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RAND Corporation

Index RAND Corporation

RAND Corporation ("Research ANd Development") is an American nonprofit global policy think tank created in 1948 by Douglas Aircraft Company to offer research and analysis to the United States Armed Forces. [1]

195 relations: A Million Random Digits with 100,000 Normal Deviates, Abram Shulsky, Alain Enthoven, Albert Wohlstetter, Alex Abella, Allen Newell, Amrom Harry Katz, Andrew Marshall (foreign policy strategist), Ann McLaughlin Korologos, Anthony C. Hearn, Applied science, Area studies, Arlington County, Virginia, ARPANET, Arrow's impossibility theorem, Arthur Emmons Raymond, Artificial intelligence, Australia, Barry Boehm, Belgium, Bernard Brodie (military strategist), Boston, Brian Michael Jenkins, Bruno Augenstein, Brussels, Cambridge, Canberra, Charles P. Ries, Cliff Shaw, Computer, Computer network, Computer scientist, Condoleezza Rice, Criminal justice, Cryptography, CSNET, Curtis LeMay, Daniel Ellsberg, David Galula, Deterrence theory, Dick Cheney, Doctor of Philosophy, Donald Rice, Donald Rumsfeld, Donald Wills Douglas Sr., Douglas Aircraft Company, Douglas Merrill, Dov Seidman, Dow Jones & Company, Dr. Strangelove, ..., Dynamic programming, Economics, Edmund Phelps, Elsevier, Federal government of the United States, Financial endowment, Ford Foundation, Francis Fukuyama, Fred Iklé, Fred Kaplan (journalist), Frederick S. Pardee RAND Graduate School, Gaither Report, Game theory, George Dantzig, Habitable Planets for Man, Harold L. Brode, Harry Markowitz, Harvard University, Hector Ruiz, Henry H. Arnold, Henry Kissinger, Herbert A. Simon, Herman Kahn, Horace Rowan Gaither, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Hubert Dreyfus, Internet, J. Paul Austin, James Gillogly, James R. Schlesinger, James Steinberg, James Thomson (executive), Joel Hyatt, John Forbes Nash Jr., John von Neumann, JOHNNIAC, Justice, Karen Elliott House, Kenneth Arrow, Kevin N. Lewis, Konrad Kellen, Labour economics, Leo Rosten, Linda Darling-Hammond, Linear programming, Lists of space programs, Lloyd N. Morrisett, Lloyd Shapley, Louisiana, Maglev, Major general (United States), Marc Trachtenberg, Margaret Mead, Mariner Books, Mary E. Peters, Massachusetts, Mathematician, Merton E. Davies, Michael D. Rich, Michael Lynton, MIT Press, Mutual assured destruction, National Security Advisor (United States), Neutron bomb, New Orleans, Newton N. Minow, Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, Nobel Peace Prize, Nobel Prize, Nonprofit organization, Norman Shapiro, Nuclear warfare, Office of Scientific Research and Development, Office of Special Plans, Oliver E. Williamson, On Thermonuclear War, Operations research, Outline of physical science, Packet switching, Paul Baran, Paul G. Kaminski, Paul H. O'Neill, Paul Samuelson, Paul Y. Hammond, Peer review, Pennsylvania, Pentagon Papers, Philip Lader, Physicist, Pittsburgh, Precision-guided munition, Preliminary Design of an Experimental World-Circling Spaceship, Princeton University, Princeton University Press, Public policy, RAND Health Insurance Experiment, Ratan Tata, Ray Mabus, Reduce (computer algebra system), Richard E. Bellman, Robert Aumann, Robert M. Salter, Robert McNamara, Roberta Wohlstetter, Samuel T. Cohen, San Francisco Bay Area, Santa Monica Mirror, Santa Monica, California, Scenario planning, Scooter Libby, Seymour Hersh, Simon & Schuster, Simplex algorithm, Smithsonian Institution, Smithsonian Institution Archives, Social choice theory, Stanford University Press, Systems analysis, Tata Sons, The End of History and the Last Man, The New Yorker, The RAND Journal of Economics, The Wall Street Journal, Theory, Think tank, Thomas P. Hughes, Thomas Schelling, Unconquerable Nation, United Kingdom, United States Armed Forces, United States Army Air Forces, United States Department of Health and Human Services, United States Department of War, United States dollar, United States Secretary of State, University, University of Chicago Press, Vactrain, Walter Cunningham, Wargaming, Welfare, William H. Webster, Willis Ware, World population, Zalmay Khalilzad. Expand index (145 more) »

A Million Random Digits with 100,000 Normal Deviates

A Million Random Digits with 100,000 Normal Deviates is a random number book by the RAND Corporation, originally published in 1955.

