80 relations: Abortive initiation, Alpha-Amanitin, Amino acid, Archaea, Aspartic acid, Audrey Stevens Niyogi, Bacteria, Bacteriophage, Cell (biology), Cell nucleus, Chloroplast, Coding strand, Complementarity (molecular biology), Cytosol, De novo synthesis, DNA, DNA binding site, DNA polymerase, DNA supercoil, Dystrophin, Enzyme, Escherichia coli, Eukaryote, Gene, Gene expression, Halobacterium salinarum, Halophile, Heat shock protein, Helicase, Heterochromatin, Housekeeping gene, Intrinsic termination, Ion chromatography, Jerard Hurwitz, Mediator (coactivator), Messenger RNA, MicroRNA, Mitochondrion, Negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus, Nobel Prize, Non-coding DNA, Non-coding RNA, Nucleotide, Orthopoxvirus, Peptide, Poliomyelitis, Polynucleotide phosphorylase, Positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus, Promoter (genetics), Reverse transcriptase, ..., Rho factor, Ribosomal RNA, Ribosome, Ribozyme, Richard H. Ebright, RNA, RNA polymerase I, RNA polymerase II, RNA polymerase III, RNA polymerase IV, RNA polymerase V, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, Roger D. Kornberg, RpoB, Saccharolobus shibatae, Severo Ochoa, Sigma factor, Small interfering RNA, Small nuclear RNA, Small RNA, Sulfolobus solfataricus, T7 RNA polymerase, Terminator (genetics), Transcription (biology), Transcription factor, Transfer RNA, Translation (biology), Unified atomic mass unit, Virus, X-ray crystallography. Expand index (30 more) » « Shrink index
Abortive initiation, also known as abortive transcription, is an early process of genetic transcription in which RNA polymerase binds to a DNA promoter and enters into cycles of synthesis of short mRNA transcripts which are released before the transcription complex leaves the promoter.
alpha-Amanitin or α-amanitin is a cyclic peptide of eight amino acids.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D; salts known as aspartates), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Audrey Stevens Niyogi (July 21, 1932February 28, 2010) was an American biochemist, best known as a co-discoverer of RNA polymerase.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
A bacteriophage, also known informally as a phage, is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria and Archaea.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.
When referring to DNA transcription, the coding strand is the DNA strand whose base sequence corresponds to the base sequence of the RNA transcript produced (although with thymine replaced by uracil).
In molecular biology, complementarity describes a relationship between two structures each following the lock-and-key principle.
The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.
De novo synthesis refers to the synthesis of complex molecules from simple molecules such as sugars or amino acids, as opposed to recycling after partial degradation.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind.
DNA polymerases are enzymes that synthesize DNA molecules from deoxyribonucleotides, the building blocks of DNA.
DNA supercoiling refers to the over- or under-winding of a DNA strand, and is an expression of the strain on that strand.
Dystrophin is a rod-shaped cytoplasmic protein, and a vital part of a protein complex that connects the cytoskeleton of a muscle fiber to the surrounding extracellular matrix through the cell membrane.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
Halobacterium salinarum is an extremely halophilic marine Gram-negative obligate aerobic archaeon.
Halophiles are organisms that thrive in high salt concentrations.
Heat shock proteins (HSP) are a family of proteins that are produced by cells in response to exposure to stressful conditions.
Helicases are a class of enzymes vital to all living organisms.
Heterochromatin is a tightly packed form of DNA or condensed DNA, which comes in multiple varieties.
In molecular biology, housekeeping genes are typically constitutive genes that are required for the maintenance of basic cellular function, and are expressed in all cells of an organism under normal and patho-physiological conditions.
Intrinsic termination (also called Rho-independent termination) is a mechanism in prokaryotes that causes RNA transcription to stop and release the newly made RNA.
Ion chromatography (or ion-exchange chromatography) is a chromatography process that separates ions and polar molecules based on their affinity to the ion exchanger.
Jerard Hurwitz (born 1928) is an American biochemist who co-discovered RNA polymerase in 1960 along with Sam Weiss, Audrey Stevens, and James Bonner.
