, Rho, Rhotic consonant, Ricci curvature, Rio de Janeiro, Roman cursive, Roman square capitals, Romanian language, Romeo and Juliet, Runes, Scots language, Scottish English, Sicilian language, Slovak language, Spanish language, Standard Chinese, Swedish Dialect Alphabet, Swedish language, Teuthonista, Tomb of the Scipios, Trill consonant, Tromsø, Turkish language, Ugaritic alphabet, Uncial script, Unicode subscripts and superscripts, Uralic Phonetic Alphabet, Uvular trill, Uvularization, Venetian language, Venice, Voiced retroflex fricative, Voiced uvular fricative, Welsh language, West Country English, William Shakespeare, Ya (Cyrillic). Expand index (90 more) » « Shrink index
Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
The alveolar approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
Many local variants of the Greek alphabet were employed in ancient Greece during the archaic and early classical periods, until they were replaced by the classical 24-letter alphabet that is the standard today, around 400 BC.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Ṛ (minuscule: ṛ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from R with the addition of a dot below the letter.
Ŕ (minuscule: ŕ) is a letter of the Slovak and Lower Sorbian alphabets.
The grapheme Ř, ř (R with háček, example of Czech pronunciation) is a letter used in alphabets of the Czech and Upper Sorbian languages.
Benjamin Jonson (c. 11 June 1572 – 6 August 1637) was an English playwright, poet, actor, and literary critic, whose artistry exerted a lasting impact upon English poetry and stage comedy.
Blackletter (sometimes black letter), also known as Gothic script, Gothic minuscule, or Textura, was a script used throughout Western Europe from approximately 1150 to well into the 17th century.
British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.
Canadian English (CanE, CE, en-CA) is the set of varieties of the English language native to Canada.
Carolingian minuscule or Caroline minuscule is a script which developed as a calligraphic standard in Europe so that the Latin alphabet could be easily recognized by the literate class from one region to another.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
A cedilla (from Spanish), also known as cedilha (from Portuguese) or cédille (from French), is a hook or tail (¸) added under certain letters as a diacritical mark to modify their pronunciation.
The Cherokee syllabary is a syllabary invented by Sequoyah to write the Cherokee language in the late 1810s and early 1820s.
In phonology, a continuant is a speech sound produced without a complete closure in the oral cavity, namely fricatives, approximants and vowels.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
D'Nealian, sometimes misspelled Denealian, is a style of writing and teaching cursive and manuscript ("print" and "block") handwriting for English.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
The alveolar tap or flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages.
Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the Interpunct (·), or to the glyphs 'combining dot above' (◌̇) and 'combining dot below' (◌̣) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Central European languages and Vietnamese.
The double grave accent is a diacritic used in scholarly discussions of the Serbo-Croatian and sometimes Slovene languages.
The Duenos inscription is one of the earliest known Old Latin texts, variously dated from the 7th to the 5th century BC.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC) is an eight-bit character encoding used mainly on IBM mainframe and IBM midrange computer operating systems.
Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt.
The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor.
The modern English alphabet is a Latin alphabet consisting of 26 letters, each having an uppercase and a lowercase form: The same letters constitute the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Er (Р р; italics: Р р) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The grapheme Ȓ (lower case ȓ) is a letter used in discussion of Serbo-Croatian phonetics.
Faroese (føroyskt mál,; færøsk) is a North Germanic language spoken as a first language by about 66,000 people, 45,000 of whom reside on the Faroe Islands and 21,000 in other areas, mainly Denmark.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
Flux describes the quantity which passes through a surface or substance.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Gaelic type (sometimes called Irish character, Irish type, or Gaelic script) is a family of insular typefaces devised for printing Classical Gaelic.
Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.
The gas constant is also known as the molar, universal, or ideal gas constant, denoted by the symbol or and is equivalent to the Boltzmann constant, but expressed in units of energy per temperature increment per mole, i.e. the pressure-volume product, rather than energy per temperature increment per particle.