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Abram Shulsky

Abram Shulsky (born August 15, 1942) is a neoconservative scholar who has worked for U.S. government, RAND Corporation, and the Hudson Institute.

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Alain Enthoven

Alain C. Enthoven (born September 10, 1930) is an American economist.

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Albert Wohlstetter

Albert James Wohlstetter (December 19, 1913 – January 10, 1997) was an influential and controversial nuclear strategist during the Cold War.

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Alex Abella

Alex Abella (born 1950) is an American author and journalist best known for his non-fiction works Soldiers of Reason: The RAND Corporation and the Rise of the American Empire (2008) and Shadow Enemies: Hitler's Secret Terrorist Plot Against the United States (2003, with Scott Gordon).

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Allen Newell

Allen Newell (March 19, 1927 – July 19, 1992) was a researcher in computer science and cognitive psychology at the RAND Corporation and at Carnegie Mellon University’s School of Computer Science, Tepper School of Business, and Department of Psychology.

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Amrom Harry Katz

Amrom Harry Katz (August 15, 1915 – February 10, 1997) was an American physicist who specialized in aerial reconnaissance.

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Andrew Marshall (foreign policy strategist)

Andrew W. Marshall (born September 13, 1921) is an American foreign policy strategist who served as director of the United States Department of Defense's Office of Net Assessment from 1973 to 2015.

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Ann McLaughlin Korologos

Ann McLaughlin Korologos (born Ann Marie Lauenstein; November 16, 1941), formerly known as Ann Dore McLaughlin, was the United States Secretary of Labor from 1987 to 1989.

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Anthony C. Hearn

Anthony C. Hearn is an Australian-American computer scientist and adjunct staff member at RAND Corporation and at the Institute for Defense Analyses Center for Computing Sciences.

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Applied science

Applied science is the application of existing scientific knowledge to practical applications, like technology or inventions.

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Area studies

Area studies (also: regional studies) are interdisciplinary fields of research and scholarship pertaining to particular geographical, national/federal, or cultural regions.

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Arlington County, Virginia

Arlington County is a county in the Commonwealth of Virginia, often referred to simply as Arlington or Arlington, Virginia.

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The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was an early packet switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP.

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Arrow's impossibility theorem

In social choice theory, Arrow's impossibility theorem, the general possibility theorem or Arrow's paradox is an impossibility theorem stating that when voters have three or more distinct alternatives (options), no ranked voting electoral system can convert the ranked preferences of individuals into a community-wide (complete and transitive) ranking while also meeting a specified set of criteria: unrestricted domain, non-dictatorship, Pareto efficiency and independence of irrelevant alternatives.

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Arthur Emmons Raymond

Arthur Emmons Raymond (March 24, 1899 in Boston Massachusetts – March 22, 1999 in Santa Monica, California) was an aeronautical engineer who led the team that designed the DC-3.

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Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Barry Boehm

Barry W. Boehm (born 1935) is an American software engineer, distinguished professor of computer science, industrial and systems engineering; the TRW Professor of Software Engineering; and founding director of the Center for Systems and Software Engineering at the University of Southern California.

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Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.

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Bernard Brodie (military strategist)

Bernard Brodie (May 20, 1910 – November 24, 1978) was an American military strategist well known for establishing the basics of nuclear strategy.

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Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.

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Brian Michael Jenkins

Brian Michael Jenkins, born in 1942 in Chicago, is an expert on terrorism and transportation security.

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Bruno Augenstein

Bruno Wilhelm Augenstein (March 16, 1923 – July 6, 2005) was a German-born mathematician and physicist who made important contributions in space technology, ballistic missile research, satellites, antimatter, and many other areas.

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Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.

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Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.

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Canberra is the capital city of Australia.

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Charles P. Ries

Charles P. Ries (born 1951) is the vice president, International at the Rand Corporation.

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Cliff Shaw

John Clifford Shaw (1922–9 February 1991) was a systems programmer at the RAND Corporation.

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A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.

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Computer network

A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.

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Computer scientist

A computer scientist is a person who has acquired the knowledge of computer science, the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their application.

