42 relations: Cell (biology), Cellular differentiation, Crystal structure, DNA, DNA supercoil, Eukaryote, Genetic recombination, HMG-box, Internal transcribed spacer, Mitosis, Myc, Nucleolus, Nucleolus organizer region, Nucleosome, Peptide, Polymerase, Promoter (genetics), Protein, Protein subunit, PTRF, Recombination hotspot, Ribosomal DNA, Ribosomal RNA, RNA polymerase, RNA polymerase II, RNA polymerase III, RRN3, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Selective factor 1, Small nucleolar RNA, Tandem repeat, TATA box, TATA-binding protein, Topoisomerase, Transcription (biology), Transcription factor, Transcription termination factor, RNA polymerase I, UBTF, 18S ribosomal RNA, 28S ribosomal RNA, 5.8S ribosomal RNA, 5S ribosomal RNA.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA supercoiling refers to the over- or under-winding of a DNA strand, and is an expression of the strain on that strand.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.
In molecular biology, the HMG-box (high mobility group box) is a protein domain which is involved in DNA binding.
Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) refers to the spacer DNA situated between the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and large-subunit rRNA genes in the chromosome or the corresponding transcribed region in the polycistronic rRNA precursor transcript.
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.
Myc is a family of regulator genes and proto-oncogenes that code for transcription factors.
The nucleolus (plural nucleoli) is the largest structure in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells.
Nucleolus organiser regions (NORs) are chromosomal regions crucial for the formation of the nucleolus.
A nucleosome is a basic unit of DNA packaging in eukaryotes, consisting of a segment of DNA wound in sequence around eight histone protein cores.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
A polymerase is an enzyme (EC 18.104.22.168/7/19/48/49) that synthesizes long chains of polymers or nucleic acids.
In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
In structural biology, a protein subunit is a single protein molecule that assembles (or "coassembles") with other protein molecules to form a protein complex.
Polymerase I and transcript release factor, also known as Cavin1, Cavin-1 or PTRF, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the PTRF gene.
Recombination hotspots are regions in a genome that exhibit elevated rates of recombination relative to a neutral expectation.
Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is a DNA sequence that codes for ribosomal RNA.
Ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is the RNA component of the ribosome, and is essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms.
RNA polymerase (ribonucleic acid polymerase), both abbreviated RNAP or RNApol, official name DNA-directed RNA polymerase, is a member of a family of enzymes that are essential to life: they are found in all organisms (-species) and many viruses.
RNA polymerase II (RNAP II and Pol II) is a multiprotein complex.
In eukaryote cells, RNA polymerase III (also called Pol III) transcribes DNA to synthesize ribosomal 5S rRNA, tRNA and other small RNAs.
RNA polymerase I-specific transcription initiation factor RRN3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RRN3 gene.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast.
Selective factor 1 (also known as SL1) is a transcription factor that binds to the promoter of genes and recruits a preinitiation complex to which RNA polymerase I will bind to and begin the transcription of ribosomal RNA (rRNA).
Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are a class of small RNA molecules that primarily guide chemical modifications of other RNAs, mainly ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs and small nuclear RNAs.
Tandem repeats occur in DNA when a pattern of one or more nucleotides is repeated and the repetitions are directly adjacent to each other.
In molecular biology, the TATA box (also called the Goldberg-Hogness box) is a sequence of DNA found in the core promoter region of genes in archaea and eukaryotes.
The TATA-binding protein (TBP) is a general transcription factor that binds specifically to a DNA sequence called the TATA box.
Topoisomerases are enzymes that participate in the overwinding or underwinding of DNA.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
Transcription termination factor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TTF1 gene.
Nucleolar transcription factor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the UBTF gene.
18S ribosomal RNA (abbreviated 18S rRNA) is a part of the ribosomal RNA.
28S ribosomal RNA is the structural ribosomal RNA (rRNA) for the large component, or large subunit (LSU) of eukaryotic cytoplasmic ribosomes, and thus one of the basic components of all eukaryotic cells.
In molecular biology the 5.8S ribosomal RNA (5.8S rRNA) is a non-coding RNA component of the large subunit of the eukaryotic ribosome and so plays an important role in protein translation.
The 5S ribosomal RNA (5S rRNA) is an approximately 120 nucleotide-long ribosomal RNA molecule with a mass of 40 kDa.