Ge'ez (Ge'ez: ግዕዝ), also known as Ethiopic, is a script used as an abugida (alphasyllabary) for several languages of Ethiopia and Eritrea.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Gothic alphabet is an alphabet for writing the Gothic language, created in the 4th century by Ulfilas (or Wulfila) for the purpose of translating the Bible.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
The Gujarati script (ગુજરાતી લિપિ Gujǎrātī Lipi) is an abugida, like all Nagari writing systems, and is used to write the Gujarati and Kutchi languages.
Gutnish, or Gotlandic (Gotländska, Gutniska or Gutamål) refers to the dialects of the Swedish language spoken on the islands of Gotland and Fårö.
In common parlance, "guttural R" is the phenomenon whereby a rhotic consonant (an "R-like" sound) is produced in the back of the vocal tract (usually with the uvula) rather than in the front portion thereof and thus as a guttural consonant.
Haitian Creole (kreyòl ayisyen,; créole haïtien) is a French-based creole language spoken by 9.6–12million people worldwide, and the only language of most Haitians.
Hiberno‐English (from Latin Hibernia: "Ireland") or Irish English is the set of English dialects natively written and spoken within the island of Ireland (including both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland).
The history of alphabetic writing goes back to the consonantal writing system used for Semitic languages in the Levant in the 2nd millennium BCE.
Hopi (Hopi: Hopílavayi) is a Uto-Aztecan language spoken by the Hopi people (a Pueblo group) of northeastern Arizona, United States, but some Hopi are now monolingual English-speakers.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
Insular script was a medieval script system invented in Ireland that spread to Anglo-Saxon England and continental Europe under the influence of Irish Christianity.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
The ISO basic Latin alphabet is a Latin-script alphabet and consists of two sets of 26 letters, codified in various national and international standards and used widely in international communication.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.
Kurrent is an old form of German-language handwriting based on late medieval cursive writing, also known as Kurrentschrift, Alte Deutsche Schrift ("old German script") and German cursive.
The Lapis Niger (Latin, "Black Stone") is an ancient shrine in the Roman Forum.
The Lapis Satricanus ("Stone of Satricum"), is a yellow stone found in the ruins of the ancient town of Satricum, near Borgo Montello, a village of southern Lazio, dated late 6th to early 5th centuries BC.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Latvian (latviešu valoda) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
Leonese is a set of vernacular Romance dialects spoken in the northern and western portions of the historical region of León in Spain (the modern provinces of León, Zamora, and Salamanca) and a few adjoining areas in Portugal.
A letter is a grapheme (written character) in an alphabetic system of writing.
|- |- |- |- |- |- |- |- |- |- |- |- |- |- |- |- |- |- |-.
This is a list of digraphs used in various Latin alphabets.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase.
Macron below,, is a combining diacritical mark used in various orthographies.
Māori, also known as te reo ("the language"), is an Eastern Polynesian language spoken by the Māori people, the indigenous population of New Zealand.
A prescription is a health-care program implemented by a physician or other qualified health care practitioner in the form of instructions that govern the plan of care for an individual patient.
The metre (British spelling and BIPM spelling) or meter (American spelling) (from the French unit mètre, from the Greek noun μέτρον, "measure") is the base unit of length in some metric systems, including the International System of Units (SI).
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
Newton's law of universal gravitation states that a particle attracts every other particle in the universe with a force which is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) possesses a variety of obsolete and nonstandard symbols.
The ohm (symbol: Ω) is the SI derived unit of electrical resistance, named after German physicist Georg Simon Ohm.
Old Italic is one of several now extinct alphabet systems used on the Italian Peninsula in ancient times for various Indo-European languages (predominantly Italic) and non-Indo-European (e.g. Etruscan) languages.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
The palatal hook is a type of hook diacritic formerly used in the International Phonetic Alphabet to represent palatalized consonants.
The Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BC, is the oldest verified alphabet.
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
In geometry, a position or position vector, also known as location vector or radius vector, is a Euclidean vector that represents the position of a point P in space in relation to an arbitrary reference origin O. Usually denoted x, r, or s, it corresponds to the straight-line from O to P. The term "position vector" is used mostly in the fields of differential geometry, mechanics and occasionally vector calculus.
Pronunciation of the phoneme /r/ in the English language has many variations in different dialects.