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Condoleezza Rice

Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is an American political scientist and diplomat.

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Criminal justice

Criminal justice is the delivery of justice to those who have committed crimes.

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Cryptography or cryptology (from κρυπτός|translit.

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The Computer Science Network (CSNET) was a computer network that began operation in 1981 in the United States.

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Curtis LeMay

Curtis LeMay (November 15, 1906 – October 1, 1990) was a general in the United States Air Force and the vice presidential running mate of American Independent Party candidate George Wallace in the 1968 presidential election.

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Daniel Ellsberg

Daniel Ellsberg (born April 7, 1931) is an American activist and former United States military analyst who, while employed by the RAND Corporation, precipitated a national political controversy in 1971 when he released the Pentagon Papers, a top-secret Pentagon study of U.S. government decision-making in relation to the Vietnam War, to The New York Times and other newspapers.

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David Galula

David Galula (1919–1967) was a French military officer and scholar who was influential in developing the theory and practice of counterinsurgency warfare.

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Deterrence theory

Deterrence theory gained increased prominence as a military strategy during the Cold War with regard to the use of nuclear weapons.

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Dick Cheney

Richard Bruce Cheney (born January 30, 1941) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 46th Vice President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.

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Doctor of Philosophy

A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD or Ph.D.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries.

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Donald Rice

Donald Blessing Rice (born Frederick, Maryland, June 4, 1939) is a California businessman and senior government official.

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Donald Rumsfeld

Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a retired American political figure and businessman.

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Donald Wills Douglas Sr.

Donald Wills Douglas Sr. (April 6, 1892 – February 1, 1981) was an American aircraft industrialist and engineer.

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Douglas Aircraft Company

The Douglas Aircraft Company was an American aerospace manufacturer based in Southern California.

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Douglas Merrill

Douglas Clark Merrill (born 1970) is an American technologist and fintech entrepreneur.

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Dov Seidman

Dov Seidman (born May 13, 1964) is an American author, attorney, columnist and businessman.

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Dow Jones & Company

Dow Jones & Company is an American publishing and financial information firm that has been owned by News Corp. since 2007.

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Dr. Strangelove


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Dynamic programming

Dynamic programming is both a mathematical optimization method and a computer programming method.

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Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

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Edmund Phelps

Edmund Strother Phelps, (born July 26, 1933) is an American economist and the winner of the 2006 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences.

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Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.

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Federal government of the United States

The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.

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Financial endowment

A financial endowment is a donation of money or property to a nonprofit organization for the ongoing support of that organization.

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Ford Foundation

The Ford Foundation is a New York-headquartered, globally oriented private foundation with the mission of advancing human welfare.

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Francis Fukuyama

Yoshihiro Francis "Frank" Fukuyama (born October 27, 1952) is an American political scientist, political economist, and author.

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Fred Iklé

Fred Charles Iklé (August 21, 1924 – November 10, 2011) was a Swiss-born sociologist and defense expert who became a significant part of the US defense policy establishment.

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Fred Kaplan (journalist)

Fred M. Kaplan (born July 4, 1954) is an American author and journalist.

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Frederick S. Pardee RAND Graduate School

The Frederick S. Pardee RAND Graduate School (Pardee RAND) is a private, higher-education institution that offers doctoral studies in policy analysis and practical experience working on RAND research projects to solve current public policy problems.

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Gaither Report

Deterrence & Survival in the Nuclear Age was the report of the Security Resources Panel of the President's Science Advisory Committee, presented to President Eisenhower on November 7, 1957.

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Game theory

Game theory is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers".

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George Dantzig

George Bernard Dantzig (November 8, 1914 – May 13, 2005) was an American mathematical scientist who made important contributions to operations research, computer science, economics, and statistics.

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Habitable Planets for Man

Habitable Planets For Man is a work by Stephen Dole, first edition published by Blaisdell Publishing Company, A division of Ginn and Company, copyright 1964 by The RAND Corporation.

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Harold L. Brode

Harold L. Brode is a nuclear weapons effects physicist who pioneered computer simulations of nuclear explosions at the RAND Corporation in the 1950s.

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Harry Markowitz

Harry Max Markowitz (born August 24, 1927) is an American economist, and a recipient of the 1989 John von Neumann Theory Prize and the 1990 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences.