Mediator is a multiprotein complex that functions as a transcriptional coactivator in all eukaryotes.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.
A microRNA (abbreviated miRNA) is a small non-coding RNA molecule (containing about 22 nucleotides) found in plants, animals and some viruses, that functions in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
A negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus (or (-)ssRNA virus) is a virus that uses negative sense, single-stranded RNA as its genetic material.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
In genomics and related disciplines, noncoding DNA sequences are components of an organism's DNA that do not encode protein sequences.
A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is an RNA molecule that is not translated into a protein.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
Orthopoxvirus is a genus of viruses in the family Poxviridae and subfamily Chordopoxvirinae.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus.
Polynucleotide Phosphorylase (PNPase) is a bifunctional enzyme with a phosphorolytic 3' to 5' exoribonuclease activity and a 3'-terminal oligonucleotide polymerase activity.
A positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus (or (+)ssRNA virus) is a virus that uses positive sense, single-stranded RNA as its genetic material.
In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.
A reverse transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme used to generate complementary DNA (cDNA) from an RNA template, a process termed reverse transcription.
A ρ factor (Rho factor) is a prokaryotic protein involved in the termination of transcription.
Ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is the RNA component of the ribosome, and is essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms.
The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).
Ribozymes (ribonucleic acid enzymes) are RNA molecules that are capable of catalyzing specific biochemical reactions, similar to the action of protein enzymes.
Richard High Ebright is an American molecular biologist.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
RNA polymerase 1 (also known as Pol I) is, in higher eukaryotes, the polymerase that only transcribes ribosomal RNA (but not 5S rRNA, which is synthesized by RNA polymerase III), a type of RNA that accounts for over 50% of the total RNA synthesized in a cell.
RNA polymerase II (RNAP II and Pol II) is a multiprotein complex.
In eukaryote cells, RNA polymerase III (also called Pol III) transcribes DNA to synthesize ribosomal 5S rRNA, tRNA and other small RNAs.
RNA polymerase IV is an enzyme which synthesizes small interfering RNA (siRNA) in plants.
RNA polymerase V is a multisubunit plant specific RNA polymerase found in nucleus.
RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP), (RDR), or RNA replicase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the replication of RNA from an RNA template.
Roger David Kornberg (born April 24, 1947) is an American biochemist and professor of structural biology at Stanford University School of Medicine.
The rpoB gene encodes the β subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase.
Saccharolobus shibatae is an archaeal species belongs to the kingdom Crenarchaeota.
Severo Ochoa de Albornoz (24 September 1905 – 1 November 1993) was a Spanish-American physician and biochemist, and joint winner of the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Arthur Kornberg.
A sigma factor (σ factor) is a protein needed only for initiation of transcription.
Small interfering RNA (siRNA), sometimes known as short interfering RNA or silencing RNA, is a class of double-stranded RNA molecules, 20-25 base pairs in length, similar to miRNA, and operating within the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway.
Small nuclear ribonucleic acid (snRNA), also commonly referred to as U-RNA, is a class of small RNA molecules that are found within the splicing speckles and Cajal bodies of the cell nucleus in eukaryotic cells.
Small RNA are RNA silencing is often a function of these molecules, with the most common and well-studied example being RNA interference (RNAi), in which endogenously expressed microRNA (miRNA) or exogenously derived small interfering RNA (siRNA) induces the degradation of complementary messenger RNA.
Sulfolobus solfataricus is a species of thermophilic archaeon.
T7 RNA Polymerase is an RNA polymerase from the T7 bacteriophage that catalyzes the formation of RNA from DNA in the 5'→ 3' direction.
In genetics, a transcription terminator is a section of nucleic acid sequence that marks the end of a gene or operon in genomic DNA during transcription.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins.
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, DNA-dependent RNA polymerases, DNAdependent RNA polymerase, Dna-directed rna polymerases, Nucleoside-triphosphate:RNA nucleotidyltransferase (DNA-directed), RNA Polymerase, RNA-Polymerase, RNAP, RNApol, Ribonucleic acid polymerase, Rna Polymerase, Rna polymerase sigma 54.