The r rotunda (ꝛ), "rounded r", is a historical calligraphic variant of the minuscule (lowercase) letter Latin r used in full script-like typefaces, especially blackletters.
R with stroke (majuscule: Ɍ, minuscule: ɍ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, derived from R with the addition of a bar through the letter.
, ɽ is a letter of the Latin alphabet, derived from R with the addition of a tail.
In phonetics, an r-colored or rhotic vowel (also called a retroflex vowel, vocalic r, or a rhotacized vowel) is a vowel that is modified in a way that results in a lowering in frequency of the third formant.
*Raidō "ride, journey" is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the r- rune of the Elder Futhark.
The registered trademark symbol (®) is a symbol that provides notice that the preceding word or symbol is a trademark or service mark that has been registered with a national trademark office.
Resh is the twentieth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Rēsh, Hebrew Rēsh, Aramaic Rēsh, Syriac Rēsh ܪ, and Arabic.
A response, responsicle, or respond, is the second half of one of a set of preces, the said or sung answer by a congregation or choir to a versicle said or sung by an officiant or cantor.
The retroflex approximant is a type of consonant used in some languages.
The retroflex flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Rho (uppercase Ρ, lowercase ρ or ϱ; ῥῶ) is the 17th letter of the Greek alphabet.
In phonetics, rhotic consonants, or "R-like" sounds, are liquid consonants that are traditionally represented orthographically by symbols derived from the Greek letter rho, including r in the Latin script and p in the Cyrillic script.
In differential geometry, the Ricci curvature tensor, named after Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro, represents the amount by which the volume of a small wedge of a geodesic ball in a curved Riemannian manifold deviates from that of the standard ball in Euclidean space.
Rio de Janeiro (River of January), or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas.
Roman cursive (or Latin cursive) is a form of handwriting (or a script) used in ancient Rome and to some extent into the Middle Ages.
Roman square capitals, also called capitalis monumentalis, inscriptional capitals, elegant capitals and capitalis quadrata, are an ancient Roman form of writing, and the basis for modern capital letters.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare early in his career about two young star-crossed lovers whose deaths ultimately reconcile their feuding families.
Runes are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter.
Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots).
Scottish English refers to the varieties of English spoken in Scotland.
Sicilian (sicilianu; in Italian: Siciliano; also known as Siculo (siculu) or Calabro-Sicilian) is a Romance language spoken on the island of Sicily and its satellite islands.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
The Swedish Dialect Alphabet (Landsmålsalfabetet) is a phonetic alphabet created in 1878 by Johan August Lundell and used for the narrow transcription of Swedish dialects.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Teuthonista is a phonetic transcription system used predominantly for the transcription of (High) German dialects.
The Tomb of the Scipios (Latin sepulcrum Scipionum), also called the hypogaeum Scipionum, was the common tomb of the patrician Scipio family during the Roman Republic for interments between the early 3rd century BC and the early 1st century AD.
In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.
Tromsø (Romsa; Tromssa; Tromssa) is a city and municipality in Troms county, Norway.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
The Ugaritic script is a cuneiform abjad used from around either the fifteenth century BCE or 1300 BCE for Ugaritic, an extinct Northwest Semitic language, and discovered in Ugarit (modern Ras Shamra), Syria, in 1928.
Uncial is a majusculeGlaister, Geoffrey Ashall.
Unicode has subscripted and superscripted versions of a number of characters including a full set of Arabic numerals.
The Uralic Phonetic Alphabet (UPA) or Finno-Ugric transcription system is a phonetic transcription or notational system used predominantly for the transcription and reconstruction of Uralic languages.
The uvular trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Uvularization is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the back of the tongue is constricted toward the uvula and upper pharynx during the articulation of a sound with its primary articulation elsewhere.
Venetian or Venetan (Venetian: vèneto, vènet or łéngua vèneta) is a Romance language spoken as a native language by almost four million people in the northeast of Italy,Ethnologue.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
The voiced retroflex sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced uvular fricative or approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
West Country English is one of the English language varieties and accents used by much of the native population of South West England, the area sometimes popularly known as the West Country.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
Ya (Я я; italics: Я я) is a letter of the Cyrillic script, the civil script variant of Old Cyrillic Little Yus.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.