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Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Hector Ruiz

Hector de Jesus Ruiz Cardenas (born December 25, 1945) is the chairman and CEO of and former CEO & executive chairman of semiconductor company Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD).

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Henry H. Arnold

Henry Harley "Hap" Arnold (June 25, 1886 – January 15, 1950) was an American general officer holding the grades of General of the Army and General of the Air Force.

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Henry Kissinger

Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger, May 27, 1923) is an American statesman, political scientist, diplomat and geopolitical consultant who served as the United States Secretary of State and National Security Advisor under the presidential administrations of Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford.

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Herbert A. Simon

Herbert Alexander Simon (June 15, 1916 – February 9, 2001) was an American economist and political scientist whose primary interest was decision-making within organizations and is best known for the theories of "bounded rationality" and "satisficing".

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Herman Kahn

Herman Kahn (February 15, 1922 – July 7, 1983) was a founder of the Hudson Institute and one of the preeminent futurists of the latter part of the twentieth century.

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Horace Rowan Gaither

Horace Rowan Gaither Jr. (1909 – April 7, 1961), known as H. Rowan Gaither, was a San Francisco attorney, investment banker, and a powerful administrator at the Ford Foundation.

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Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH) is an educational and trade publisher in the United States.

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Hubert Dreyfus

Hubert Lederer Dreyfus (October 15, 1929 – April 22, 2017) was an American philosopher and professor of philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley.

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The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.

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J. Paul Austin

John Paul Austin (February 14, 1915 – December 26, 1985) was Chairman, President and CEO of The Coca-Cola Company.

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James Gillogly

James J. Gillogly (born 5 March 1946) is an American computer scientist and cryptographer.

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James R. Schlesinger

James Rodney Schlesinger (February 15, 1929 – March 27, 2014) was an American economist and public servant who was best known for serving as Secretary of Defense from 1973 to 1975 under Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford.

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James Steinberg

James Braidy "Jim" Steinberg (born May 7, 1953) is an American academic and political advisor, and former Deputy Secretary of State.

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James Thomson (executive)


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Joel Hyatt

Joel Z Hyatt (born Joel Hyatt Zylberberg; May 6, 1950) is an American entrepreneur, lecturer, philanthropist, former attorney, and politician of the Democratic Party, most notably as a Party leader, fundraiser, and foreign policy advisor.

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John Forbes Nash Jr.

John Forbes Nash Jr. (June 13, 1928 – May 23, 2015) was an American mathematician who made fundamental contributions to game theory, differential geometry, and the study of partial differential equations.

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John von Neumann

John von Neumann (Neumann János Lajos,; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, and polymath.

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The JOHNNIAC was an early computer built by the RAND Corporation (not to be confused with Remington Rand, maker of the contemporaneous UNIVAC I computer) that was based on the von Neumann architecture that had been pioneered on the IAS machine.

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Justice is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered.

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Karen Elliott House

Karen Elliott House (born 1947) is an American journalist and former managing editor at The Wall Street Journal and its parent company Dow Jones.

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Kenneth Arrow

Kenneth Joseph "Ken" Arrow (23 August 1921 – 21 February 2017) was an American economist, mathematician, writer, and political theorist.

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Kevin N. Lewis

Kevin N. Lewis (March 23, 1955 – April 26, 2008) was an American defense analyst researcher at the RAND Corporation.

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Konrad Kellen

Konrad Kellen (born Konrad Moritz Adolf Katzenellenbogen; December 14, 1913 – April 8, 2007) was a German-born American political scientist, intelligence analyst and author.

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Labour economics

Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets for wage labour.

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Leo Rosten

Leo Calvin Rosten (April 11, 1908 – February 19, 1997) was an American humorist in the fields of scriptwriting, storywriting, journalism, and Yiddish lexicography.

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Linda Darling-Hammond

Linda Darling-Hammond (December 21, 1951) is the Charles E. Ducommun Professor of Education Emeritus at the Stanford Graduate School of Education and President and CEO of the.

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Linear programming

Linear programming (LP, also called linear optimization) is a method to achieve the best outcome (such as maximum profit or lowest cost) in a mathematical model whose requirements are represented by linear relationships.

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Lists of space programs

Lists of space programs include.

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Lloyd N. Morrisett

Lloyd N. Morrisett (June 23, 1892 – November 25, 1981) was an American educator.

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Lloyd Shapley

Lloyd Stowell Shapley (June 2, 1923 – March 12, 2016) was an American mathematician and Nobel Prize-winning economist.

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Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.

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Maglev (derived from magnetic levitation) is a system of train transportation that uses two sets of magnets, one set to repel and push the train up off the track as in levitation (hence Maglev, Magnetic-levitation), then another set to move the 'floating train' ahead at great speed taking advantage of the lack of friction.

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Major general (United States)

In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and United States Air Force, major general is a two-star general-officer rank, with the pay grade of O-8.

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Marc Trachtenberg


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Margaret Mead

Margaret Mead (December 16, 1901 – November 15, 1978) was an American cultural anthropologist who featured frequently as an author and speaker in the mass media during the 1960s and 1970s.

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Mariner Books

Mariner Books, a division of Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, was established in 1997 as a publisher of fiction, non-fiction, and poetry in paperback.

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Mary E. Peters

Mary E. Peters (born December 4, 1948) served as the United States Secretary of Transportation under President George W. Bush from 2006 to 2009.

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Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.

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A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems.

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Merton E. Davies

Merton E. Davies (September 13, 1917 – April 17, 2001) was a pioneer of America's space program, first in earth reconnaissance and later in planetary exploration and mapping.

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Michael D. Rich

Michael Rich is the President and Chief Executive Officer of the RAND Corporation, the institution's highest-ranking position, which he has held since November 2011.

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Michael Lynton

Michael Mark Lynton (born January 1, 1960) is a businessman and current chairman of Snap Inc.

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MIT Press

The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).

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Mutual assured destruction

Mutual assured destruction or mutually assured destruction (MAD) is a doctrine of military strategy and national security policy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by two or more opposing sides would cause the complete annihilation of both the attacker and the defender (see pre-emptive nuclear strike and second strike).

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National Security Advisor (United States)

The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (APNSA), commonly referred to as the National Security Advisor (NSA) or at times informally termed the NSC Advisor,The National Security Advisor and Staff: p. 1.

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Neutron bomb

A neutron bomb, officially defined as a type of enhanced radiation weapon (ERW), is a low yield thermonuclear weapon designed to maximize lethal neutron radiation in the immediate vicinity of the blast while minimizing the physical power of the blast itself.

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New Orleans

New Orleans (. Merriam-Webster.; La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana.

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Newton N. Minow

Newton Norman "Newt" Minow (born January 17, 1926) is an American attorney and former Chair of the Federal Communications Commission.

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Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences

The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (officially Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne, or the Swedish National Bank's Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel), commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Economics, is an award for outstanding contributions to the field of economics, and generally regarded as the most prestigious award for that field.

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Nobel Peace Prize

The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.

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Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.

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Nonprofit organization

A non-profit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity or non-profit institution, is dedicated to furthering a particular social cause or advocating for a shared point of view.

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Norman Shapiro

Norman Zalmon Shapiro (born 1932) is an American mathematician, who is the co-author of the Rice–Shapiro theorem.

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Nuclear warfare

Nuclear warfare (sometimes atomic warfare or thermonuclear warfare) is a military conflict or political strategy in which nuclear weaponry is used to inflict damage on the enemy.

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Office of Scientific Research and Development

The Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) was an agency of the United States federal government created to coordinate scientific research for military purposes during World War II.

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Office of Special Plans

The Office of Special Plans (OSP), which existed from September 2002 to June 2003, was a Pentagon unit created by Paul Wolfowitz and Douglas Feith, and headed by Feith, as charged by then-United States Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, to supply senior George W. Bush administration officials with raw intelligence (unvetted by intelligence analysts, see Stovepiping) pertaining to Iraq.

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Oliver E. Williamson

Oliver Eaton Williamson (born September 27, 1932) is an American economist, a professor at the University of California, Berkeley, and recipient of the 2009 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, which he shared with Elinor Ostrom.

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On Thermonuclear War

On Thermonuclear War is a book by Herman Kahn, a military strategist at the RAND Corporation, although it was written only a year before he left RAND to form the Hudson Institute.

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Operations research

Operations research, or operational research in British usage, is a discipline that deals with the application of advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions.

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Outline of physical science

Physical science is a branch of natural science that studies non-living systems, in contrast to life science.

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Packet switching

Packet switching is a method of grouping data which is transmitted over a digital network into packets which are made of a header and a payload.

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Paul Baran

Paul Baran (April 29, 1926 – March 26, 2011) was a Polish-born Jewish American engineer who was a pioneer in the development of computer networks.

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Paul G. Kaminski

Paul G. Kaminski (born September 16, 1942) is a technologist and former U.S. government official, best known for his leading role in the development of stealth aircraft.

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Paul H. O'Neill

Paul Henry O'Neill (born December 4, 1935) served as the 72nd United States Secretary of the Treasury for part of President George W. Bush's first term.

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Paul Samuelson

Paul Anthony Samuelson (15 May 1915 – 13 December 2009) was an American economist and the first American to win the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences.

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Paul Y. Hammond

Paul Young Hammond (February 24, 1929 – March 9, 2012) was an American foreign policy and security studies scholar.

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Peer review

Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people of similar competence to the producers of the work (peers).

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Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.

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Pentagon Papers

The Pentagon Papers, officially titled Report of the Office of the Secretary of Defense Vietnam Task Force, is a United States Department of Defense history of the United States' political and military involvement in Vietnam from 1945 to 1967.

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Philip Lader

Philip Lader (born March 17, 1946), the former U.S. Ambassador to the UK, was chairman of WPP plc (including Ogilvy & Mather, J. Walter Thompson, Young & Rubicam, Burson-Marsteller, Hill & Knowlton and 110 other companies, with 205,000 employees in 112 countries).

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A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.

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Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, and is the county seat of Allegheny County.

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Precision-guided munition

A precision-guided munition (PGM, smart weapon, smart munition, smart bomb) is a guided munition intended to precisely hit a specific target, to minimize collateral damage and increase lethality against intended targets.

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Preliminary Design of an Experimental World-Circling Spaceship

The Preliminary Design of an Experimental World-Circling Spaceship was a 1946 proposal by Project RAND for a United States satellite program.

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Princeton University

Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.

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Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

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Public policy

Public policy is the principled guide to action taken by the administrative executive branches of the state with regard to a class of issues, in a manner consistent with law and institutional customs.

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RAND Health Insurance Experiment

The RAND Health Insurance Experiment (RAND HIE) was an experimental study of health care costs, utilization and outcomes in the United States, which assigned people randomly to different kinds of plans and followed their behavior, from 1974 to 1982.

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Ratan Tata

Ratan Naval Tata (born 28 December 1937) is an Indian industrialist, investor, philanthropist, and former chairman of Tata Sons.

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Ray Mabus

Raymond Edwin Mabus Jr. (born October 11, 1948) is an American politician and diplomat and member of the Democratic Party who served as the 75th United States Secretary of the Navy from 2009 to 2017.

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Reduce (computer algebra system)

Reduce is a general-purpose computer algebra system geared towards applications in physics.

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Richard E. Bellman

Richard Ernest Bellman (August 26, 1920 – March 19, 1984) was an American applied mathematician, who introduced dynamic programming in 1953, and important contributions in other fields of mathematics.

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Robert Aumann

Robert John Aumann (Hebrew name: ישראל אומן, Yisrael Aumann; born June 8, 1930) is an Israeli-American mathematician and a member of the United States National Academy of Sciences.

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Robert M. Salter

Robert M. Salter Jr. was an American engineer who worked for the RAND Corporation.

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Robert McNamara

Robert Strange McNamara (June 9, 1916 – July 6, 2009) was an American business executive and the eighth Secretary of Defense, serving from 1961 to 1968 under Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson.

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Roberta Wohlstetter

Roberta Mary Morgan, better known by her married name of Roberta Wohlstetter, (August 22, 1912 - January 6, 2007), was one of America's most important historians of military intelligence.

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Samuel T. Cohen

Samuel Theodore Cohen (January 25, 1921 – November 28, 2010) was an American physicist who is generally credited as the father of the neutron bomb.

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San Francisco Bay Area

The San Francisco Bay Area (popularly referred to as the Bay Area) is a populous region surrounding the San Francisco, San Pablo and Suisun estuaries in the northern part of the U.S. state of California.

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Santa Monica Mirror

The Santa Monica Mirror is a weekly community newspaper which covers Santa Monica, Brentwood, Pacific Palisades, Venice, and Marina del Rey in the U.S. state of California.

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Santa Monica, California

Santa Monica is a beachfront city in western Los Angeles County, California, United States.

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Scenario planning

Scenario planning, also called scenario thinking or scenario analysis, is a strategic planning method that some organizations use to make flexible long-term plans.

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Scooter Libby


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Seymour Hersh

Seymour Myron "Sy" Hersh (born April 8, 1937) is an American investigative journalist and political writer based in Washington, D.C. He is a longtime contributor to The New Yorker magazine on national security matters and has also written for the London Review of Books since 2013.

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Simon & Schuster

Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.

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Simplex algorithm

In mathematical optimization, Dantzig's simplex algorithm (or simplex method) is a popular algorithm for linear programming.

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Smithsonian Institution

The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.

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Smithsonian Institution Archives

The Smithsonian Institution Archives (SIA) is the archives of the Smithsonian Institution.

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Social choice theory

Social choice theory or social choice is a theoretical framework for analysis of combining individual opinions, preferences, interests, or welfares to reach a collective decision or social welfare in some sense.

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Stanford University Press

The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.

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Systems analysis

The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines system analysis as "the process of studying a procedure or business in order to identify its goals and purposes and create systems and procedures that will achieve them in an efficient way".

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Tata Sons

Tata Sons Limited is the holding company of the Tata Group and holds the bulk of shareholding in group companies.

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The End of History and the Last Man

The End of History and the Last Man is a 1992 book by Francis Fukuyama, expanding on his 1989 essay "The End of History?", published in the international affairs journal The National Interest.

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The New Yorker

The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.

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The RAND Journal of Economics

The RAND Journal of Economics (usually called Rand Journal or simply Rand) is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal of economics published quarterly by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the RAND Corporation.

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The Wall Street Journal

The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.

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A theory is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or the results of such thinking.

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Think tank

A think tank, think factory or policy institute is a research institute/center and organisation that performs research and advocacy concerning topics such as social policy, political strategy, economics, military, technology, and culture.

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Thomas P. Hughes

Thomas Parke Hughes (September 13, 1923 – February 3, 2014) was an American historian of technology.

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Thomas Schelling

Thomas Crombie Schelling (April 14, 1921 – December 13, 2016) was an American economist and professor of foreign policy, national security, nuclear strategy, and arms control at the School of Public Policy at University of Maryland, College Park.

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Unconquerable Nation

Unconquerable Nation: Knowing Our Enemy, Strengthening Ourselves is a book written by Brian Michael Jenkins, one of the world's foremost authorities on terrorism.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States Armed Forces

The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.

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United States Army Air Forces

The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF or AAF), informally known as the Air Force, was the aerial warfare service of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II (1939/41–1945), successor to the previous United States Army Air Corps and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force of today, one of the five uniformed military services.

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United States Department of Health and Human Services

The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.

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United States Department of War

The United States Department of War, also called the War Department (and occasionally War Office in the early years), was the United States Cabinet department originally responsible for the operation and maintenance of the United States Army, also bearing responsibility for naval affairs until the establishment of the Navy Department in 1798, and for most land-based air forces until the creation of the Department of the Air Force on September 18, 1947.

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United States dollar

The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.

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United States Secretary of State

The Secretary of State is a senior official of the federal government of the United States of America, and as head of the U.S. Department of State, is principally concerned with foreign policy and is considered to be the U.S. government's equivalent of a Minister for Foreign Affairs.

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A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.

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University of Chicago Press

The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.

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A vactrain (or vacuum tube train) is a proposed design for very-high-speed rail transportation.

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Walter Cunningham

Ronnie Walter Cunningham (born March 16, 1932), (Col, USMCR, Ret.), better known as Walter Cunningham, is a retired American astronaut.

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A wargame (also war game) is a strategy game that deals with military operations of various types, real or fictional.

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Welfare is a government support for the citizens and residents of society.

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William H. Webster

William Hedgcock Webster (born March 6, 1924) is an American attorney, jurist, and current Chairman of the Homeland Security Advisory Council.

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Willis Ware

Willis Howard Ware (August 31, 1920 – November 22, 2013) was an American computer pioneer, privacy pioneer, social critic of technology policy, and a founder in the field of computer security.

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World population

In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.6 billion people as of May 2018.

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Zalmay Khalilzad

Zalmay Mamozy Khalilzad (Pashto: زلمی خلیلزاد Zalmay Khalīlzād; born March 22, 1951) is a former US diplomat and a counselor at the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) and the president of Gryphon Partners and Khalilzad Associates, an international business consulting firm, based in Washington, DC He was the US Ambassador to the United Nations, under President George W. Bush.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RAND_Corporation

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